Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Decision Making after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Temporal Discounting Paradigm

  • Rodger Ll. Wood (a1) and Louise McHugh (a2)

Abstract

A temporal discounting paradigm was used to examine decision making for hypothetical monetary reward following traumatic brain injury (TBI). A case-control design compared individuals following moderate or severe TBI with a healthy control group matched for age and gender. The impact of intelligence, impulsivity, and mood on temporal discounting performance was examined. A within-subjects design for the TBI group determined the influence of a range of neuropsychological tests on temporal discounting performance. Both patients and controls demonstrated temporal discounting. However, the TBI group discounted more than controls, suggesting that their decision making was more impulsive, consistent with ratings on the impulsiveness questionnaire. Discounting performance was independent of neuropsychological measures of intelligence, memory, and executive function. There was no relationship between temporal discounting and ratings of everyday executive function made by patients' relatives. Low mood did not account for discounting performance. The results of this study suggest that temporal discounting may be a useful neuropsychological paradigm to assess decision making linked to monetary reward following TBI. Performance was relatively independent of intelligence, memory and standard tests of executive ability and may therefore assist when assessing a patient's mental capacity to manage their financial affairs. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–8)

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to: Rodger Ll. Wood, Brain Injury Research Group, Department of Psychology, College of Human and Health Sciences, Swansea University, Swansea, Wales, SA2 8PP. E-mail: r.l.wood@swansea.ac.uk

References

Hide All
Ainslie, G. (2001). Breakdown of will. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Barratt, E.S. (1994). Impulsiveness and aggression. In J. Monahan & H.J. Steadman (Eds.), Violence and mental disorder: Developments in risk assessment (pp. 6179). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Beck, A.T., Brown, G., Steer, R.A. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory II Manuel. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Damasio, A.R. (2003). Role of the amygdala in decision-making. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 985, 356369.
Bechara, A., Damasio, A.R., Damasio, H., Anderson, S.W. (1994). Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to prefrontal cortex. Cognition, 50, 715.
Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Damasio, A.R., Lee, G.P. (1999). Different contributions of the human amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex to decision-making. Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 54735481.
Bechara, A., Tranel, D., Damasio, H. (2000). Characterisation of the decision making deficit of patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions. Brain, 123(11), 21892202.
Buelow, M.T., Suhr, J.A. (2009). Construct validity of the Iowa Gambling Task. Neuropsychological Review, 19(1), 102114.
Burgess, P.W., Shallice, T. (1997). The Hayling and Brixton Tests. Bury St. Edmunds, UK: Thames Valley Test Company.
Carpenter, P., Just, M.A., Reichle, E. (2000). Working memory and executive function: Evidence from neuroimaging. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 10, 195199.
Christ, S.E., White, D.A., Brunstrom, J.E., Abrams, R.A. (2003). Inhibitory control following perinatal brain injury. Neuropsychology, 17, 171178.
Cicerone, K.D., Tanenbaum, L.N. (1997). Disturbance of social cognition after traumatic orbitofrontal injury. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 12, 175188.
Crean, J.P., de Wit, H., Richards, J.B. (2000). Reward discounting as a measure of impulsive behavior in a psychiatric outpatient population. Experimental & Clinical Psychopharmacology, 8, 155162.
Critchfield, T.S., Kollins, S.H. (2001). Temporal discounting: Basic research and the analysis of socially important behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 101122.
Drevets, W.C., Raichie, M.E. (1998). Reciprocal suppression of regional blood flow during emotional verses higher cognitive processes: implications for interaction between cognition and emotion. Cognition & Emotion, 12(3), 353385.
Duncan, J., Burgess, P., Emslie, H. (1995). Fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions, 33(3), 261268.
Green, L., Myerson, J. (1993). Alternative frameworks for the analysis of self control. Behavior and Philosophy, 21(2), 3747.
Greve, K., Sherwin, E., Stanford, M., Mathias, C., Love, J., Ramzinski, P. (2001). Personality and neurocognitive correlates of impulsive aggression in long-term survivors of severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 15, 255262.
Klapproth, F. (2011). Stable and variable characteristics of the time perspective in humans. KronoScope, 11(1-2), 4159.
Johnson, M.W., Bickel, W.K. (2002). Within-subject comparisons of real and hypothetical monetary rewards in delayed discounting. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 77, 129146.
Marsh, D.M., Dougherty, D.M., Mathias, C.W., Moeller, F.G., Hicks, L.R. (2002). Comparisons of women with high and low trait impulsivity using behavioral models of response-disinhibition and reward-choice. Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 12911310.
McAllister, T.W. (2007). Neuropsychiatric aspects of TBI. In N.D. Zazler, D.I. Katz, & R.D. Zafonte, (Eds). Brain injury medicine (pp. 835865). New York: Demos Medical Publishing.
McHugh, L., Wood, R.Ll. (2008). Using a temporal discounting paradigm to measure decision making and impulsivity following traumatic brain injury: A pilot study. Brain Injury, 22(9), 715721.
McMillan, T.M., Jongen, E.L., Greenwood, R.J. (1996). Assessment of post-traumatic amnesia after severe closed head injury: Retrospective or prospective? Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 60, 422427.
Miller, L.A. (1992). Impulsivity, risk taking and the ability to synthesize fragmented information after frontal lobectomy. Neuropsychologia, 30, 6979.
Myerson, J., Green, L. (1995). Discounting of delayed rewards: Models of individual choice. Journal of the Experimental Analysis Behavior, 64, 263276.
Oddy, M., Cattran, C., Wood, R.Ll. (2008). The development of a measure of motivational changes following acquired brain injury. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 30(5), 568575.
Patton, J.H., Stanford, M.S., Barratt, E.S. (1995). Factor structure of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51, 768774.
Pfister, H.R., Bohm, G. (2008). The multiplicity of emotions: A framework of emotional functions in decision making. Judgment and Decision Making, 3(1), 517.
Rachlin, H., Green, L. (1972). Commitment, choice, and self control. J Experimental Analysis of Behaviour, 17(1), 1522.
Reed, D., Martens, B. (2011). Temporal discounting predicts student responsiveness to exchange delays in a classroom token system. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44, 118.
Richards, J.B., Zhang, L., Mitchell, S.H., De Wit, H. (1999). Delay or probability discounting in a model of impulsive behavior: Effect of alcohol. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 71, 121143.
Shamosh, N.A., DeYoung, C.G., Green, A.E., Reis, D.L., Johnson, M.R., Conway, A.R.A., Gray, J.R. (2008). Individual differences in delay discounting: Relation to intelligence, working memory, and anterior prefrontal cortex. Psychological Science, 19(9), 904911.
Stanford, M.S., Mathias, C.W., Dougherty, D.M., Lake, S.L., Anderson, N.E., Patton, J.H. (2009). Fifty years of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale: An update and review. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 385395.
Teasdale, G., Jennett, B. (1974). Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. A practical scale. Lancet, 2, 8184.
The Psychological Corporation. (2001). Wechsler Test of Adult Reading. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.
Walsh, K.W. (1985). Understanding brain damage: A primer of neuropsychological evaluation. London: Churchill Livingstone.
Wechsler, D. (1997). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—3rd Edition (WAIS-3). San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.
Willner, P., Bailey, R., Parry, R., Dymond, S. (2010). Performance in temporal discounting tasks by people with intellectual disabilities reveals difficulties in decision-making and impulse control. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 115, 157171.
Wilson, B.A., Evans, J.J., Alderman, N., Burgess, P.W., Emslie, H. (1997). Behavioural assessment of the dysexecutive syndrome. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 5, 662676.
Yuen, K.S.L., Lee, T.M.C. (2003). Could mood affect risk taking decisions? Journal Affective Disorders, 75, 1118.
Zeelenberg, M., Nelissen, R.M.A., Breugelmans, S.M., Pieters, R. (2008). On emotion specificity in decision making: Why feeling is for doing. Judgment and Decision Making, 3, 1827.

Keywords

Decision Making after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Temporal Discounting Paradigm

  • Rodger Ll. Wood (a1) and Louise McHugh (a2)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed