Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A King's Apotheosis: Iconography, Text, and Politics from a Classic Maya Temple at Holmul

  • Francisco Estrada-Belli (a1) and Alexandre Tokovinine (a2)

Abstract

Excavations at the ancient Maya city of Holmul, Petén, have led to the discovery of a building decorated with an intricately carved and painted plaster frieze. The iconography of the frieze portrays seated lords, mountain spirits, feathered serpents, and gods of the underworld engaged in the apparent rebirth of rulers as sun gods. Large emblems carved on the side of the building identify the structure as a shrine for ancestor veneration. A dedicatory text carved along the bottom of the frieze contains a king list and references to the political and familial ties of the ruler who commissioned the temple. Together, the iconography and text of this structure provide evidence of function and meaning. They also shed new light on a century during Classic Maya history known as the Tikal “Hiatus,” for which a limited number of texts are available. The information derived from this monument also broadens our understanding of the nature of hegemonic relationships among Classic Maya states.

Resumen

El desarrollo de excavaciones en la antigua ciudad Maya de Holmul, Petén, llevó al descubrimiento de un edificio decorado con un friso elaboradamente esculpido y pintado. Su iconografía incluye representaciones de reyes, espíritus de la montaña, serpientes emplumadas y dioses del inframundo asistiendo al renacimiento de los gobernantes como dioses solares. Los emblemas modelados en las fachadas laterales del edificio permiten identificar su función como santuario para la veneración de los ancestros. Un texto dedicatorio inciso a lo largo del friso contiene una lista de reyes y referencias a los lazos políticos y familiares del comisionante del templo. Juntos, la iconografía y el texto asociados a esta estructura, nos proporcionan una serie de datos clave para entender su función y su significado. Asimismo, permiten aclarar una parte aún oscura de la historia de los reinos del sur de las tierras bajas mayas para la cual se dispone de muy pocos datos y que es usualmente conocida como el “Hiato de Tikal”. La información derivada de este monumento también nos proporciona nuevos indicios sobre las relaciones de carácter hegemónico entre los estados mayas del periodo Clásico.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Baron, Joanne Parlsey 2013 Patrons of La Corona: Deities and Power in a Classic Maya Community. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Barrera Vásquez, Alfredo, Manzano, Juan Ramón Bastarrachea, Sansores, William Brito, Salas, Refugio Vermont, Góngora, David Dzul, and Poot, Domingo Dzul 1995 Diccionario Maya: Maya-Español, Español-Maya. 3rd ed. Editorial Porrúa, Mexico City.
Baudez, Claude F. 1996 La casa de los cuatro reyes de Balamkú. Arqueología Mexicana 3(18):3641.
Beliaev, Dmitri 2004 Wayaab’ Title in Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions: On the Problem of Religious Specialization in Classic Maya Society. In Maya Religious Practices: Processes of Change and Adaptation, edited by Behrens, Daniel Graña, Grube, Nikolai, Prager, Christian, Sachse, Frauke, Teufel, Stefanie, and Wagner, Elisabeth, pp. 121130. Acta Mesoamericana 14. Verlag Anton Saurwein, Markt Schwaben.
Beliaev, Dmitri, Tokovinine, Alexandre, Vepretskiy, Sergey, and Luín, Camilo 2013 Los monumentos de Tikal. In Proyecto Atlas Epigráfico de Petén, Fase I, edited by Beliaev, Dmitri and de León, Mónica, pp. 37170. Centro de Estudios Mayas Yui Knórosov, Guatemala.
Boot, Erik 2008 At the Court of Itzam Nah Yax Kokaj Mut: Preliminary Iconographic and Epigraphic Analysis of a Late Classic Vessel. Electronic document, http://www.mayavase.com/God-D-Court-Vessel.pdf, accessed August 17, 2015.
Boucher, Sylviane, and Góndora, Sara Dzul 2001 Las sequencias constructiva y cerámica de la Estructura 1, Plaza B, del Grupo Central de Balamkú, Campeche, Mexico. Los Investigadores de la Cultura Maya 9(1):4054.
Callaghan, Michael G., and de Estrada, Nina Neivens 2016 The Ceramic Sequence of the Holmul Region, Guatemala. Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, T.J. Ferguson, general editor. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Canuto, Marcello A., and Barrientos Q., Tomas 2013 The Importance of La Corona. La Corona Notes (1). Mesoweb. Electronic document, http://www.mesoweb.com/LaCorona/LaCoronaNotes01.pdf, accessed August 17, 2015.
Carter, Nicholas, and Houston, Stephen D. 2010 Panel with a Seated Ruler in a Watery Cave. In Fiery Pool: The Maya and the Mythic Sea, edited by Finamore, Daniel and Houston, Stephen D., pp. 8687. Peabody Essex Museum, Yale University Press, New Haven.
Chinchilla Mazariegos, Oswaldo 2005 Cosmos and Warfare on a Classic Maya Vase. Res: Anthropology and Aesthetics 47:107134.
Chinchilla Mazariegos, Oswaldo 2006 The Stars of the Palenque Sarcophagus. Res: Anthropology and Aesthetics 49/50:4058.
Diaz, Mauricio 2012 HOL.L.21, Edificio A, Grupo II, Holmul. In Investigaciones arqueológicas en la región de Holmul, Petén: Holmul y Dos Aguadas. Informe preliminar de la temporada 2012, edited by Estrada-Belli, F., pp. 179201. Boston University, Boston. Electronic document, http://www.bu.edu/holmul/reports/informe_2012_layout.pdf, accessed June 20, 2015
Estrada-Belli, Francisco 2001a Maya Kingship at Holmul, Guatemala. Antiquity 75(290):685686.
Estrada-Belli, Francisco 2001b Investigaciones arqueológicas en la región de Holmul, Petén, Guatemala. Informe preliminar de la temporada 2001. Boston University, Boston. Electronic document, http://www.bu.edu/holmul/reports/, accessed November 2006.
Estrada-Belli, Francisco 2006 Lightning Sky, Rain and the Maize God: The Ideology of Preclassic Maya Rulers at Cival, Peten, Guatemala. Ancient Mesoamerica 17(1):5778.
Estrada-Belli, Francisco 2011 The First Maya Civilization: Ritual and Power Before the Classic Period. Routledge, New York.
Estrada-Belli, Francisco 2012 Investigaciones arqueológicas en la región de Holmul: Holmul y Dos Aguadas. Informe preliminar de la temporada 2012. Boston University, Boston. Electronic document, http://www.bu.edu/holmul/reports/informe_2012_layout.pdf, accessed June 30, 2015.
Estrada-Belli, Francisco 2013 Investigaciones arqueológicas en la región de Holmul, Petén, Guatemala. Informe preliminar de la temporada 2013. Holmul y Cival. Boston University, Boston. Electronic document, http://www.bu.edu/holmul/reports/informe_2013_layout.pdf, accessed August 17, 2015.
Estrada-Belli, Francisco 2014 Investigaciones arqueológicas en la región de Holmul, Petén: Holmul y Cival. Informe preliminar de la temporada 2014. Boston University, Boston. Electronic document, http://www.bu.edu/holmul/reports/informe_2014_layout.pdf, accessed June 30, 2015.
Estrada-Belli, Francisco 2015 3D Model of Building A, Group II, Holmul, by Francisco Estrada-Belli. Holmul Archaeological Project and Maya Archaeology Initiative. Electronic document, http://mayaarchaeology.org/2015/11/3d-model-of-building-a-group-ii-holmul/, accessed November 23, 2015.
Estrada-Belli, Francisco, Tokovinine, Alexandre, Foley, Jennifer, Hurst, Heather, Ware, Gene A., Stuart, David, and Grube, Nikolai 2009 A Maya Palace at Holmul, Peten, Guatemala and the Teotihuacan ‘Entrada’: Evidence from Murals 7 and 9. Latin American Antiquity 20(1):228529.
Fash, Barbara 2005 Iconographic Evidence for Water Management and Social Organization at Copan. In Copan: The History of an Ancient Maya Kingdom, edited by Wyllys Andrews, E. and Fash, William L., pp. 103138. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe.
Fash, William L., Tokovinine, Alexandre, and Fash, Barbara 2009 The House of New Fire at Teotihuacan and Its Legacy in Mesoamerica. In Art of Urbanism: How Mesoamerican Kingdoms Represented Themselves in Architecture and Imagery, edited by Fash, William L. and Luján, Leonardo López, pp. 201229. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C.
Fialko, Vilma 2008 Proyecto de investigación arqueológica y rescate en Naranjo: documentación emergente en el Palacio de la Realeza de Naranjo, Petén, Guatemala. Report to the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies. Electronic document, http://www.famsi.org/reports/05005es/05005esFialko01.pdf, accessed August 17, 2015.
Fialko, Vilma, and Schuster, Angela M.H. 2012 Naranjo-Sa’al, Petén, Guatemala: Preserving an Ancient Maya City. Plan for Documentation, Conservation, and Presentation. World Monuments Fund, New York. Electronic document, http://www.wmf.org/sites/default/files/wmf_publication/Naranjo-WMF.pdf, accessed August 12, 2015.
Freidel, David A., and Guenter, Stanley P. 2003 Bearers of War and Creation. Archaeology. Electronic document, http://archive.archaeology.org/online/features/siteq2/, accessed August 12, 2015.
Graham, Ian 1978 Corpus of Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions, Vol. 2, Part 2: Naranjo, Chunhuitz, Xunantunich. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Grube, Nikolai 2003 Monumentos jeroglíficos de Holmul, Petén, Guatemala. In XVI Simposio de Investigaciones de Arqueología de Guatemala, edited by Laporte, Juan Pedro, Arroyo, Barbara, Escobedo, Hector, and Mejía, Hector, pp. 701710. Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología, Guatemala.
Grube, Nikolai, and Martin, Simon 2000 Tikal and Its Neighbors. In Notebook for the XXIV Maya Hieroglyphic Forum at Texas, edited by Schele, Linda, Grube, Nikolai, and Martin, Simon, pp. II–1-II–78. Department of Art and Art History, University of Texas, Austin.
Grube, Nikolai, and Martin, Simon 2004 Patronage, Betrayal, and Revenge: Diplomacy and Politics in the Eastern Maya Lowlands. In Notebook for the XXVIIIMaya Meetings at Texas, March 13–14, 2004, edited by Schele, Linda, Grube, Nikolai, and Martin, Simon, pp. II–1-II–91. Department of Art and Art History, University of Texas, Austin.
Guenter, Stanley Paul 2014 The Epigraphy of El Perú-Waka’. In Archaeology at El Perú Waka’: Ancient Maya Performances of Ritual, Memory, and Power, edited by Navarro-Farr, Olivia C. and Rich, Michelle E., pp. 147166. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Hellmuth, Nicholas M. 1987 Monster und Menschen in der Maya-Kunst: Eine Ikonographie der alten Religionen Mexikos und Guatemalas. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz, Austria.
Houston, Stephen D. 1986 Problematic Emblem Glyphs: Examples from Altar De Sacrificios, El Chorro, Río Azul, and Xultun. Center for Maya Research, Washington, D.C.
Houston, Stephen D. 1993 Hieroglyphs and History at Dos Pilas: Dynastic Politics of the Classic Maya. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Houston, Stephen D. 1998 Classic Maya Depictions of the Built Environment. In Function and Meaning in Classic Maya Architecture, edited by Houston, Stephen D., pp. 333372. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C.
Houston, Stephen D. 2008 The Epigraphy of El Zotz. Mesoweb. Electronic document: http://www.mesoweb.com/zotz/articles/ZotzEpigraphy.html, accessed 1 August 2015.
Houston, Stephen D., and Mathews, Peter 1985 The Dynastic Sequence of Dos Pilas, Guatemala. Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute, San Francisco.
Houston, Stephen D., Robertson, John, and Stuart, David 2001 Quality and Quantity in Glyphic Nouns and Adjectives. Research Reports on Ancient Maya Writing 47.
Houston, Stephen D., and Stuart, David 1998 The Ancient Maya Self: Personhood and Portraiture in the Classic Period. Res: Anthropology and Aesthetics 33:73101.
Houston, Stephen D., Stuart, David, and Robertson, John 1998 Disharmony in Maya Hieroglyphic Writing: Linguistic Change and Continuity in Classic Society. In Anatomía de una civilización: Aproximaciones interdisciplinarias a la cultura Maya, edited by Ruiz, Andres Ciudad, pp. 275296. Sociedad Española de Estudios Mayas, Madrid.
Houston, Stephen D., Stuart, David, and Taube, Karl A. 2006 The Memory of Bones: Body, Being, and Experience among the Classic Maya. 1st ed. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Houston, Stephen D., and Taube, Karl A. 2012 Carved Panel. In Ancient Maya Art at Dumbarton Oaks, edited by Pillsbury, Joanne, Doutriaux, Miriam Agnes, Ishihara, Reiko and Tokovinine, Alexandre, pp. 3847. Pre-Columbian Art at Dumbarton Oaks, No. 4. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C.
Hull, Kerry 2005 An Abbreviated Dictionary of Ch’orti’ Maya.Report to the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies Inc. Electronic document, http://www.famsi.org/reports/03031/index.html, accessed August 2015.
Jones, Christopher, and Satterthwaite, Linton 1982 The Monuments and Inscriptions of Tikal: The Carved Monuments. University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Kaufman, Terrence S., and Norman, William M. 1984 An Outline of Proto-Cholan Phonology, Morphology, and Vocabulary. In Phoneticism in Mayan Hieroglyphic Writing, edited by Justeson, John S. and Campbell, Lyle, pp. 77166. Publication 9. Institute for Mesoamerican Studies, State University of New York at Albany, Albany.
Kelley, David H. 1976 Deciphering the Maya Script. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Laughlin, Robert M. 1975 The Great Tzotzil Dictionary of San Lorenzo Zinacantán. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Laughlin, Robert M., and Haviland, John Beard 1988 The Great Tzotzil Dictionary of Santo Domingo Zinacantán: With Grammatical Analysis and Historical Commentary, Vol. 1. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Law, Danny, Houston, Stephen, Carter, Nicholas, Zender, Marc, and Stuart, David 2013 Reading in Context: The Interpretation of Personal Reference in Ancient Maya Hieroglyphic Texts. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 23(2):E23E47.
LeCount, Lisa, and Yaeger, Jason 2010 Conclusions: Placing Xunantunich and Its Hinterland Settlemenst in Perspective. In Classic Maya Provincial Politics: Xunantunich and Its Hinterlands, edited by LeCount, Lisa and Yaeger, Jason, pp. 337369. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Marcus, Joyce P. 1973 Territorial Organization of the Lowland Classic Maya. Science 180:911916.
Martin, Simon 2003 In Line of the Founder: A View of Dynastic Politics at Tikal. In Tikal: Dynasties, Foreigners, and Affairs of State, edited by Sabloff, Jeremy A., pp. 346. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe.
Martin, Simon 2005a Caracol Altar 21 Revisited: More Data on Double Bird and Tikal's Wars of the Mid-Sixth Century. The PARI Journal 6(1):19.
Martin, Simon 2005b Of Snakes and Bats: Shifting Identities at Calakmul. The PARI Journal 6(2):515.
Martin, Simon 2008a Three Panels from La Corona? /Site Q K9126, K9127, K9128: Commentary from Simon Martin. Mayavase.com. Electronic document, http://www.mayavase.com/corona/La_Corona.html, accessed August 17, 2015.
Martin, Simon 2008b Wives and Daughters on the Dallas Altar. Mesoweb: Electronic document, http://www.mesoweb.com/articles/martin/Wives&Daughters.pdf, accessed August 21, 2009.
Martin, Simon, Fialko, Vilma, Tokovinine, Alexandre, and Remirez, Fredy 2015 Contexto y texto de la estela 47 de Naranjo-Sa’aal, Peten, Guatemala. Paper presented at the XXIX Simposio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala, Guatemala City, July 20–24, 2015.
Martin, Simon, and Grube, Nikolai 1995 Maya Superstates: How a Few Powerful Kingdoms Vied for Control of the Maya Lowlands during the Classic Period (A.D. 300–900). Archaeology 48(6):4146.
Martin, Simon, and Grube, Nikolai 2008 [2000] Chronicle of the Maya Kings and Queens: Deciphering the Dynasties of the Ancient Maya. Thames & Hudson, London.
Mayer, Karl Herbert 1988 Three Unprovenanced Maya Stucco Masks. Revista Indigenista Latinomericana 1:4861.
Merwin, Raymond E. and Vaillant, George 1932 The Ruins of Holmul. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology III No.2. Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Mongelluzzo, Ryan W. 2011 Experiencing Maya Palaces: Royal Power, Space and Architecture at Holmul, Guatemala, University of California Riverside. Electronic document, http://www.bu.edu/holmul/reports/Mongelluzzo_Dissertation.pdf, accessed June 20, 2015.
Neivens de Estrada, Niña D. 2014 A Tangled Web: Ceramic Adoption in the Maya Lowlands and Community Interaction in the Early Middle Preclassic as Seen in the K’awil Complex from Holmul, Peten, Guatemala. In The Maya and Their Central American Neighbors: Settlement Patterns, Architecture, Hieroglyphic Texts, and Ceramics, edited by Braswell, Geoffrey, pp. 177200. Routledge, London.
Pallán, Carlos 2009 Secuencia dinástica, glifos-emblema y topónimos en las inscripciones jeroglíficas de Edzná, Campeche (600– 900 d.C.): implicaciones históricas. Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Instituto de Investigaciones Filológicas, UNAM, Mexico.
Salazar Lama, Daniel 2015 Formas de sacralizar a la figura real entre los mayas. Journal de la Société des Américanistes 101(1 & 2):1149.
Saturno, William A., Hurst, Heather, and Rossi, Franco 2012 Observaciones sobre la iconografía de la acrópolis Los Árboles (12F19), Xultun. In Proyecto Arqueológico San Bartolo-Xultun. Informe de resultados de investigaciones temporada de campo No. 11, Año 2012, edited by Castillo, Patricia and Saturno, William, pp. 561574. Electronic document, https://www.facebook.com/groups/434984946534991/659954310704719/, accessed December 31, 2013.
Saturno, William A., Taube, Karl A., Stuart, David, and Hurst, Heather 2005 The Murals of San Bartolo, El Petén, Guatemala. Part 1, the North Wall. Ancient America 7. Center for Ancient American Studies, Barnardsville, North Carolina.
Schele, Linda, and Mathews, Peter 1979 The Bodega of Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C.
Smailus, Ortwin 1975 El Maya-Chontal de Acalán: análisis lingüístico de un documento de los años 1610–12. 1st ed. Coordinación de Humanidades, UNAM, Mexico.
Stone, Andrea, and Zender, Marc 2011 Reading Maya Art: A Hieroglyphic Guide to Ancient Maya Painting and Sculpture. Thames & Hudson, New York.
Stuart, David 2000 The Arrival of Strangers: Teotihuacan and Tollan in Classic Maya History. In Mesoamerica's Classic Heritage: Teotihuacán to the Aztecs, edited by Carrasco, David, Jones, Lindsay and Sessions, Scott, pp. 465513. University Press of Colorado, Niwot.
Stuart, David 2003 On the Paired Variants of Tz’ak. In Mesoweb. Electronic document, http://www.mesoweb.com/stuart/notes/tzak.pdf, accessed August 17, 2015.
Stuart, David 2004 The Beginnings of the Copan Dynasty: A Review of the Hieroglyphic and Historical Evidence. In Understanding Early Classic Copan, edited by Bell, Ellen E., Canuto, Marcello A. and Sharer, Robert J., pp. 215248. Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Stuart, David 2005 The Inscriptions from Temple XIX at Palenque: A Commentary. Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute, San Francisco.
Stuart, David 2006 Jade and Chocolate: Bundles of Wealth in Classic Maya Economics and Ritual. In Sacred Bundles: Ritual Acts of Wrapping and Binding in Mesoamerica, edited by Julia Guernsey and Kent Reilly, F., pp. 127144. Ancient America Special Publication No.1. Boundary End Archaeology Research Center, Barnardsville, North Carolina.
Stuart, David 2011 Some Working Notes on the Text of Tikal Stela 31. Mesoweb. Electronic document, http://www.mesoweb.com/stuart/notes/Tikal.pdf, accessed August 17, 2015.
Stuart, David 2013 Two Inscribed Bones from Yaxchilan. Maya Decipherment. Electronic document, http://decipherment.wordpress.com/2013/05/16/report-two-inscribed-bones-fromyaxchilan/, accessed August 17, 2015.
Stuart, David, Canuto, Marcello A., and Barrientos Q., Tomas 2015 The Nomenclature of La Corona Sculpture. La Corona Notes, Vol. 2. Mesoweb. Electronic document, http://www.mesoweb.com/LaCorona/LaCoronaNotes02.pdf, accessed August 12, 2015.
Stuart, David, Canuto, Marcello A., Q., Tomás Barrientos, and St-Hillaire, Maxime Lamoureax 2015 Preliminary Notes on Two Recently Discovered Inscriptions from La Corona, Guatemala. Maya Decipherment, July 17, 2015. Electronic document, https://decipherment.wordpress.com/2015/07/17/preliminary-notes-on-two-recently-discovered-inscriptions-from-la-corona-guatemala/, accessed August 12, 2015.
Stuart, David, and Graham, Ian 2003 Corpus of Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions, Vol. 9, Part 1: Piedras Negras. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Stuart, David, Houston, Stephen D., and Robertson, John 1999 Recovering the Past: Classic Maya Language and Classic Maya Gods. In Notebook for the XXIIIrd Maya Hieroglyphic Forum at Texas, Part II, edited by Schele, Linda, Grube, Nikolai, and Martin, Simon, pp. 196. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Taube, Karl A. 1989 Maize Tamale in Classic Maya Diet, Epigraphy, and Art. American Antiquity 54(1):3151.
Taube, Karl A. 2004 Flower Mountain: Concepts of Life, Beauty, and Paradise among the Classic Maya. Res: Anthropology and Aesthetics (45):6998.
Than, Ker 2013 Giant Maya Carvings Found in Guatemala. Electronic document, http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/08/pictures/130807-maya-frieze-discovered-holmulguatemala-archaeology/, accessed August 7, 2013.
Tokovinine, Alexandre 2012 Fluted and Incised Bowl. In Ancient Maya Art at Dumbarton Oaks, edited by Pillsbury, Joanne, Doutriaux, Miriam Agnes, Ishihara, Reiko and Tokovinine, Alexandre, pp. 120129. Pre-Columbian Art at Dumbarton Oaks, No. 4. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C.
Tokovinine, Alexandre 2013 Place and Identity in Classic Maya Narratives. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C.
Tokovinine, Alexandre 2015 Stucco Frieze, Building A, Group II, Holmul: 3D Model by Alexandre Tokovinine. Mesoamerican 3D Models, 3D Scanning Project, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University. Electronic document, https://www.peabody.harvard.edu/node/2546, accessed November 23, 2013.
Tokovinine, Alexandre, and Estrada-Belli, Francisco 2015 La Sufricaya: A Place in Classic Maya Politics. In Classic Maya Polities of the Southern Lowlands: Integration, Interaction, Dissolution, edited by Marken, Damien B. and Fitzsimmons, James L., pp. 195224. University of Colorado Press, Boulder.
Tokovinine, Alexandre, and Fialko, Vilma 2007 Stela 45 of Naranjo and the Early Classic lords of Sa’aal . PARI Journal 7(4):114.
Tokovinine, Alexandre, and Zender, Marc 2012 Lords of Windy Water: The Royal Court of Motul De San José in Classic Maya Inscriptions. In Politics, History, and Economy at the Classic Maya Center of Motul De San José, Guatemala, edited by Foias, Antonia and Emery, Kitty, pp. 3066. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
Tomasic, John, and Estrada-Belli, Francisco 2003 Nuevos datos sobre el Clásico Temprano en el area de Holmul: el caso de La Sufricaya. In XVI Simposio de Investigaciones de Arqueología de Guatemala, edited by Laporte, Juan Pedro, Arroyo, Barbara, Escobedo, Hector and Mejía, Hector, pp. 275280. Guatemala: Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología.
Wahl, David, Estrada-Belli, Francisco, and Anderson, Lysanna 2013 A 3,400 Year Paleolimnological Record of Prehispanic Human-Environment Interactions in the Holmul Region of the Southern Maya Lowlands. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 379–380(2013):1731.
Wisdom, Charles 1950 Materials on the Chorti Language. University of Chicago Library, Chicago.
Zender, Marc 2007 Mexican Associations of the Early Classic Dynasty of Turtle Tooth I. Paper presented at the 31st Annual Maya Meetings, Austin, Texas.

A King's Apotheosis: Iconography, Text, and Politics from a Classic Maya Temple at Holmul

  • Francisco Estrada-Belli (a1) and Alexandre Tokovinine (a2)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed