Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-55wx7 Total loading time: 0.251 Render date: 2021-03-04T13:47:20.835Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Graphis and Allographa (lichenized Ascomycota: Graphidaceae) in Sri Lanka, with six new species and a biogeographical comparison investigating a potential signature of the ‘biotic ferry’ species interchange

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 December 2019

Gothamie WEERAKOON
Affiliation:
Algae, Fungi and Plants Division, Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, London, SW7 5BD, UK.
André APTROOT
Affiliation:
Laboratório de Botânica / Liquenologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Avenida Costa e Silva s/n, Bairro Universitário, CEP 79070-900, Campo Grande, Matto Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
Robert LÜCKING
Affiliation:
Science and Education, Integrative Research and Collections (Botany), The Field Museum, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL60605, USA; Botanischer Garten und Museum, Königin-Luise Strasse 6-8, 14195Berlin, Germany.
Omal ARACHCHIGE
Affiliation:
Wichita State University, 1845 Fairmount St., Wichita, KS67260, USA.
Siril WIJESUNDARA
Affiliation:
National Institute of Fundamental Studies, Hantanna Road, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

We provide an updated survey for Sri Lanka of species of Graphis sensu Staiger, recently divided into Graphis s. str. and Allographa, including brief descriptions and a key to all 124 species currently known. Six new species are described: Allographa bambusicola Weerakoon, Lücking & Aptroot, a bambusicolous Allographa with entire labia, a laterally carbonized excipulum, 80–100 × 15–17 µm large, muriform ascospores and a rather thick, irregularly verrucose lateral thalline margin of the lirellae; A. weerasooriyana Weerakoon, Arachchige & Lücking, a corticolous Allographa resembling A. rustica Kremp. in overall anatomy and chemistry, but with a verrucose thalline margin of the lirellae and labia not distinctly raised above the thalline margin; Graphis flosculifera Weerakoon, Lücking & Aptroot, a corticolous Graphis resembling G. insulana but differing in the unique disposition of the lirellae and the slightly more elongate ascospores; G. rajapakshana Weerakoon, Lücking & Aptroot, a corticolous Graphis resembling G. desquamescens, including in ascospore size, but with lirellae with a distinct lateral thalline margin; G. rimosothallina Weerakoon, Lücking & Aptroot, a corticolous Graphis with a thick, uneven, rimose thallus and Fissurina-like lirellae, a completely carbonized excipulum and transversely 7-septate ascospores, 32–37 × 8–10 µm; and G. thunsinhalayensis Weerakoon, Arachchige & Lücking, a corticolous Graphis resembling G. subalbostriata but with smaller ascospores and lacking white lines between the striae of the labia. We also validate the name G. verrucoserpens Lücking. A total of 106 species are reported here for the first time from Sri Lanka. A biogeographical comparison with two other well-sampled countries (Costa Rica and Thailand) revealed a significantly higher similarity in species composition with Costa Rica than between Thailand and Costa Rica, suggesting a potential signature of the ‘biotic ferry’ hypothesis, that is the migration of lineages from Gondwana (partly corresponding to the modern Neotropics) via the north-eastwards drifting Indian subcontinent and subsequent interchange with Laurasia (partly corresponding to the modern eastern Paleotropics). However, the evolutionary timeline of the clades involved does not support this hypothesis and suggests an alternative explanation of geologically more recent mid- to long-distance dispersal.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © British Lichen Society 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Archer, A. W. (1999) The lichen genera Graphis and Graphina (Graphidaceae) in Australia 1. Species based on Australian type specimens. Telopea 8: 273295.Google Scholar
Archer, A. W. (2001) The lichen genus Graphina (Graphidaceae) in Australia: new reports and new species. Mycotaxon 77: 153180.Google Scholar
Archer, A. W. (2006) The lichen family Graphidaceae in Australia. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 94: 1191.Google Scholar
Ashton, P. S. & Gunatilleke, C. V. S. (1987) New light on the plant geography of Ceylon I. Historical plant geography. Journal of Biogeography 14: 249285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Awasthi, D. D. & Singh, K. P. (1978) Observations on some graphidaceous lichen taxa. Phyton 1: 3440.Google Scholar
Barcenas Peña, A., Lücking, R., Miranda-González, R. & Herrera-Campos, M. A. (2014) Three new species of Graphis (Ascomycota: Ostropales: Graphidaceae) from Mexico, with updates to taxonomic key entries for 41 species described between 2009 and 2013. Lichenologist 46: 6982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Breuss, O. & Brunnbauer, W. (1997) Flechten aus Sri Lanka. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 99: 727735.Google Scholar
Hale, M. E. (1981) A revision of the lichen family Thelotremataceae in Sri Lanka. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany Series 8: 227332.Google Scholar
Hayward, G. C. (1977) Taxonomy of the lichen families Graphidaceae and Opegraphaceae in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 15: 565584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jatnika, M. F., Weerakoon, G., Arachchige, O., Noer, I. S., Voytsekhovich, A. & Lücking, R. (2019) Discoveries through social media and in your own backyard: two new species of Allographa (Graphidaceae) with pigmented lirellae from the Palaeotropics, with a world key to species of this group. Lichenologist 51: 227233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jørgensen, P. M., James, P. W. & Jarvis, C. E. (1994) Linnaean lichen names and their typification. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 115: 261405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joshi, S., Upreti, D. K., Divakar, P. K., Lumbsch, H. T. & Lücking, R. (2018) A re-evaluation of thelotremoid Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales) in India. Lichenologist 50: 627678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kalb, J., Lücking, R. & Kalb, K. (2018) The lichen genera Allographa and Graphis (Ascomycota: Ostropales, Graphidaceae) in Thailand – eleven new species, forty-seven new records and a key to all one hundred and fifteen species so far recorded for the country. Phytotaxa 377: 183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kraichak, E., Divakar, P. K., Crespo, A., Leavitt, S. D., Nelsen, M. P., Lücking, R. & Lumbsch, H. T. (2015) A tale of two hyper-diversities: diversification dynamics of the two largest families of lichenized fungi. Scientific Reports 5: 10028.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Li, G. J., Hyde, K. D., Zhao, R. L., Hongsanan, S., Abdel-Aziz, F. A., Abdel-Wahab, M. A., Alvarado, P., Alves-Silva, G., Ammirati, J. F., Ariyawansa, H. A., et al. (2016) Fungal diversity notes 253–366: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal taxa. Fungal Diversity 78: 1237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lücking, R. & Kalb, K. (2018) Formal instatement of Allographa (Graphidaceae): how to deal with a hyperdiverse genus complex with cryptic differentiation and paucity of molecular data. Herzogia 31: 525561.Google Scholar
Lücking, R., Chaves, J. L., Sipman, H. J. M., Umaña, L. & Aptroot, A. (2008) A first assessment of the Ticolichen Biodiversity Inventory in Costa Rica: the genus Graphis, with notes on the genus Hemithecium (Ascomycota: Ostropales: Graphidaceae). Fieldiana (Botany), New Series 46: 1131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lücking, R., Archer, A. W. & Aptroot, A. (2009) A world-wide key to the genus Graphis (Ostropales: Graphidaceae). Lichenologist 41: 363452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lücking, R., Seavey, F., Common, R. S., Beeching, S. Q., Breuss, O., Buck, W. R., Crane, L., Hodges, M., Hodkinson, B. P., Lay, E., et al. (2011) The lichens of Fakahatchee Strand Preserve State Park, Florida: proceedings from the 18th Tuckerman Workshop. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History, Biological Sciences 49: 127186.Google Scholar
Lücking, R., Tehler, A., Bungartz, F., Rivas Plata, E. & Lumbsch, H. T. (2013) Journey from the West: did tropical Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales) evolve from a saxicolous ancestor along the American Pacific coast? American Journal of Botany 100: 844856.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lücking, R., Johnston, M. K., Aptroot, A., Kraichak, E., Lendemer, J. C., Boonpragob, K., Cáceres, M. E. S., Ertz, D., Ferraro, L. I., Jia, Z. F., et al. (2014). One hundred and seventy-five new species of Graphidaceae: closing the gap or a drop in the bucket? Phytotaxa 189: 738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Macey, J. R., IISchulte, J. A., Larson, A., Ananjeva, N. B., Wang, Y., Pethiyagoda, R., Rastegar-Pouyani, N. & Papenfuss, T. J. (2000) Evaluating trans-Tethys migration: an example using acrodont lizard phylogenetics. Systematic Biology 49: 233256.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mangold, A., Martín, M. P., Lücking, R. & Lumbsch, H. T. (2008) Molecular phylogeny suggests synonymy of Thelotremataceae within Graphidaceae (Ascomycota: Ostropales). Taxon 57: 476486.Google Scholar
McCune, B. & Mefford, M. J. (2011) PC-ORD. Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data. Version 6. Gleneden Beach, Oregon: MjM Software Design. [WWW resource] http://www.pcord.com/index.htm [Accessed 15 May 2017].Google Scholar
McKenna, M. C. (1973) Sweepstakes, filters, corridors, Noah's arks, and beached Viking funeral ships in palaeogeography. In Implications of Continental Drift to the Earth Sciences (Tarling, D. H. & Runcorn, S. K., eds): 293308. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Morley, R. J. (2000) Origin and Evolution of Tropical Rain Forests. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.Google Scholar
Nagarkar, M. B. & Hale, M. E. (1989) New species in the lichen family Thelotremataceae from Asia (Ascomycotina). Mycotaxon 35: 437447.Google Scholar
Orange, A., James, P. W. & White, F. J. (2010) Microchemical Methods for the Identification of Lichens. London: British Lichen Society.Google Scholar
Papong, K., Lücking, R., Thammathaworn, A. & Boonpragob, K. (2009) Four new taxa of Chroodiscus (thelotremoid Graphidaceae) from Southeast Asia. Bryologist 112: 152163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pieris, P. E. (1945) Tri Simhala, the Last Phase, 1796–1815. Colombo: Apothecaries Co.Google Scholar
Renner, S. S. (2004) Multiple miocene Melastomataceae dispersal between Madagascar, Africa and India. Biological Sciences 359: 14851494.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rivas Plata, E. & Lumbsch, H. T. (2011) Parallel evolution and phenotypic divergence in lichenized fungi: a case study in the lichen-forming fungal family Graphidaceae (Ascomycota: Lecanoromycetes: Ostropales). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 4563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rivas Plata, E., Lumbsch, H. T. & Lücking, R. (2012) A new classification for the lichen family Graphidaceae s. lat. (Ascomycota: Lecanoromycetes: Ostropales). Fungal Diversity 52: 107121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rivas Plata, E., Parnmen, S., Staiger, B., Mangold, A., Frisch, A., Weerakoon, G., Hernández, J. E., Cáceres, M. E. S., Kalb, K., Sipman, H. J. M., et al. (2013) A molecular phylogeny of Graphidaceae (Ascomycota: Lecanoromycetes: Ostropales) including 437 species. Mycokeys 6: 5594.Google Scholar
Rust, J., Singh, H., Rana, R. S., McCann, T., Singh, L., Anderson, K., Sarkar, N., Nascimbene, P. C., Stebner, F., Thomas, J. C., et al. (2010) Biogeographic and evolutionary implications of a diverse paleobiota in amber from the early Eocene of India. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107: 1836018365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singh, K. P. & Awasthi, D. D. (1979) Lichen genus Phaeographis from India and Sri Lanka. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 21: 97120.Google Scholar
Staiger, B. (2002) Die Flechtenfamilie Graphidaceae. Studien in Richtung einer natürlicheren Gliederung. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 85: 1526.Google Scholar
Weerakoon, G., Rivas Plata, E., Lumbsch, H. T. & Lücking, R. (2012 a) Three new species of Chapsa (lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales: Graphidaceae) from tropical Asia. Lichenologist 44: 373379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weerakoon, G., Wijeyaratne, S. C., Wolseley, P. A., Rivas Plata, E., Lücking, R. & Lumbsch, H. T. (2012 b) Six new species of Graphidaceae from Sri Lanka. Bryologist 115: 7483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weerakoon, G., Lücking, R. & Lumbsch, H. T. (2014) Thirteen new species of Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales) from Sri Lanka. Phytotaxa 189: 331347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weerakoon, G., Jayalal, U., Wijesundara, S., Karunaratne, V. & Lücking, R. (2015) Six new Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales) from Horton Plains National Park, Sri Lanka. Nova Hedwigia 101: 7788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wirth, M. & Jr.Hale, M. E. (1963) The lichen family Graphidaceae in Mexico. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 36: 63119.Google Scholar
Wirth, M. & Jr.Hale, M. E. (1978) Morden-Smithsonian Expedition to Dominica: the lichens (Graphidaceae). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 40: 164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 10
Total number of PDF views: 86 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 09th December 2019 - 4th March 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Graphis and Allographa (lichenized Ascomycota: Graphidaceae) in Sri Lanka, with six new species and a biogeographical comparison investigating a potential signature of the ‘biotic ferry’ species interchange
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Graphis and Allographa (lichenized Ascomycota: Graphidaceae) in Sri Lanka, with six new species and a biogeographical comparison investigating a potential signature of the ‘biotic ferry’ species interchange
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Graphis and Allographa (lichenized Ascomycota: Graphidaceae) in Sri Lanka, with six new species and a biogeographical comparison investigating a potential signature of the ‘biotic ferry’ species interchange
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *