Two Parmeliella-like lichen species are described as new: Santessoniella pulchella, known from warm temperate parts of eastern Australia and northern New Zealand, and Siphulastrum squamosum, a relatively common species on stumps ofNothofagus in southern Chile. Both differ from Parmeliella s. str. in the hemiamyloid, finally red-brown hymenial iodine reaction and the apical structures of the asci, as well as in thallus details (anatomy and chemistry). Parmeliella major Darb. is a synonym of P. thysanota (Sirt.) Zahlbr., which thus proves to be a circumpolar species in the Southern Hemisphere, though not yet discovered in South Africa. A new species, Parmeliella lacerate, is described from the Republic of South Africa, and related to Parmeliella chilensis (Hue) P. M. Jørg., comb. nov.