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14 Performance of Novel Blood Based Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease is Dependent on Renal Functioning

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 December 2023

Corey J Bolton*
Affiliation:
Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
Omair A Khan
Affiliation:
Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
Dandan Liu
Affiliation:
Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
Timothy J Hohman
Affiliation:
Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
Katherine A Gifford
Affiliation:
Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
Kaj Blennow
Affiliation:
University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Molndal, Sweden.
Henrik Zetterberg
Affiliation:
University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Molndal, Sweden. University College London, London, United Kingdom. UK Dementia Research Institute, London, United Kingdom. Hong Kong Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Angela L Jefferson
Affiliation:
Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
*
Correspondence: Corey J Bolton, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, corey.bolton@vumc.org
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Abstract

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Objective:

Novel blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) could transform AD diagnosis in the community; however, their interpretation in individuals with medical comorbidities is not well understood. Specifically, kidney function has been shown to influence plasma levels of various brain proteins. This study sought to evaluate the effect of one common marker of kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)) on the association between various blood-based biomarkers of AD/neurodegeneration (glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neurofilament light (NfL), amyloid-b42 (Ab42), total tau) and established CSF biomarkers of AD (Ab42/40 ratio, tau, phosphorylated-tau (p-tau)), neuroimaging markers of AD (AD-signature region cortical thickness), and episodic memory performance.

Participants and Methods:

Vanderbilt Memory and Aging Project participants (n=329, 73±7 years, 40% mild cognitive impairment, 41% female) completed fasting venous blood draw, fasting lumbar puncture, 3T brain MRI, and neuropsychological assessment at study entry and at 18-month, 3-year, and 5-year follow-up visits. Plasma GFAP, Ab42, total tau, and NfL were quantified on the Quanterix single molecule array platform. CSF biomarkers for Ab were quantified using Meso Scale Discovery immunoassays and tau and p-tau were quantified using INNOTEST immunoassays. AD-signature region atrophy was calculated by summing bilateral cortical thickness measurements captured on T1-weighted brain MRI from regions shown to distinguish individuals with AD from normal cognition. Episodic memory functioning was measured using a previously developed composite score. Linear mixed-effects regression models related predictors to each outcome adjusting for age, sex, education, race/ethnicity, apolipoprotein E-e4 status, and cognitive status. Models were repeated with a blood-based biomarker x eGFR x time interaction term with follow-up models stratified by chronic kidney disease (CKD) staging (stage 1/no CKD: eGFR>90 mL/min/1.73m2, stage 2: eGFR=60-89 mL/min/1.73m2; stage 3: eGFR=44-59mL/min/1.73m2 (no participants with higher than stage 3)).

Results:

Cross-sectionally, GFAP was associated with all outcomes (p-values<0.005) and NfL was associated with memory and AD-signature region cortical thickness (p-values<0.05). In predictor x eGFR interaction models, GFAP and NfL interacted with eGFR on AD-signature cortical thickness, (p-values<0.004) and Ab42 interacted with eGFR on tau, p-tau, and memory (p-values<0.03). Tau did not interact with eGFR. Stratified models across predictors showed that associations were stronger in individuals with better renal functioning and no significant associations were found in individuals with stage 3 CKD. Longitudinally, higher GFAP and NfL were associated with memory decline (p-values<0.001). In predictor x eGFR x time interaction models, GFAP and NfL interacted with eGFR on p-tau (p-values<0.04). Other models were nonsignificant. Stratified models showed that associations were significant only in individuals with no CKD/stage 1 CKD and were not significant in participants with stage 2 or 3 CKD.

Conclusions:

In this community-based sample of older adults free of dementia, plasma biomarkers of AD/neurodegeneration were associated with AD-related clinical outcomes both cross-sectionally and longitudinally; however, these associations were modified by renal functioning with no associations in individuals with stage 3 CKD. These results highlight the value of blood-based biomarkers in individuals with healthy renal functioning and suggest caution in interpreting these biomarkers in individuals with mild to moderate CKD.

Type
Poster Session 03: Dementia | Amnesia | Memory | Language | Executive Functions
Copyright
Copyright © INS. Published by Cambridge University Press, 2023