Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Face and Object Perception in Body Dysmorphic Disorder versus Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: The Mooney Faces Task

  • Wei Lin Toh (a1) (a2) (a3), David J. Castle (a1) (a4) and Susan L. Rossell (a1) (a2) (a3) (a4)

Abstract

Objectives: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by repetitive behaviors and/or mental acts occurring in response to preoccupations with perceived defects or flaws in physical appearance. There are some similarities, but also important differences, between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), not just in terms of core clinical symptoms, but possibly in the domain of perception. This study compared the nature and extent of perceptual anomalies in BDD versus OCD and health controls (HC), using a modified Mooney task. Methods: We included 21 BDD, 19 OCD, and 21 HC participants, who were age-, sex-, and IQ-matched. A set of 40 Mooney faces and 40 Mooney objects arranged in three configurations (i.e., upright, inverted, or scrambled) were presented under brief (i.e., 500 ms) free-viewing conditions. Participants were asked to decide whether each image represented a human face, an object, or neither in a forced-choice paradigm. Results: The BDD group showed significantly reduced face and object inversion effects relative to the other two groups. This was accounted for by BDD participants being significantly more accurate in identifying inverted Mooney faces and objects than the other participants. Conclusions: These data were interpreted as reflecting an overreliance on independent components at the expense of holistic (configural) processing in BDD. (JINS, 2017, 23, 471–480)

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to: Wei Lin Toh, Centre for Mental Health, Swinburne University, John St, Hawthorn VIC 3122, Australia. E-mail: wtoh@swin.edu.au

References

Hide All
Aigner, M., Sachs, G., Bruckmuller, E., Winklbaur, B., Zitterl, W., Kryspin-Exner, I., & Katschnig, H. (2007). Cognitive and emotion recognition deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 149, 121128.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Beilharz, F. L., Atkins, K. J., Duncum, A. J. F., & Mundy, M. E. (2016). Altering visual perception abnormalities: A marker for body image concern. PLoS One, 11(3), e0151933. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151933
Boldrini, M., Del Pace, L., Placidi, G. P. A., Keilp, J., Ellis, S. P., Signori, S., & Cappa, S. F. (2005). Selective cognitive deficits in obsessive-compulsive disorder compared to panic disorder with agoraphobia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 111, 150158.
Bombari, D., Mast, F. W., & Lobmaier, J. S. (2009). Featural, configural, and holistic face-processing strategies evoke different scan patterns. Perception, 38, 15081521.
Bozikas, V. P., Kosmidis, M. H., Giannakou, M., Saitis, M., Fokas, K., & Garyfallos, G. (2009). Emotion perception in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15, 148153.
Bruce, V., Green, P. R., & Georgeson, M. A. (2003). Visual perception: Physiology, psychology, and ecology. New York: Psychology Press.
Buchanan, R. W., Holstein, C., & Breier, A. (1994). The comparative efficacy and long-term effect of clozapine treatment on neuropsychological test performance. Biological Psychiatry, 36(11), 717725.
Carleton, R. N., McCreary, D. R., Norton, P. J., & Asmundson, G. J. G. (2006). Brief fear of negative evaluation scale–revised. Depression and Anxiety, 23, 297303.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences ((2nd ed.), Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Deckersbach, T., Otto, M. W., Savage, C. R., Baer, L., & Jenike, M. A. (2000). The relationship between semantic organisation and memory in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 69, 101107.
Deckersbach, T., Savage, C. R., Dougherty, D. D., Bohne, A., Loh, R., Nierenberg, A., & Rauch, S. L. (2005). Spontaneous and directed application of verbal learning strategies in bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 7, 166175.
Deckersbach, T., Savage, C. R., Reilly-Harrington, N., Clark, L., Sachs, G., & Rauch, S. L. (2004). Episodic memory impairment in bipolar disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: The role of memory strategies. Biopolar Disorders, 6, 233244.
Diamond, R., & Carey, S. (1977). Developmental changes in representation of faces. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 23, 122.
Duncum, A. J. F., Atkins, K. J., Beilharz, F. L., & Mundy, M. E. (2016). Abnormalities in the visual processing of viewing complex visual stimuli amongst individuals with body image concern. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 12(1), 3949. doi: 10.5709/acp-0185-0
Eisen, J. L., Phillips, K. A., Baer, L., Beer, D. A., Atala, K. D., & Rasmussen, S. A. (1998). The Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale: Reliability and validity. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155(1), 102108.
Farah, M. J., Wilson, K. D., Drain, M., & Tanaka, J. N. (1998). What is ‘special’ about face perception? Psychological Review, 105, 482498.
Feusner, J. D., Hembacher, E., Moller, H., & Moody, T. D. (2011). Abnormalities of object visual processing in body dysmorphic disorder. Psychological Medicine, 41(11), 23852397. doi: 10.1017/S0033291711000572
Feusner, J. D., Moller, H., Altstein, L., Sugar, C., Bookheimer, S., Yoon, J., & Hembacher, E. (2010). Inverted face processing in body dysmorphic disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 44, 10881094.
Feusner, J. D., Moody, T., Hembacher, E., Townsend, J., McKinley, M., Moller, H., & Bookheimer, S. (2010). Abnormalities of visual processing and frontostriatal systems in body dysmorphic disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 197205.
Feusner, J. D., Townsend, J., Bystritsky, A., & Bookheimer, S. (2007). Visual information processing of faces in body dysmorphic disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 14171426.
Field, A. P. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed.). London: Sage Publications.
Freire, A., Lee, K., & Symons, L. A. (2000). The face inversion effect as a deficit in the encoding of configural information: Direct evidence. Perception, 29, 159170.
George, N., Jemel, B., Fiori, N., Chaby, L., & Renault, B. (2005). Electrophysiological correlates of facial decision: Insights from upright and upside-down Mooney-face perception. Cognitive Brain Research, 24(3), 663673. doi: 10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2005.03.017
Goodman, W. K., Price, L. H., Rasmussen, S. A., Mazure, C., Fleischmann, R. L., Hill, C. L., & Charney, D. S. (1989). The Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale: Development, use, and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 10061011.
Homa, D., Haver, B., & Schwartz, T. (1976). Perceptibility of schematic face stimuli: Evidence for a perceptual Gestalt. Memory and Cognition, 4, 176185.
Hsiao, J. H. W., & Cottrell, G. (2008). Two fixations suffice in face recognition. Psychological Science, 19, 9981006.
Jefferies, K., Laws, K. R., & Fineberg, N. A. (2012). Superior face recognition in body dysmorphic disorder. Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, 1(3), 175179. doi: 10.1016/j.jocrd.2012.03.002
Kerwin, L., Hovav, S., Hellemann, G., & Feusner, J. D. (2014). Impairment in local and global processing and set-shifting in body dysmorphic disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 57, 4150. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.06.003
Latinus, M., & Taylor, M. J. (2005). Holistic processing of faces: Learning effects with Mooney faces. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17(8), 13161327. doi: 10.1162/0898929055002490
Leder, H., & Carbon, C. C. (2006). Face-specific configural processing of relational information. British Journal of Psychology, 97, 1929.
Li, W., Lai, T. M., Bohon, C., Loo, S. K., McCurdy, D., Strober, M., & Feusner, J. (2015). Anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder are associated with abnormalities in processing visual information. Psychological Medicine, 45(10), 21112122. doi: 10.1017/S0033291715000045
Mattick, R. P., & Clarke, J. C. (1998). Development and validation of measures of social phobia scrutiny fear and social interaction anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 455470.
Maurer, D., le Grand, R., & Mondloch, C. J. (2002). The many faces of configural processing. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6, 255260.
McKone, E. (2004). Isolating the special component of face recognition: Peripheral identification and a Mooney face. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 30(1), 181197. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.30.1.181
Miller, G. A., & Chapman, J. P. (2001). Misunderstanding analysis of covariance. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 4048.
Monzani, B., Krebs, G., Anson, M., Veale, D., & Mataix-Cols, D. (2013). Holistic versus detailed visual processing in body dysmorphic disorder: Testing the inversion, composite and global precedence effects. Psychiatry Research, 210(3), 994999. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.08.009
Mooney, C. M. (1957). Age in the development of closure ability in children. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 11, 219226.
Mooney, C. M., & Ferguson, G. A. (1951). A new closure test. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 5, 129133.
Moritz, S., Kloss, M., Jacobsen, D., Kellner, M., Andresen, B., Fricke, S., & Hand, I. (2005). Extent, profile and specificity of visuospatial impairment in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 27, 795814.
Moritz, S., & Wendt, M. (2006). Processing of local and global visual features in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of International Neuropsychological Society, 12, 566569.
Moritz, S., Wendt, M., Jelinek, L., Ruhe, C., & Arzola, G. M. (2008). No disadvantage for the processing of global visual features in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 14, 489493.
Mundy, E. M., & Sadusky, A. (2014). Abnormalities in visual processing amongst students with body image concerns. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 10(2), 3948. doi: 10.5709/acp-0155-4
Penades, R., Catalan, R., Andres, S., Salamero, M., & Gasto, C. (2005). Executive function and nonverbal memory in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 133, 8190.
Phillips, K. A. (2005). The broken mirror: Understanding and treating body dysmorphic disorder. New York: Oxford University Press.
Phillips, K. A., Hollander, E., Rasmussen, S. A., Aronowitz, B. R., DeCaria, C., & Goodman, W. K. (1997). A severity rating scale for body dysmorphic disorder: Development, reliability, and validity of a modified version of the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 33, 1722.
Rankins, D., Bradshaw, J. L., & Georgiou-Karistianis, N. (2005). Local-global processing in obsessive-compulsive disorder and comorbid Tourette’s syndrome. Brain and Cognition, 59, 4351.
Rhodes, G. (1988). Looking at faces: First-order and second-order features as determinants of facial appearance. Perception, 17, 4363.
Savage, C. R., Deckersbach, T., Wilhelm, S., Rauch, S. L., Baer, L., Reid, T., & Jenike, M. A. (2000). Strategic processing and episodic memory impairment in obsessive compulsive disorder. Neuropsychology, 14, 141151.
Schwartzman, D., Maravic, K., Kranczioch, C., & Barnes, J. (2008). Altered early visual processing components in hallucination-prone individuals. Neuroreport, 19(9), 933937.
Sheehan, D. V., Lecrubier, Y., Sheehan, K. H., Amorim, P., Janavs, J., Weiller, E., & Dunbar, G. C. (1998). The Mini international neuropsychiatric interview (MINI): The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59, 2233.
Shin, M. S., Park, S. J., Kim, M. S., Lee, Y. H., Ha, T. H., & Kwon, J. S. (2004). Deficits of organisational strategy obsessive-compulsive and visual memory in disorder. Neuropsychology, 18, 665672.
Shin, N. Y., Jang, J. H., Kim, H. S., Shim, G., Hwang, J. Y., Kim, S. N., & Kwon, J. S. (2013). Impaired body but not face perception in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Neuropsychology, 7(1), 5871. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-6653.2012.02035.x
Tavares, P. P., Mouga, S. S., Oliveira, G. G., & Castelo-Branco, M. (2016). Preserved face inversion effects in adults with autism spectrum disorder: An event-related potential study. Neuroreport, 27(8), 587592. doi: 10.1097/Wnr.0000000000000576
Toh, W. L., Castle, D. J., & Rossell, S. L. (2015). Facial affect recognition in body dysmorphic disorder versus obsessive-compulsive disorder: An eye-tracking study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 35, 4959. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2015.08.003
Toh, W. L., Castle, D. J., & Rossell, S. L. (2017). Characterisation of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) versus obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): In light of current DSM-5 nosology. Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, 12, 117126.
Valentine, T. (1988). Upside down face: A review of the effect of inversion upon face recognition. British Journal of Psychology, 79, 471491.
Wechsler, D. (2001). Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
World Medical Association. (2008). Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Retrieved 1 June, 2010, from http://www.wma.net.
Yin, R. K. (1969). Looking at upside down faces. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 141145.
Zung, W. (1965). A self-rating depression scale. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12, 6370.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Face and Object Perception in Body Dysmorphic Disorder versus Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: The Mooney Faces Task

  • Wei Lin Toh (a1) (a2) (a3), David J. Castle (a1) (a4) and Susan L. Rossell (a1) (a2) (a3) (a4)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.