Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-sh8wx Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-23T06:58:28.684Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

A synopsis of the genus Arthothelium (Arthoniales) in Tasmania

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 December 2021

Gintaras Kantvilas*
Tasmanian Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, P.O. Box 5058, UTAS LPO, Sandy Bay, Tasmania 7005, Australia
Author for correspondence: Gintaras Kantvilas. E-mail:


The genus Arthothelium A. Massal. in Tasmania comprises ten species. Five of these are described as new: A. bacidinum Kantvilas, a saxicolous, littoral species with subglobose apothecia, non-macrocephalic ascospores, 25−40 × 11−19 μm, and containing the pigment Endoaurantiacum-gold which yields a K+ red reaction; A. insolitum Kantvilas, lichenicolous in rainforest and characterized by subglobose apothecia, very large, non-macrocephalic ascospores, 50−80 × 22−40 μm, and containing the pigment Interveniens-brown which reacts K+ olive green; A. macounioides Kantvilas, corticolous in wet forest and characterized by sessile, convex apothecia, macrocephalic ascospores, 29−42 × 11−18 μm, and containing the pigment Endoaurantiacum-gold; A. magenteum Kantvilas, a common wet forest epiphyte with applanate apothecia, non-macrocephalic ascospores, 25−55 × 11−22 μm, and containing a unique maroon-red, K+ pink pigment; and A. subtectum Kantvilas, a saxicolous species with convex apothecia, macrocephalic ascospores, 22−36 × 9−14 μm, and containing Endoaurantiacum-gold. The New Zealand species A. endoaurantiacum Makhija & Patw. and A. suffusum (C. Knight) Müll. Arg., and the Australian A. velatium Müll. Arg. are recorded for Tasmania for the first time. The names A. obtusulum (Nyl.) Müll. Arg., A. pellucidum (C. Knight) Müll. Arg. and A. polycarpum Müll. Arg. are considered synonyms of the widespread A. ampliatum (C. Knight & Mitten) Müll. Arg. Arthothelium ferax Müll. Arg. is a synonym of A. interveniens (Nyl.) Zahlbr. and A. subspectabile Vĕzda & Kantvilas is a synonym of A. suffusum. The sole record of A. macrothecum (Fée) A. Massal. from Tasmania is found to be based on a misidentification. A key to the species is provided. The importance of apothecial pigments, apothecial morphology and ascospore septation is discussed, and three pigments are characterized by their appearance in water and other standard media.

Standard Paper
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the British Lichen Society

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Aptroot, A and Wirth, V (2006) A new saxicolous Arthothelium from the Namib desert. Lichenologist 38, 123126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cannon, P, Ertz, D, Frisch, A, Aptroot, A, Chambers, S, Coppins, B, Sanderson, N, Simkin, J and Wolseley, P (2020) Arthoniales: Arthoniaceae, including the genera Arthonia, Arthothelium, Briancoppinsia, Bryostigma, Coniocarpon, Diarthonis, Inoderma, Naevia, Pachnolepia, Reichlingia, Snippocia, Sporodophoron, Synarthonia and Tylophoron. Revisions of British and Irish Lichens 1, 348.Google Scholar
Clauzade, G and Roux, C (1985) Likenoj de Okcidenta Eŭropo. Ilustrita determinilibro. Bulletin de la Société Botanique du Centre-Ouest, Nouvelle Série, Numéro Spécial 7, 1893.Google Scholar
Coppins, BJ (2009) Arthothelium A. Massal (1852). In Smith, CW, Aptroot, A, Coppins, BJ, Fletcher, A, Gilbert, OL, James, PW and Wolseley, PA (eds), The Lichens of Great Britain and Ireland. London: British Lichen Society, pp. 176179.Google Scholar
Coppins, BJ and James, PW (1979) New or interesting British lichens III. Lichenologist 11, 2745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coppins, BJ and Tønsberg, T (1984) A new species of Arthothelium from Norway. Nordic Journal of Botany 4, 7577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ertz, D and Fryday, AM (2017) A remarkable, endohymenial species of Arthothelium (Arthoniales) from Campbell Island, New Zealand. Lichenologist 49, 9397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ertz, D and Tehler, A (2010) The phylogeny of Arthoniales (Pezizomycotina) inferred from nucLSU and RPB2 sequences. Fungal Diversity 49, 4771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fink, B (1935) The Lichen Flora of the United States. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Follman, G (1968) Felsbewohnende Arthoniaceen der chilenischen Pazifikkuste. Willdenowia 4, 365382.Google Scholar
Frisch, A, Thor, G, Ertz, D and Grube, M (2014) The Arthonialean challenge: restructuring Arthoniaceae. Taxon 63, 727744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fryday, AM (2002) New combinations and records of lichenized fungi from southern South America. Mycotaxon 82, 421428.Google Scholar
Galloway, DJ (1985) Flora of New Zealand Lichens. Wellington: Government Printer.Google Scholar
Galloway, DJ (2007) Flora of New Zealand Lichens, revised Second Edition. Lincoln, New Zealand: Manaaki Whenua Press.Google Scholar
Grube, M (1998) Classification and phylogeny in the Arthoniales (lichenized Ascomycetes). Bryologist 101, 377391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grube, M (2007) Arthonia. In Nash TH, III, Gries, C and Bungartz, F (eds), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. III. Tempe, Arizona: Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, pp. 3961.Google Scholar
Grube, M and Giralt, M (1996) Studies on some species of Arthothelium occurring in the western Mediterranean. Lichenologist 28, 1536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gupta, P and Sinha, GP (2018) Lichen Flora of Assam. Dehra Dun: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh.Google Scholar
Jarman, SJ, Kantvilas, G and Brown, MJ (1994) Phytosociological studies in Tasmanian cool temperate rainforest. Phytocoenologia 22, 355390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jatta, A (1911) Lichenes lecti in Tasmania a W. Weymouth. Bolletino della Societa Botanica Italiana 1910, 253260.Google Scholar
Kantvilas, G (1988) Tasmanian rainforest lichen communities: a preliminary classification. Phytocoenologia 22, 355390.Google Scholar
Kantvilas, G (1990) Notes on the lichen flora of New South Wales I. New records. Telopea 4, 1931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kantvilas, G (2009) The genus Mycoblastus in the cool temperate Southern Hemisphere, with special reference to Tasmania. Lichenologist 41, 151178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kantvilas, G (2016) Further observations on the lichen genus Megalaria in Tasmania: some species with blue-green apothecial pigments. Herzogia 29, 421434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kantvilas, G and Coppins, BJ (2019) Studies on Micarea in Australasia II. A synopsis of the genus in Tasmania, with the description of ten new species. Lichenologist 51, 431481.Google Scholar
Kantvilas, G and Vězda, A (1992) Additions to the lichen flora of Tasmania. Telopea 4, 661670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kantvilas, G, Elix, JA and Jarman, SJ (2008) A contribution to an inventory of lichens from South Sister, north-eastern Tasmania. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 142(2), 4960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knight, C (1883) On the lichenographia of New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 15, 346358.Google Scholar
Knight, C and Mitten, W (1860) Contributions to the lichenographia of New Zealand, being an account, with figures, of some species of Graphidaceae and allied lichens. Transactions of the Linnean Society 23, 101106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krempelhuber, A (1876) Neue Beiträge zur Flechten-Flora Neu-Seelands. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 26, 447460.Google Scholar
Lee, BG and Hur, J-S (2019) Arthonia ulleungdoensis, a new lichenized fungus from Ulleung Island, South Korea. Microorganisms 7, 205.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCarthy, PM (2020) Checklist of the Lichens of Australia and its Island Territories. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Version 1 March 2020. [WWW resource] URL Scholar
McCune, B (2017) Microlichens of the Pacific Northwest. Volume 2. Keys to the Species. Corvallis, Oregon: Wild Blueberry Media.Google Scholar
Makhija, U and Patwardhan, PG (1995 a) The lichen genus Arthothelium (family Arthoniaceae) in India. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 78, 189235.Google Scholar
Makhija, U and Patwardhan, PG (1995 b) Nomenclatural notes on some species of Arthothelium (lichenized Ascomycotina). Tropical Bryology 10, 205213.Google Scholar
Meyer, B and Printzen, C (2000) Proposal for a standardized nomenclature and characterization of insoluble lichen pigments. Lichenologist 32, 571583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Müller, J (1893) Lichenes Wilsoniani, s. lichenes a cl. Rev. F.R.M.Wilson in Australiae prov. Victoria lecti. Bulletin de l'Herbier Boissier 1, 3365.Google Scholar
Müller, J (1894) Conspectus systematicus lichenum Novae Zelandiae. Bulletin de l'Herbier Boissier 2, Append. 1, 1114.Google Scholar
Müller, J (1895 a) Sertum Australiense s. species novae Australienses Thelotremearum, Graphidearum et Pyrenocarpearum. Bulletin de l'Herbier Boissier 3, 313327.Google Scholar
Müller, J (1895 b) Thelotremeae et Graphideae novae quas praesertim ex hb. Reg. Kewensi exponit. Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 30, 451463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nylander, W (1863) Prodromus Florae Nova-Granatensis par J. Triana et J.-E. Planchon. Lichenes. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Sér. 4, Botanique 20, 228300.Google Scholar
Nylander, W (1867) Lichenes additamentum. Prodromus Florae Nova-Granatensis par J. Triana et J.-E. Planchon. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Sér. 5, Botanique 7, 301354.Google Scholar
Nylander, W (1888) Lichenes Novae Zelandiae. Paris: P. Schmidt.Google Scholar
Orange, A, James, PW and White, FJ (2010) Microchemical Methods for the Identification of Lichens, 2nd Edn. London: British Lichen Society.Google Scholar
Shirley, J (1889) The lichen flora of Queensland. Part IV [and Appendix]. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 6, 165218.Google Scholar
Sparrius, LB (2009) Synarthothelium, a new genus in the Arthoniaceae with a thalline exciple, similar to Synarthonia. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 99, 373382.Google Scholar
Staiger, B (2002) Die Flechtenfamilie Graphidaceae. Studien in Richtung einer natürlicheren Gliederung. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 85, 1526.Google Scholar
Sundin, R and Tehler, A (1998) Phylogenetic studies of the genus Arthonia. Lichenologist 30, 381413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tehler, A (1990) A new approach to the phylogeny of Euascomycetes with a cladistic outline of Arthoniales focussing on Roccellaceae. Canadian Journal of Botany 68, 24582492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Willey, H (1890) Synopsis of the genus Arthonia. New Bedford: E. Anthony & Sons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zahlbruckner, A (1924) Catalogus Lichenum Universalis. Band 2. Leipzig: Verlag von Gebrüder Borntraeger.Google Scholar