Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency in Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy: Contrasting the Effects of Supernumerary X versus Y Chromosomes on Performance

  • Manisha Udhnani (a1), Moshe Maiman (a1), Jonathan D. Blumenthal (a2), Liv S. Clasen (a2), Gregory L. Wallace (a3), Jay N. Giedd (a4), Armin Raznahan (a2) and Nancy Raitano Lee (a1)...

Abstract

Objectives: Past research suggests that youth with sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) present with verbal fluency deficits. However, most studies have focused on sex chromosome trisomies. Far less is known about sex chromosome tetrasomies and pentasomies. Thus, the current research sought to characterize verbal fluency performance among youth with sex chromosome trisomies, tetrasomies, and pentasomies by contrasting how performance varies as a function of extra X number and X versus Y status. Methods: Participants included 79 youth with SCAs and 42 typically developing controls matched on age, maternal education, and racial/ethnic background. Participants completed the phonemic and semantic conditions of a verbal fluency task and an abbreviated intelligence test. Results: Both supernumerary X and Y chromosomes were associated with verbal fluency deficits relative to controls. These impairments increased as a function of the number of extra X chromosomes, and the pattern of impairments on phonemic and semantic fluency differed for those with a supernumerary X versus Y chromosome. Whereas one supernumerary Y chromosome was associated with similar performance across fluency conditions, one supernumerary X chromosome was associated with relatively stronger semantic than phonemic fluency skills. Conclusions: Verbal fluency skills in youth with supernumerary X and Y chromosomes are impaired relative to controls. However, the degree of impairment varies across groups and task condition. Further research into the cognitive underpinnings of verbal fluency in youth with SCAs may provide insights into their verbal fluency deficits and help guide future treatments. (JINS, 2018, 24, 917–927)

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency in Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy: Contrasting the Effects of Supernumerary X versus Y Chromosomes on Performance
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency in Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy: Contrasting the Effects of Supernumerary X versus Y Chromosomes on Performance
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency in Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy: Contrasting the Effects of Supernumerary X versus Y Chromosomes on Performance
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to: Nancy Raitano Lee, Drexel University, 3201 Chestnut St., Stratton 119, Philadelphia, PA 19103. E-mail: nrl39@drexel.edu

Footnotes

Hide All
*

Contributed equally to manuscript preparation as first author.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Abreu, N., Argollo, N., Oliveira, F., Cardoso, A. L., Bueno, J. L., & Xavier, G. F. (2013). Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency tests for adolescents with ADHD. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 10(2), 6371.
Ardila, A., Ostrosky‐Solís, F., & Bernal, B. (2006). Cognitive testing toward the future: The example of Semantic Verbal Fluency (ANIMALS). International Journal of Psychology, 41(5), 324–332.
Bender, B. G., Linden, M. G., & Harmon, R. J. (2001). Neuropsychological and functional cognitive skills of 35 unselected adults with sex chromosome abnormalities. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 102(4), 309313.
Bender, B. G., Linden, M. G., & Robinson, A. (1987). Environment and developmental risk in children with sex chromosome abnormalities. Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 26(4), 499503. doi:10.1097/00004583-198707000-00006
Bender, B. G., Linden, M. G., & Robinson, A. (1989). Verbal and spatial processing efficiency in 32 children with sex chromosome abnormalities. Pediatric Research, 25(6), 577579.
Benjamini, Y., & Hochberg, Y. 1995. Controlling the false discovery rate: A practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Methodological), 57, 289300.
Bishop, D. V., & Snowling, M. J. (2004). Developmental dyslexia and specific language impairment: Same or different?. Psychological Bulletin, 130(6), 858.
Bojesen, A., Juul, S., & Gravholt, C. H. (2003). Prenatal and postnatal prevalence of Klinefelter syndrome: A national registry study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 88(2), 622626. doi:10.1210/jc.2002-021491
Bowie, C. R., Leung, W. W., Reichenberg, A., McClure, M. M., Patterson, T. L., Heaton, R. K., &Harvey, P. D. (2008). Predicting schizophrenia patients’ real-world behavior with specific neuropsychological and functional capacity measures. Biological Psychiatry, 63(5), 505511.
Bruining, H., Swaab, H., Kas, M., & van Engeland, H. (2009). Psychiatric characteristics in a self-selected sample of boys with Klinefelter syndrome. Pediatrics, 123(5), e865e870.
Cahn-Weiner, D. A., Boyle, P. A., & Malloy, P. F. (2002). Tests of executive function predict instrumental activities of daily living in community-dwelling older individuals. Applied Neuropsychology, 9(3), 187191.
Cavalli, E., Duncan, L. G., Elbro, C., El Ahmadi, A., & Colé, P. (2017). Phonemic--Morphemic dissociation in university students with dyslexia: An index of reading compensation? Annals of dyslexia, 67(1), 63–84.
Claessen, M., Leitão, S., Kane, R., & Williams, C. (2013). Phonological processing skills in specific language impairment. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 15(5), 471483.
Daneman, M. (1991). Working memory as a predictor of verbal fluency. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 20(6), 445464.
Gaddes, W. H., & Crockett, D. J. (1975). The Spreen-Benton aphasia tests, normative data as a measure of normal language development. Brain and Language, 2(3), 257280.
Ghosh, D., & Vogt, A. (2012). Outliers: An evaluation of methodologies. In Joint statistical meetings (pp. 3455–3460). San Diego, CA: American Statistical Association.
Halperin, J. M., Healey, J. M., Zeitchik, E., Ludman, W. L., & Weinstein, L. (1989). Developmental aspects of linguistic and mnestic abilities in normal children. Journal of Clinical Experimental Neuropsychology, 11(4), 518528.
Henry, L. A., Messer, D. J., & Nash, G. (2015). Executive functioning and verbal fluency in children with language difficulties. Learning and Instruction, 39, 137147.
Henry, J., & Crawford, J. (2005). A meta-analytic review of verbal fluency deficits in schizophrenia relative to other neurocognitive deficits. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 10(1), 133.
Henry, J. D., & Crawford, J. R. (2004). A meta-analytic review of verbal fluency performance following focal cortical lesions. Neuropsychology, 18(2), 284.
Lee, N. R., Anand, P., Will, E., Adeyemi, E. I., Clasen, L. S., Blumenthal, J. D, Edgin, J. O. (2015). Everyday executive functions in Down syndrome from early childhood to young adulthood: Evidence for both unique and shared characteristics compared to youth with sex chromosome trisomy (XXX and XXY). Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 9, 264. doi:10.3389/fnbeh.2015.00264
Lee, N. R., Wallace, G. L., Adeyemi, E. I., Lopez, K. C., Blumenthal, J. D., Clasen, L. S., & Giedd, J. N. (2012). Dosage effects of X and Y chromosomes on language and social functioning in children with supernumerary sex chromosome aneuploidies: Implications for idiopathic language impairment and autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(10), 10721081.
Lee, N. R., Wallace, G. L., Clasen, L. S., Lenroot, R. K., Blumenthal, J. D., White, S. L., Giedd, J. N. (2011). Executive function in young males with Klinefelter (XXY) syndrome with and without comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17(3), 522530.
Leggett, V., Jacobs, P., Nation, K., Scerif, G., & Bishop, D. V. (2010). Neurocognitive outcomes of individuals with a sex chromosome trisomy: XXX, XYY, or XXY: A systematic review. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 52(2), 119129.
Luo, L., Luk, G., & Bialystok, E. (2010). Effect of language proficiency and executive control on verbal fluency performance in bilinguals. Cognition, 114(1), 2941.
Moura, O., Simões, M. R., & Pereira, M. (2015). Executive functioning in children with developmental dyslexia. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 28(1), 2041.
Nathan, A. M., & Abernathy, T. V. (2012). The impact of verbal skills on writing: A comparison of fifth-grade students with learning disabilities and students with typical development. The Researcher, 24(2), 96112.
Nielsen, J., & Wohlert, M. (1991). Sex chromosome abnormalities found among 34,910 newborn children: Results from a 13-year incidence study in Arhus, Denmark. Birth Defects Original Article Series, 26(4), 209223.
Polani, P. E. (1977). Abnormal sex chromosomes, behavior and mental disorder. In J. Tanner (Ed.), Developments in psychiatric research (pp. 89128). London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Raitano, N. A., Pennington, B. F., Tunick, R. A., Boada, R., & Shriberg, L. D. (2004). Pre‐literacy skills of subgroups of children with speech sound disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(4), 821835.
Raznahan, A., Lee, N. R., Greenstein, D., Wallace, G. L., Blumenthal, J. D., Clasen, L. S., & Giedd, J. N. (2014). Globally divergent but locally Convergent X- and Y-Chromosome Influences on cortical development. Cerebral Cortex, 26(1), 7079. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhu174
Raznahan, A., Lue, Y., Probst, F., Greenstein, D., Giedd, J., Wang, C., Swerdloff, R. (2015). Triangulating the sexually dimorphic brain through high-resolution neuroimaging of murine sex chromosome aneuploidies. Brain Structure and Function, 220(6), 35813593. doi:10.1007/s00429-014-0875-9
Ross, J. L., Zeger, M. P., Kushner, H., Zinn, A. R., & Roeltgen, D. P. (2009). An extra X or Y chromosome: Contrasting the cognitive and motor phenotypes in childhood in boys with 47, XYY syndrome or 47, XXY Klinefelter syndrome. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 15(4), 309317.
Rovet, J., Netley, C., Bailey, J., Keenan, M., & Stewart, D. (1995). Intelligence and achievement in children with extra X aneuploidy: A longitudinal perspective. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 60(5), 356363.
Ruff, R. M., Light, R. H., Parker, S. B., & Levin, H. S. (1997). The psychological construct of word fluency. Brain and Language, 57(3), 394405.
Shao, Z., Janse, E., Visser, K., & Meyer, A. S. (2014). What do verbal fluency tasks measure? Predictors of verbal fluency performance in older adults. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 772. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00772
Simpson, N. H., Addis, L., Brandler, W. M., Slonims, V., Clark, A., Watson, J. Fairfax, B. P. (2014). Increased prevalence of sex chromosome aneuploidies in specific language impairment and dyslexia. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 56(4), 346353.
Smith‐Spark, J. H., Henry, L. A., Messer, D. J., & Zięcik, A. P. (2017). Verbal and non‐verbal fluency in adults with developmental dyslexia: Phonological processing or executive control problems?. Dyslexia, 23(3), 234250.
Snowling, M. J., & Hulme, C. (2012). Annual research review: The nature and classification of reading disorders–a commentary on proposals for DSM‐5. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(5), 593607.
Strauss, E., Sherman, E. M., & Spreen, O. (2006). A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary. New York: American Chemical Society.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). New York: Allyn and Bacon.
Tartaglia, N. R., Wilson, R., Miller, J. S., Rafalko, J., Cordeiro, L., Davis, S., Ross, J. (2017). Autism spectrum disorder in males with sex chromosome aneuploidy: XXY/Klinefelter Syndrome, XYY, and XXYY. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 38(3), 197207. doi:10.1097/DBP.0000000000000429
Tartaglia, N. R., Ayari, N., Hutaff-Lee, C., & Boada, R. (2012). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with sex chromosome aneuploidy: XXY, XXX, XYY, and XXYY. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 33(4), 309318.
Tombaugh, T. N., Kozak, J., & Rees, L. (1999). Normative data stratified by age and education for two measures of verbal fluency: FAS and animal naming. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 14(2), 167177.
Unsworth, N., Spillers, G. J., & Brewer, G. A. (2010). Variation in verbal fluency: A latent variable analysis of clustering, switching, and overall performance. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64(3), 447–466.
van Rijn, S., Barneveld, P., Descheemaeker, M. J., Giltay, J., & Swaab, H. (2018). The effect of early life stress on the cognitive phenotype of children with an extra X chromosome (47,XXY/47,XXX). Child Neuropsychology, 24(2), 277286. doi:10.1080/09297049.2016.1252320
van Rijn, S., & Swaab, H. (2015). Executive dysfunction and the relation with behavioral problems in children with 47, XXY and 47, XXX. Genes, Brain, and Behavior, 14(2), 200208.
Wechsler, D. (1999). Manual for the Wechsler abbreviated intelligence scale. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D. (2002). The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of IntelligenceThird Edition. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Whiteside, D. M., Kealey, T., Semla, M., Luu, H., Rice, L., Basso, M. R., &Roper, B. (2016). Verbal fluency: Language or executive function measure? Applied Neuropsychology: Adult, 23(1), 2934. doi:10.1080/23279095.2015.1004574
Wikström, A. M., & Dunkel, L. (2011). Klinefelter syndrome. Best Practice and Research in Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 25(2), 239250. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2010.09.006

Keywords

Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency in Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy: Contrasting the Effects of Supernumerary X versus Y Chromosomes on Performance

  • Manisha Udhnani (a1), Moshe Maiman (a1), Jonathan D. Blumenthal (a2), Liv S. Clasen (a2), Gregory L. Wallace (a3), Jay N. Giedd (a4), Armin Raznahan (a2) and Nancy Raitano Lee (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed