Skip to main content Accessibility help

Eleven new species of crustose lichenized fungi from the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

  • Alan M. FRYDAY (a1)


Eleven new species of crustose, lichenized fungi are described from the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas). Nine species are saxicolous, whereas Lecania vermispora occurs on the stems of Hebe elliptica and Tephromela lignicola is lignicolous on fence posts. The new species are: Bacidia marina, with a sordid blue-green K−, N+ violet epihymenium and acicular, multiseptate ascospores; B. pruinata, with pruinose apothecia and multiseptate ascospores; Buellia gypsyensis, with a thallus containing 5-O-methylhiascic acid and with Amandinea-type conidia; Cliostomum albidum, with pruinose apothecia lacking pigments; C. longisporum, with long narrow ascospores (c. 20 × 3 µm); Coccotrema rubromarginatum, with a placodioid thallus having a red-brown margin and lower surface; Hymenelia microcarpa, with minute, immersed apothecia (<0·1 mm diam.) and a trebouxioid photobiont; Lecania vermispora, with vermiform, 3–6 septate ascospores; Lepra argentea, with papillate isidia with dark caps; Rhizocarpon malvinae, which is similar to R. reductum but with a grey thallus, generally sessile apothecia with a thick raised margin and often with the Cinereorufa-green pigment in the epithecium and upper exciple; and Tephromela lignicola, a sterile, sorediate species on fence posts. Most of these species are reported only from the Falkland Islands although Coccotrema rubromarginatum is also reported from Isla de los Estados and Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Ascoconidia are reported from Lepra argentea and cephalodia from Pertusaria pachythallina. Keys to the species reported from the Falkland Islands in the genera of the newly described species are also provided.



Hide All
Baral, H. O. (1999) A monograph of Helicogonium (= Myriogonium, Leotiales), a group of non-ascocarpous intrahymenial mycoparasites. Nova Hedwigia 69: 171.
Bungartz, F. & NashT. H., III T. H., III (2004) The Buellia aethalea-group in the Greater Sonoran Desert Region with reference to similar species in North America. Bryologist 107: 441458.
Bungartz, F., Nordin, A. & Grube, U. (2007) Buellia. In Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 3. (Nash, T. H. III, Gries, C. & Bungartz, F., eds): 113179. Tempe, Arizona: Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University.
Clauzade, G. & Roux, C. (1985) Likenoj de Okcidenta Europo. Ilustrita Determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro spécial 7 : 1891.
Coppins, B. J. & Fryday, A. M. (2006) New or previously misunderstood species of Lithographa and Rimularia (Agyriaceae) from the southern subpolar region and western Canada. Lichenologist 38: 93107.
Coppins, B. J. & Purvis, O. W. (1992) Hymenelia Krempelh. (1852). In The Lichen Flora of Great Britain and Ireland (Purvis, O. W., Coppins, B. J., Hawksworth, D. L., James, P. W. & Moore, D. M., eds): 272273. London: Natural History Museum Publications & British Lichen Society.
Elix, J. A. (2009) Tephromela. Flora of Australia 57: 7483.
Ertz, D. & Diederich, P. (2004) Revision of Trimmatothele (Verrucariaceae), and description of Oevstedalia for Trimmatothelopsis antarctica, a new lichen genus with true ascoconidia. Mycological Progress 3: 229236.
Ertz, D., Fryday, A. M., Schmitt, I., Charrier, M., Dudek, M. & Kukwa, M. (2016) Ochrolechia kerguelensis sp. nov. from the Southern Hemisphere and O. antarctica reinstated from the synonymy of O. parella. Phytotaxa 280: 129140.
Etayo, J. & Sancho, L. G. (2008) Hongos Liquenícolas del sur de Sudamérica, Especialmente de Isla Navarino (Chile). Bibliotheca Lichenologica 98: 1301.
Frisch, A. & Kalb, K. (2006) The lichen genus Topeliopsis, additions and corrections. Lichenologist 38: 3745.
Fryday, A. (2000) On Rhizocarpon obscuratum (Ach.) Massal., with notes on some related species in the British Isles. Lichenologist 32: 207224.
Fryday, A. M. (2008) Three new species of lichenized fungi with cephalodia from the southern New Zealand shelf islands (Campbell Plateau). Lichenologist 40: 283294.
Fryday, A. M. (2018) Lichens of the Southern Subpolar Region. Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University [WWW resource] URL [Accessed 3 May 2018].
Fryday, A. M. (2019) Lichens of the Falkland Islands. [WWW resource] URL [Accessed 22 January 2019].
Fryday, A. M. & Common, R. S. (2001) A new species of Schaereria (lichenized fungi) from the Falkland Islands. Bryologist 104: 109114.
Fryday, A. M. & Hertel, H. (2014) A contribution to the family Lecideaceae s. lat. (Lecanoromycetidae inc. sed., lichenized Ascomycota) in the southern subpolar region; including eight new species and some revised generic circumscriptions. Lichenologist 46: 389412.
Fryday, A. M. & McCarthy, J. W. (2018) Hymenelia parva: a new species of Hymenelia (Hymeneliaceae, Ostropomycetidae) from Newfoundland, Canada. Graphis Scripta 30: 4450.
Fryday, A. M. & Øvstedal, D. O. (2012) New species, combinations and records of lichenized fungi from the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas). Lichenologist 44: 483500.
Fryday, A. M. & Prather, L. A. (2001) The lichen collection of Henry Imshaug at the Michigan State University Herbarium (MSC). Bryologist 104: 464467.
Fryday, A. M., Ertz, D. & Jørgensen, P. M. (2017 a) Insights into the genus Austrella (Pannariaceae, Peltigerales), including a new species from the Falkland Islands. Lichenologist 49: 5765.
Fryday, A. M., Schmitt, I. & Pérez-Ortega, S. (2017 b) The genus Endocena (Icmadophilaceae): DNA evidence suggests the same fungus forms different morphologies. Lichenologist 49: 347363.
Fryday, A. M., Orange, A., Ahti, T., Øvstedal, D. O. & Crabtree, D. E. (2019) An annotated checklist of lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi reported from the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas). Glalia (in press).
Hafellner, J. (1984) Studien in Richtung einer naturlicheren Gliederung der Sammelfamilien Lecanoraceae und Lecideaceae. Beiheft zur Nova Hedwigia 79: 241371.
Hafellner, J. & Bellemère, A. (1983) Über die Bildung phialidischer Konidien in den mauerförmigen, einzeln im Ascus liegenden Sporen von Brigantiaea leucoxantha (lichenisierte Ascomycetes, Lecanorales). Nova Hedwigia 38: 169186.
Hawksworth, D. L., Kirk, P. M., Sutton, B. C. & Pegler, D. N. (1995) Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi, 8th Edition. Wallingford: CAB International.
Jørgensen, P. M. (1989) Notes on the lichen genus Ionaspis in Scandinavia. Graphis Scripta 2: 118121.
Jørgensen, P. M. (2018) (2578) Proposal to conserve Variolaria Pers. against Lepra and Variolaria Bull. (lichenized ascomycetes). Taxon 67: 204.
Jørgensen, P. M. & Santesson, R. (1989) Three new species in the lichen genus Ionaspis. Nordic Journal of Botany 9: 431434.
Kantvilas, G. (2014) The lichen family Hymeneliaceae in Tasmania, with the description of a new species. Kanunnah 7: 127140.
Kantvilas, G. (2018) Studies on Bacidia (lichenized Ascomycota, Ramalinaceae) in temperate Australia, including Tasmania: saxicolous and terricolous species. Lichenologist 50: 451466.
Kantvilas, G. & Vězda, A. (1992) Additions to the lichen flora of Tasmania. Telopea 4: 661670.
Lumbsch, H. T., Divakar, P. K., Messuti, M. I., Mangold, I. & Lücking, R. (2010) A survey of thelotremoid lichens (Ascomycota: Ostropales) in subantarctic regions excluding Tasmania. Lichenologist 42: 203224.
Lutzoni, F. M. & Brodo, I. M. (1995) A generic redelimitation of the Ionaspis-Hymenelia complex (lichenized Ascomycotina). Systematic Botany 20: 224258.
Magnusson, A. H. (1933) A monograph of the lichen genus Ionaspis. Acta Horti Gothoburgensis 8: 146.
McCarthy, P. M. & Fryday, A. M. (2009) A new saxicolous species of Porina (Ostropales; Porinaceae) from the Falkland Islands. Opuscula Philolichenum 7: 187190.
Messuti, M. I. (2005) The genus Pertusaria (Pertusariales: Pertusariaceae) in the Juan Fernández Archipelago (Chile). Lichenologist 37: 111122.
Meyer, B. & Printzen, C. (2000) Proposal for a standardized nomenclature and characterization of insoluble lichen pigments. Lichenologist 32: 571583.
Orange, A. (2018) A new species-level taxonomy for Trapelia (Trapeliaceae, Ostropomycetidae) with special reference to Great Britain and the Falkland Islands. Lichenologist 50: 342.
Orange, A., James, P. W. & White, F. J. (2001) Microchemical Methods for the Identification of Lichens. London: British Lichen Society.
Øvstedal, D. O. & Lewis Smith, R. I. (2001) Lichens of Antarctica and South Georgia: A Guide to Their Identification and Ecology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Øvstedal, D. O., Lindblom, L., Knudsen, K. & Fryday, A. M. (2018) A new species of Acarospora (Acarosporaceae, Acarosporales, lichenized Ascomycota) from the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas). Phytotaxa 340: 8692.
Paz-Bermúdez, G., Giralt, M. & Elix, J. A. (2009) Buellia carballaliana (Physciaceae), a new lignicolous species from Portugal. Bryologist 112: 845849.
Prieto, M. & Wedin, M. (2016) Phylogeny, taxonomy and diversification events in the Caliciaceae. Fungal Diversity 82: 221238.
Santesson, R. (1952) Foliicolous lichens I. A revision of the taxonomy of the obligately foliicolous, lichenized fungi. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 12: 1590.
Schmitt, I., Messuti, M. I., Feige, G. B. & Lumbsch, H. T. (2001) Molecular data support rejection of the generic concept in the Coccotremataceae (Ascomycota). Lichenologist 33: 315321.
Sheard, J. W. & May, P. F. (1997) A synopsis of the species of Amandinea (lichenized Ascomycetes, Physciaceae) as presently known in North America. Bryologist 100: 159169.
Søchting, U., Søgaard, M. Z., Sancho, L. G., Fröden, P. & Arup, U. (2016) Sirenophila ovis-atra a new species of maritime Teloschistaceae from the Southern Hemisphere. Opuscula Philolichenum 15: 15.
Vainio, E. A. (1922) Lichenographia fennica II. Baeomyceae et Lecideales. Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 53(1): 1340.
Wedin, M., Baloch, E. & Grube, M. (2002) Parsimony analyses of mtSSU and nITS rDNA sequences reveal the natural relationships of the lichen families Physciaceae and Caliciaceae. Taxon 51: 655660.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed