Anderson, L. I. & Hytteborn, H. (1991) Bryophytes and decaying wood: a comparison between managed and natural forest. Holarctic Ecology 14: 121–130.
Arsenault, A. (2002) Coarse woody debris management in British Columbia: a cultural shift for professional foresters. In Proceedings of the Symposium on the Ecology and Management of Dead Wood in Western Forests, 2–4 November, 1999, Reno, Nevada, pp. 869–878.
Arsenault, A. (2003) A note on the ecology and management of old-growth forests in the Montane Cordillera. Forestry Chronicle 79: 441–454.
Arsenault, A. & Bradfield, G. E. (1995) Structural-compositional variation in three age-classes of temperate rainforests in southern coastal British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Botany 73: 54–64.
Arsenault, A. & Goward, T. (2016) Macrolichen diversity as an indicator of stand age and ecosystem resilience along a precipitation gradient in humid forests of inland British Columbia, Canada. Ecological Indicators 69: 730–738.
Barkman, J. J. (1958) Phytosociology and Ecology of Cryptogamic Epiphytes. Assen: Van Gorcum.
Berg, A., Ehnström, B., Gustafsson, L., Hallinbäck, T., Jonsell, M. & Welien, J. (1994) Threatened plant, animal, and fungus species in Swedish forests: distribution and habitat associations. Conservation Biology 8: 718–731.
British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Ministry of Environment, Lands & Parks (1999) Landscape Unit Planning Guide. Victoria: British Columbia.
Campbell, J. & Fredeen, A. L. (2004)
Lobaria pulmonaria abundance as an indicator of macrolichen diversity in Interior Cedar-Hemlock forests of east-central British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Botany 82: 970–982.
Dawson, W., Ligon, J., Murphy, J., Myers, J., Simberloff, D. & Verner, J. (1986) Report of the scientific advisory panel on the Spotted Owl. Condor 89: 205–229.
De Cáceres, M. (2013) How to Use the Indicspecies Package (ver. 1.7. 1). Centre Tecnològic Forestal de Catalunya, Catalonia. Available at: ftp://220.127.116.11/pub/CRAN/web/packages/indicspecies/vignettes/indicspeciesTutorial.pdf.
De Cáceres, M., Legendre, P., Wiser, S. K. & Brotons, L. (2012) Using species combinations in indicator value analyses. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 3: 973–982.
Dufrêne, M. & Legendre, P. (1997) Species assemblages and indicator species: the need for a flexible asymmetrical approach. Ecological Monographs 67: 345–366.
Dymytrova, L., Brändli, U.-B., Ginzler, C. & Scheidegger, C. (2018) Forest history and epiphytic lichens: testing indicators for assessing forest autochthony in Switzerland. Ecological Indicators 84: 847–857.
Edwards, R. Y. & Ritcey, R. W. (1960) Foods of caribou in Wells Gray Park, British Columbia. Canadian Field-Naturalist 74: 3–7.
Ellis, C. J. & Coppins, B. J. (2007) 19th century woodland structure controls stand-scale epiphyte diversity in present-day Scotland. Diversity and Distributions 13: 84–91.
Esseen, P.-A., Ehnström, B., Ericson, L. & Sjöberg, K. (1992) Boreal forests – the focal habitats of Fennoscandia. In Ecological Principles of Nature Conservation (L. Hansson, ed): 252–325. London: Elsevier Applied Science.
Fenger, M., Manning, T., Cooper, J., Stewart, G. & Bradford, P. (2006) Wildlife & Trees in British Columbia. Edmonton: Lone Pine Publishing.
Franklin, J. F., Cromak, K., Denison, W., McKee, A., Maser, C., Sedell, J., Swanson, F. & Juday, G. (1981) Ecological characteristics of old-growth Douglas-fir forests. US Forest Service General Technical Report PNW 118. Portland, Oregon: USDA Forest Service.
Fritz, O. & Heilmann-Clausen, J. (2010) Rot holes create key microhabitats for epiphytic lichens and bryophytes on beech (Fagus sylvatica). Biological Conservation 143: 1008–1016.
Goward, T. (1994) Notes on oldgrowth-dependent epiphytic macrolichens in inland British Columbia, Canada. Acta Botanica Fennica 150: 31–38.
Goward, T. (1999) The Lichens of British Columbia. Illustrated Keys. Part 2 – Fruticose Species. Special Report 9. Victoria: British Columbia Ministry of Forests.
Goward, T. & Ahti, T. (1992) Macrolichens and their zonal distribution in Wells Gray Provincial Park and its vicinity, British Columbia, Canada. Acta Botanica Fennica 147: 1–60.
Goward, T. & Pojar, J. (1998) Antique forests and epiphytic macrolichens in the Kispiox Valley. Forest Sciences Extension Note 33. Smithers, British Columbia: British Columbia Ministry of Forests.
Halpern, C. B. & Spies, T. A. (1995) Plant species diversity in natural and managed forests of the Pacific Northwest. Ecological Applications 5: 913–934.
Harris, L. D. (1984) The Fragmented Forest: Island Biogeography Theory and the Preservation of Biotic Diversity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hilmo, O. & Såstad, S. M. (2001) Colonization of old-forest lichens in a young and an old boreal Picea abies forest: an experimental approach. Biological Conservation 102: 251–259.
Holien, H. (1996) Influence of site and stand factors on the distribution of crustose lichens of the Caliciales in a suboceanic spruce forest area in central Norway. Lichenologist 28: 315–330.
Hyvärinen, M., Halonen, P. & Kauppi, M. (1992) Influence of stand age and structure on the epiphytic lichen vegetation in the middle-boreal forests of Finland. Lichenologist 24: 165–180.
James, P. W., Hawksworth, D. L. & Rose, F. (1977) Lichen communities in the British Isles: a preliminary conspectus. In Lichen Ecology (M. R. D. Seaward, ed): 295–413. London: Academic Press.
Kruys, N. & Jonsson, B. G. (1997) Insular patterns of calicioid lichens in a boreal old-growth forest-wetland mosaic. Ecography 20: 605–613.
Lesica, P., McCune, B., Cooper, S. V. & Hong, W. S. (1991) Differences in lichen and bryophyte communities between old-growth and managed second-growth forests in the Swan Valley, Montana. Canadian Journal of Botany 69: 1745–1755.
Lõhmus, P. & Lõhmus, A. (2011) Old-forest species: the importance of specific substrata vs. stand continuity in the case of calicioid fungi. Silva Fennica 45: 1015–1039.
Lõhmus, P., Turja, K. & Lõhmus, A. (2010) Lichen communities on treefall mounds depend more on root-plate than stand characteristics. Forest Ecology and Management 260: 1754–1761.
McCune, B. (1993) Gradients in epiphyte biomass in three Pseudotsuga-Tsuga forests of different ages in western Oregon and Washington. Bryologist 96: 405–411.
McCune, B. & Mefford, M. J. (1999) PC-ORD, Version 4. Gleneden Beach, Oregon: MjM Software Design.
Meidinger, D. & Pojar, J. (1991) Ecosystems of British Columbia. Special Report Series 6. Victoria: British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Research Branch.
Michel, A. K. & Winter, S. (2009) Tree microhabitat structures of biodiversity in Douglas-fir forests of different stand ages and management histories in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A. Forest Ecology and Management 257: 1453–1464.
Minore, D. (1983) Western red cedar: a literature review. General Technical Report PNW 150. Portland, Oregon: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experimental Station.
Nascimbene, J., Marini, L. & Nimis, P. L. (2010) Epiphytic lichen diversity in old-growth and managed Picea abies stands in Alpine spruce forests. Forest Ecology and Management 260: 603–609.
Neitlich, P. N. (1993) Lichen abundance and biodiversity along a chronosequence from young managed stands to ancient forests. M.Sc. thesis, University of Vermont.
Newmaster, S. G., Belland, R. J., Arsenault, A. & Vitt, D. H. (2003) Patterns of bryophyte diversity in the humid coastal and inland cedar-hemlock forests of British Columbia. Environmental Reviews 11 (S1):
Nordén, B. & Appelqvist, T. (2001) Conceptual problems of biological continuity and its bioindicators. Biodiversity and Conservation 10: 779–791.
Öckinger, E., Niklasson, M. & Nilsson, S. G. (2005) Is local distribution of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria limited by dispersal capacity or habitat quality? Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 759–773.
Parish, R., Coupé, R. & Lloyd, D. (eds) (1996) Plants of Southern Interior British Columbia. Vancouver: Lone Pine Publishing.
Peterson, E. B. & Goward, T. (2016)
Chaenothecopsis aeruginosa sp. nov., an overlooked calicioid in the Pacific Northwest of North America. Herzogia 29: 561–565.
Price, K. & Hochachka, G. (2001) Epiphytic lichen abundance: effects of stand age and composition in coastal British Columbia. Ecological Applications 11: 904–913.
Price, K., Lilles, E. B. & Banner, A. (2017) Long-term recovery of epiphytic communities in the Great Bear Rainforest of coastal British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management 391: 296–308.
Prieto, M. & Wedin, M. (2017) Phylogeny, taxonomy and diversification events in the Caliciaceae
. Fungal Diversity 82: 221–238.
Rikkinen, J. (1995) What’s behind the pretty colours? A study on the photobiology of lichens. Bryobrothera 4: 1–239.
Rikkinen, J. (2003) Calicioid lichens and fungi in the forests and woodlands of western Oregon. Acta Botanica Fennica 175: 1–41.
Rogers, P. C. & Ryel, R. J. (2008) Lichen community change in response to succession in aspen forests of the southern Rocky Mountains. Forest Ecology and Management 256: 1760–1770.
Rosso, A. & Rosentreter, R. (1999) Lichen diversity and biomass in relation to management practices in forests of northern Idaho. Evansia 16: 97–104.
Ruggiero, L., Aubry, K. B., Carey, A. B. & Huff, M. H. (1991) Wildlife and vegetation of unmanaged Douglas-fir Forests. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-285. Portland, Oregon: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experimental Station.
Scheidegger, C. (1995) Early development of transplanted isidioid soredia of Lobaria pulmonaria in an endangered population. Lichenologist 27: 361–374.
Selva, S. B. (1994) Lichen diversity and stand continuity in the northern hardwoods and spruce-fir forests of northern New England and western New Brunswick. Bryologist 97: 424–429.
Selva, S. B. (2003) Using calicioid lichens and fungi to assess ecological continuity in the Acadian Forest Ecoregion of the Canadian Maritimes. Forestry Chronicle 79: 550–558.
Spribille, T., Thor, G., Bunnell, F. L., Goward, T. & Björk, C. R. (2008) Lichens on dead wood: species-substrate relationships in the epiphytic lichen floras of the Pacific Northwest and Fennoscandia. Ecography 31: 741–750.
Thompson, I. D. (1991) Could marten become the spotted owl of eastern Canada. Forestry Chronicle 67: 136–140.
Tibell, L. (1975) The Caliciales of boreal North America. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 21 (2): 1–128.
Tibell, L. (1984) A reappraisal of the taxonomy of Caliciales
. Nova Hedwigia 79: 597–714.
Tibell, L. (1987) Australasian Caliciales
. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 27 (1): 1–279.
Tibell, L. (1992) Crustose lichens as indicators of forest continuity in boreal conifer forests. Nordic Journal of Botany 12: 427–450.
Tibell, L. (1994) Distribution patterns and dispersal strategies of Caliciales
. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 116: 159–202.
Tibell, L. (1999) Calicioid lichens and fungi. Nordic Lichen Flora 1: 20–94.
Tibell, L. & Koffman, A. (2002)
Chaenotheca nitidula, a new species of calicioid lichen from northeastern North America. Bryologist 105: 353–357.
Titov, A. H. (2006)
Mycocalicioid Fungi (the order Mycocaliciales) of the Holarctic
. Moscow: KMK Scientific Press.
Tuhkanen, S. (1984) A circumboreal system of climatic-phytogeographical regions. Acta Botanica Fennica 127: 1–50.
US Department of Agriculture & US Department of the Interior (1994) Record of decision for amendments to Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management planning documents within the range of the northern spotted owl. Attachment A: standards and guidelines for management of habitat for late successional and oldgrowth forest related species within the range of the northern spotted owl. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office 1994-589-11/0001.
Vuidot, A., Paillet, Y., Archaux, F. & Gosselin, F. (2011) Influence of tree characteristics and forest management on tree microhabitats. Biological Conservation 144: 441–450.
Wilkinson, L. (1997) Systat 7.0 for Windows: Statistics. Chicago: SPSS Inc.
Will-Wolf, S. (2002) Monitoring regional status and trends in forest health with lichen communities: the United States Forest Service approach. In Monitoring with Lichens – Monitoring Lichens (P. L. Nimis, C. Scheidegger & P. A. Wolseley, eds):353–357. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.