Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Subjective memory complaints and concurrent memory performance in older patients of primary care providers

  • BETH E. SNITZ (a1), LISA A. MORROW (a2), ERIC G. RODRIGUEZ (a3) (a4), KIMBERLY A. HUBER (a1) and JUDITH A. SAXTON (a1)...

Abstract

Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are known to be inconsistently related to current memory impairment in older adults but this association has not been well investigated in primary care provider (PCP) settings. To characterize the complexity of the relationship between SMCs and objective memory in older outpatients of PCPs, we collected neuropsychological, subjective memory, depression and medical chart data from outpatients aged 65 and older, without documented dementia diagnoses, in eleven PCP offices in and around the Pittsburgh metropolitan area. Results indicated that self-estimates of current memory ability were most strongly associated with objective memory performance; in contrast, perception of worsening memory over the past year showed no association; and specific memory-related activities were only weakly associated. Women were more likely than men to show inconsistency between SMCs and objective memory performance. Only two of the 11 most significantly memory-impaired participants endorsed SMCs and only four had PCP chart documentation of memory problems. Eliciting SMCs in non-demented older adults can be of clinical value in a PCP setting, but significant limitations of patient self-report in more memory-impaired patients underscore the need to develop brief, objective indicators of memory impairment for PCP office use when there is suspicion of decline. (JINS, 2008, 14, 1004–1013.)

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Subjective memory complaints and concurrent memory performance in older patients of primary care providers
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Subjective memory complaints and concurrent memory performance in older patients of primary care providers
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Subjective memory complaints and concurrent memory performance in older patients of primary care providers
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to: Beth E. Snitz, Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh, 3471 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213. E-mail: snitzbe@upmc.edu

References

Hide All
Backman, L., Jones, S., Berger, A.-K., Laukka, E.J., & Small, B.J. (2005). Cognitive impairment in preclinical Alzheimer's disease: A meta-analysis. Neuropsychology, 19, 520531.
Barnes, L.L., Schneider, J.A., Boyle, P.A., Bienias, J.L., & Bennett, D.A. (2006). Memory complaints are related to Alzheimer disease pathology in older persons. Neurology, 67, 15811585.
Becker, J.T., Boller, F., Saxton, J., & McGonigle-Gibson, K.L. (1987). Normal rates of forgetting of verbal and non-verbal material in Alzheimer's disease. Cortex, 23, 5972.
Bhalla, R.K., Butters, M.A., Mulsant, B.H., Begley, A.E., Zmuda, M.D., Schoderbek, B., Pollock, B.G., Reynolds, C.F. 3rd, & Becker, J.T. (2006). Persistence of neuropsychologic deficits in the remitted state of late-life depression. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14, 419427.
Boustani, M., Peterson, B., Hanson, L., Harris, R., Lohr, K.N., & Force, U.S.P.S.T. (2003). Screening for dementia in primary care: A summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. [summary for patients in Ann Intern Med. 2003 Jun 3;138(11):I60; PMID: 12779314]. Annals of Internal Medicine, 138, 927937.
Carr, D.B., Gray, S., Baty, J., & Morris, J.C. (2000). The value of informant versus individual's complaints of memory impairment in early dementia. Neurology, 55, 17241726.
Clement, F., Belleville, S., & Gauthier, S. (2008). Cognitive complaint in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 14, 222232.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Derouesne, C., Dealberto, M.J., Boyer, P., Lubin, S., Sauron, B., Piette, F., Kohler, F., & Alperovitch, A. (1993). Empirical evaluation of the ‘Cognitive Difficulties Scale’ for assessment of memory complaints in general practice: A study of 1628 cognitively normal subjects aged 45–75 years. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 8, 599607.
Dubois, B., Feldman, H.H., Jacova, C., Dekosky, S.T., Barberger-Gateau, P., Cummings, J., Delacourte, A., Galasko, D., Gauthier, S., Jicha, G., Meguro, K., O'Brien, J., Pasquier, F., Robert, P., Rossor, M., Salloway, S., Stern, Y., Visser, P.J., & Scheltens, P. (2007). Research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: Revising the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Lancet Neurology, 6, 734746.
Dux, M.C., Woodard, J.L., Calamari, J.E., Messina, M., Arora, S., Chik, H., & Pontarelli, N. (2008). The moderating role of negative affect on objective verbal memory performance and subjective memory complaints in healthy older adults. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 14, 327336.
Ebel, R.L. (1954). Procedures for the analysis of classroom tests. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 14, 352364.
Feher, E.P., Larrabee, G.J., Sudilovsky, A., & Crook, T.H. 3rd. (1994). Memory self-report in Alzheimer's disease and in age-associated memory impairment. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry & Neurology, 7, 5865.
Flicker, C., Ferris, S.H., & Reisberg, B. (1993). A longitudinal study of cognitive function in elderly persons with subjective memory complaints. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 41, 10291032.
Folstein, M.F., Folstein, S.E., & McHugh, P.R. (1975). “Mini-mental state.” A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189198.
Franklin, C.L., Repasky, S.A., Thompson, K.E., Shelton, S.A., & Uddo, M. (2002). Differentiating overreporting and extreme distress: MMPI-2 use with compensation-seeking veterans with PTSD. Journal of Personality Assessment, 79, 274285.
Franz, C.E., Barker, J.C., Kravitz, R.L., Flores, Y., Krishnan, S., & Hinton, L. (2007). Nonmedical influences on the use of cholinesterase inhibitors in dementia care. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders, 21, 241248.
Gagnon, M., Dartigues, J.F., Mazaux, J.M., Dequae, L., Letenneur, L., Giroire, J.M., & Barberger-Gateau, P. (1994). Self-reported memory complaints and memory performance in elderly French community residents: Results of the PAQUID Research Program. Neuroepidemiology, 13, 145154.
Galasko, D., Bennett, D., Sano, M., Ernesto, C., Thomas, R., Grundman, M., & Ferris, S. (1997). An inventory to assess activities of daily living for clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease. The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders, 11, Suppl 2, S33S39.
Ganguli, M., Dodge, H. H., Shen, C., & DeKosky, S. T. (2004a). Mild cognitive impairment, amnestic type: An epidemiologic study. Neurology, 63, 115121.
Ganguli, M., Gilby, J., Seaberg, E., & Belle, S. (1995). Depressive symptoms and associated factors in a rural elderly population: The MoVIES Project. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 3, 144160.
Ganguli, M., Rodriguez, E., Mulsant, B., Richards, S., Pandav, R., Bilt, J.V., Dodge, H.H., Stoehr, G.P., Saxton, J., Morycz, R.K., Rubin, R.T., Farkas, B., & DeKosky, S.T. (2004b). Detection and management of cognitive impairment in primary care: The Steel Valley Seniors Survey. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52, 16681675.
Geerlings, M.I., Jonker, C., Bouter, L.M., Ader, H.J., & Schmand, B. (1999). Association between memory complaints and incident Alzheimer's disease in elderly people with normal baseline cognition. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 531537.
Grober, E., Hall, C., Lipton, R.B., & Teresi, J.A. (2008). Primary care screen for early dementia. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 56, 206213.
Harwood, D.G., Barker, W.W., Ownby, R.L., Mullan, M., & Duara, R. (2004). No association between subjective memory complaints and apolipoprotein E genotype in cognitively intact elderly. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19, 11311139.
Jonker, C., Launer, L.J., Hooijer, C., & Lindeboom, J. (1996). Memory complaints and memory impairment in older individuals. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 44, 4449.
Jorm, A.F., Christensen, H., Korten, A.E., Jacomb, P.A., & Henderson, A.S. (2001). Memory complaints as a precursor of memory impairment in older people: A longitudinal analysis over 7–8 years. Psychological Medicine, 31, 441449.
Jungwirth, S., Fischer, P., Weissgram, S., Kirchmeyr, W., Bauer, P., & Tragl, K.-H. (2004). Subjective memory complaints and objective memory impairment in the Vienna-Transdanube aging community. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52, 263268.
Kaplan, E., Goodglass, H., & Weintraub, S. (2001). Boston Naming Test (2nd ed.). Philedelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Lam, L.C.W., Lui, V.W. C., Tam, C.W.C., & Chiu, H.F.K. (2005). Subjective memory complaints in Chinese subjects with mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20, 876882.
Lavery, L.L., Lu, S.-y., Chang, C.-C. H., Saxton, J., & Ganguli, M. (2007). Cognitive assessment of older primary care patients with and without memory complaints. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22, 949954.
Lopez, O.L., Kuller, L.H., Fitzpatrick, A., Ives, D., Becker, J.T., & Beauchamp, N. (2003). Evaluation of dementia in the cardiovascular health cognition study. Neuroepidemiology, 22, 112.
McDowell, I. & Newell, C. (1987). Measuring Health: A Guide to Rating Scales and Questionnaires. New York: Oxford University Press.
Mol, M.E.M., van Boxtel, M.P.J., Willems, D., & Jolles, J. (2006). Do subjective memory complaints predict cognitive dysfunction over time? A six-year follow-up of the Maastricht Aging Study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 432441.
Morris, J.C., Heyman, A., Mohs, R.C., Hughes, J.P., van Belle, G., Fillenbaum, G., Mellits, E.D., & Clark, C. (1989). The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD). Part I. Clinical and neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 39, 11591165.
Morrow, L., Saxton, J., Snitz, B.E., Zoccolotto, A., & Eschman, A. (2007). Use of computer-based assessment of mild cognitive impairment in primary care physician offices. Paper presented at the Society for Prevention Research, Washington, DC.
Petersen, R.C., Smith, G.E., Waring, S.C., Ivnik, R.J., Tangalos, E.G., & Kokmen, E. (1999). Mild cognitive impairment: Clinical characterization and outcome. Archives of Neurology, 56, 303308.
Reid, L.M. & Maclullich, A.M.J. (2006). Subjective memory complaints and cognitive impairment in older people. Dementia & Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 22, 471485.
Reitan, R.M. (1958). Validity of the Trail-Making Tests as an indication of organic brain damage. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 8, 271276.
Saxton, J., Lopez, O.L., Ratcliff, G., Dulberg, C., Fried, L., Carlson, M., Newman, A., & Kuller, L. (2004). Preclinical Alzheimer's disease: Neuropsychological test performance 1.5 to 8 years prior to onset. Neurology, 63, 23412347.
Schmand, B., Jonker, C., Hooijer, C., & Lindeboom, J. (1996). Subjective memory complaints may announce dementia. Neurology, 46, 121125.
Small, G.W., Chen, S.T., Komo, S., Ercoli, L., Bookheimer, S., Miller, K., Lavretsky, H., Saxena, S., Kaplan, A., Dorsey, D., Scott, W.K., Saunders, A.M., Haines, J.L., Roses, A.D., & Pericak-Vance, M.A. (1999). Memory self-appraisal in middle-aged and older adults with the apolipoprotein E-4 allele. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 10351038.
Smith, G.E., Petersen, R.C., Ivnik, R.J., Malec, J.F., & Tangalos, E.G. (1996). Subjective memory complaints, psychological distress, and longitudinal change in objective memory performance. Psychology & Aging, 11, 272279.
Souchay, C. (2007). Metamemory in Alzheimer's disease. Cortex, 43, 9871003.
Spreen, O. & Strauss, E. (1998). A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stewart, R., Russ, C., Richards, M., Brayne, C., Lovestone, S., & Mann, A. (2001). Depression, APOE genotype and subjective memory impairment: A cross-sectional study in an African-Caribbean population. Psychological Medicine, 31, 431440.
Valcour, V.G., Masaki, K.H., Curb, J.D., & Blanchette, P.L. (2000). The detection of dementia in the primary care setting. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160, 29642968.
van der Flier, W.M., van Buchem, M.A., Weverling-Rijnsburger, A.W.E., Mutsaers, E.R., Bollen, E.L.E.M., Admiraal-Behloul, F., Westendorp, R.G.J., & Middelkoop, H.A.M. (2004). Memory complaints in patients with normal cognition are associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. Journal of Neurology, 251, 671675.
Wang, L., van Belle, G., Crane, P.K., Kukull, W.A., Bowen, J.D., McCormick, W.C., & Larson, E.B. (2004). Subjective memory deterioration and future dementia in people aged 65 and older. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52, 20452051.
Wechsler, D. (1981). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Manual. New York: The Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D. (1987). Wechsler Memory Scale Revised. New York: The Psychological Corporation.
Winblad, B., Palmer, K., Kivipelto, M., Jelic, V., Fratiglioni, L., Wahlund, L.O., Nordberg, A., Backman, L., Albert, M., Almkvist, O., Arai, H., Basun, H., Blennow, K., de Leon, M., DeCarli, C., Erkinjuntti, T., Giacobini, E., Graff, C., Hardy, J., Jack, C., Jorm, A., Ritchie, K., van Duijn, C., Visser, P., & Petersen, R.C. (2004). Mild cognitive impairment–beyond controversies, towards a consensus: Report of the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment. Journal of Internal Medicine, 256, 240246.
Zandi, T. (2004). Relationship between subjective memory complaints, objective memory performance, and depression among older adults. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementias, 19, 353360.

Keywords

Subjective memory complaints and concurrent memory performance in older patients of primary care providers

  • BETH E. SNITZ (a1), LISA A. MORROW (a2), ERIC G. RODRIGUEZ (a3) (a4), KIMBERLY A. HUBER (a1) and JUDITH A. SAXTON (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed