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Association between Lifetime Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning in Middle-Aged and Older Community Dwelling Adults: Results from the Brain in Motion Study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 November 2015


Stephanie J. Gill
Affiliation:
Department of Medical Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Christine M. Friedenreich
Affiliation:
Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Cancer Control Alberta, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Oncology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Tolulope T. Sajobi
Affiliation:
Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
R. Stewart Longman
Affiliation:
Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Rehabilitation Psychology, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Lauren L. Drogos
Affiliation:
Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Margie H. Davenport
Affiliation:
Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Amanda V. Tyndall
Affiliation:
Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Gail A. Eskes
Affiliation:
Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Departments of Psychiatry, and Psychology & Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
David B. Hogan
Affiliation:
Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Michael D. Hill
Affiliation:
Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Jillian S Parboosingh
Affiliation:
Department of Medical Genetics, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute for Child and Maternal Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Ben J. Wilson
Affiliation:
Department of Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Marc J. Poulin
Affiliation:
Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

To determine if total lifetime physical activity (PA) is associated with better cognitive functioning with aging and if cerebrovascular function mediates this association. A sample of 226 (52.2% female) community dwelling middle-aged and older adults (66.5±6.4 years) in the Brain in Motion Study, completed the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire and underwent neuropsychological and cerebrovascular blood flow testing. Multiple robust linear regressions were used to model the associations between lifetime PA and global cognition after adjusting for age, sex, North American Adult Reading Test results (i.e., an estimate of premorbid intellectual ability), maximal aerobic capacity, body mass index and interactions between age, sex, and lifetime PA. Mediation analysis assessed the effect of cerebrovascular measures on the association between lifetime PA and global cognition. Post hoc analyses assessed past year PA and current fitness levels relation to global cognition and cerebrovascular measures. Better global cognitive performance was associated with higher lifetime PA (p=.045), recreational PA (p=.021), and vigorous intensity PA (p=.004), PA between the ages of 0 and 20 years (p=.036), and between the ages of 21 and 35 years (p<.0001). Cerebrovascular measures did not mediate the association between PA and global cognition scores (p>.5), but partially mediated the relation between current fitness and global cognition. This study revealed significant associations between higher levels of PA (i.e., total lifetime, recreational, vigorous PA, and past year) and better cognitive function in later life. Current fitness levels relation to cognitive function may be partially mediated through current cerebrovascular function. (JINS, 2015, 21, 816–830)


Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The International Neuropsychological Society 2015 

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Association between Lifetime Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning in Middle-Aged and Older Community Dwelling Adults: Results from the Brain in Motion Study
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Association between Lifetime Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning in Middle-Aged and Older Community Dwelling Adults: Results from the Brain in Motion Study
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Association between Lifetime Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning in Middle-Aged and Older Community Dwelling Adults: Results from the Brain in Motion Study
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