An examination of the holotype or lectotype of eight taxa, first described from Australia, in the genus Cladonia has shown that the names are, with the exception of Cladonia fruticulosa Krempelh., synonyms of previously described taxa. The taxa examined were as follows (with the correct name in parentheses); C. cariosa var. diffissa F. Wilson (C. enantia Nyl.); C. conchata Nyl. (C. pyxidata (L.)Hoffm.); C. cornucopioides var. grandis Krempelh. (C. pleurola (Flörke) Schaerer); C. deformis var. tasmanica Krempelh. (C. subdigitata Nyl.); Cenomyce firma Laurer, Cladonia firma (Laurer) Krempelh. (C. murrayi W. Martin); C. lepidula Krempelh. (C. ochrochlora Flörke); C. pergracilis Krempelh. (C. ochrochlora Florke); C. subsquamosa var. pulverulenta Vainio (C. squamosula Müll. Arg.) Homosekikaic acid is reported to occur with thamnolic acid in C. squamosula Müll. Arg.