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Beyond Measures of Central Tendency: Novel Methods to Examine Sex Differences in Neuropsychological Performance Following Sports-Related Concussion in Collegiate Athletes

  • Victoria C. Merritt (a1), Liora S. Greenberg (a2), Erin Guty (a2), Megan L. Bradson (a2), Amanda R. Rabinowitz (a3) and Peter A. Arnett (a2)...



The purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in neuropsychological functioning after sports-related concussion using several approaches to assess cognition: mean performance, number of impaired scores, and intraindividual variability (IIV).


In the study, 152 concussed college athletes were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests, on average, 10 days post-concussion (SD = 12.75; Mdn = 4 days; Range = 0–72 days). Mean performance was evaluated across 18 individual neuropsychological variables, and the total number of impaired test scores (>1.5 SD below the mean) was calculated for each athlete. Two measures of IIV were also computed: an intraindividual standard deviation (ISD) score and a maximum discrepancy (MD) score.


Analyses of covariance revealed that, compared with males, females had significantly more impaired scores and showed greater variability on both IIV indices (ISD and MD scores) after adjusting for time since injury and post-concussive symptoms. In contrast, no significant effects of sex were found when examining mean neuropsychological performance.


Although females and males demonstrated similar mean performance following concussion, females exhibited a greater level of cognitive impairment and larger inconsistencies in cognitive performance than males. These results suggest that evaluating cognitive indices beyond mean neuropsychological scores may provide valuable information when determining the extent of post-concussion cognitive dysfunction.


Corresponding author

*Correspondence and reprint requests to: Victoria C. Merritt, VA San Diego Healthcare System (151B), 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA 92161, USA. Phone: 858-558-8585 x2670, Fax: 858-642-6340. E-mail:


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Beyond Measures of Central Tendency: Novel Methods to Examine Sex Differences in Neuropsychological Performance Following Sports-Related Concussion in Collegiate Athletes

  • Victoria C. Merritt (a1), Liora S. Greenberg (a2), Erin Guty (a2), Megan L. Bradson (a2), Amanda R. Rabinowitz (a3) and Peter A. Arnett (a2)...


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