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EMBEDDING CAPITAL: POLITICAL-ECONOMIC HISTORY, THE UNITED STATES, AND THE WORLD

  • Paul A. Kramer (a1)

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One of the chief promises of the emerging history of capitalism is its capacity to problematize and historicize relationships between economic inequality and capital's social, political, and ecological domain. At their best, the new works creatively integrate multiple historiographic approaches. Scholars are bringing the insights of social and cultural history to business history's traditional actors and topics, providing thick descriptions of the complex social worlds of firms, investors, and bankers, while resisting rationalist, functionalist, and economistic analyses. They are also proceeding from the assumption that capitalism is not reducible to the people that historians have typically designated as capitalists. As they've shown, the fact that slaves, women, sharecroppers, clerks, and industrial laborers were, to different degrees, denied power in the building of American capitalism did not mean that they were absent from its web, or that their actions did not decisively shape its particular contours.

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1 For assessments of the field, see Sklansky, Jeffrey, “The Elusive Sovereign: New Intellectual and Social Histories of Capitalism,” Modern Intellectual History 9:11 (2012): 233–48; Rockman, Seth, “What Makes the History of Capitalism Newsworthy?,” Journal of the Early Republic 34 (Fall 2014): 439–66; Louis Hyman, “Why Write the History of Capitalism?” Symposium Magazine (July 8, 2013); Sven Beckert, “History of American Capitalism” in American History Now, eds. Eric Foner and Lisa McGirr (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2011): 314–35; and Beckert, Sven et al. , “Interchange: The History of Capitalism,” Journal of American History 101:2 (2014): 503–36; Michael Zakim and Gary J. Kornblith, eds., Capitalism Takes Command: The Social Transformation of Nineteenth Century America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011).

2 Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time (Boston: Beacon Press, 2001 [1944]); Fred Block and Margaret R. Somers, The Power of Market Fundamentalism: Karl Polanyi's Critique (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014).

3 See, for example, Meg Jacobs, William J. Novak, and Julian E. Zelizer, eds., The Democratic Experiment: New Directions in American Political History (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003); Karen Orren and Stephen Skowronek, The Search for American Political Development (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004); William J. Novak, The People's Welfare: Law and Regulation in Nineteenth-Century America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996); Brian Balogh, A Government Out of Sight: The Mystery of National Authority in Nineteenth-Century America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009); Brian Balogh, The Associational State: American Governance in the Twentieth Century (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015); James T. Sparrow, William J. Novak, and Stephen W. Sawyer, eds., Boundaries of the State in U.S. History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015); Novak, William J., “The Myth of the ‘Weak’ American State,” American Historical Review 113:3 (June 2008): 752–72; and responses by John Fabian Witt, Gary Gerstle, and Julia Adams; Gary Gerstle, Liberty and Coercion: The Paradox of American Government from the Founding to the Present (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016).

4 For an exemplary account of the contingent and contested politics of capital in the late 19th century United States, see Noam Maggor, “To ‘Coddle and Caress These Great Capitalists': Eastern Money and the Politics of Market Integration in the American West,” forthcoming, American Historical Review.

5 Among the key works in this literature are Walter Johnson, River of Dark Dreams: Slavery and Empire in the Cotton Kingdom (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2013); Walter Johnson, Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999); Sven Beckert, Empire of Cotton: A Global History (New York: Knopf, 2014); Edward E. Baptist, The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism (New York: Basic Books, 2014); Stephanie Smallwood, Saltwater Slavery: A Middle Passage from Africa to American Diaspora (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007); Seth Rockman, Scraping By: Wage Labor, Slavery, and Survival in Early Baltimore (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009). For an earlier comparative work that discusses certain slave-based planter societies as “bourgeois,” see Eugene Genovese, The World the Slaveholders Made: Two Essays in Interpretation (New York: Pantheon Books, 1969). On the capitalism/slavery debate, see Clegg, John J., “Capitalism and Slavery,” Critical Historical Studies 2:2 (Fall 2015): 281304 ; Johnson, Walter, “The Pedestal and the Veil: Rethinking the Capitalism/Slavery Question,” Journal of the Early Republic 24 (Summer 2004): 299308 ; Smallwood, Stephanie, “Commodified Freedom: Interrogating the Limits of Anti-Slavery Ideology in the Early Republic,” Journal of the Early Republic 24:2 (Summer 2004): 289–98; Seth Rockman, “The Unfree Origins of American Capitalism” in The Economy of Early America: Historical Perspectives & New Directions, ed. Cathy Matson (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2006), 335–61. Foundational works that explore slavery's relationship to capitalism include W. E. B. DuBois, Black Reconstruction (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1935); C. L. R. James, The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution (New York: Vintage Books, 1963 [1938]); Eric Williams, Capitalism and Slavery (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1944).

6 Hyman, “Why Write the History of Capitalism?”

7 For an illuminating account of the emergence of the term “capitalism,” see Merrill, Michael, “How Capitalism Got Its Name,” Dissent 61:4 (Fall 2014): 8792 .

8 Things were not helped by overly enthusiastic press coverage: Jennifer Schuessler, “In History Departments, It's Up with Capitalism,” New York Times, Apr. 6, 2013.

9 Daniel Rodgers, Age of Fracture (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011).

10 For a useful introduction, see Chris Hann and Keith Hart, Economic Anthropology: History, Ethnography, Critique (Cambridge: Polity, 2011).

11 For works along these lines, see, for example, Thomas G. Andrews, Killing for Coal: America's Deadliest Labor War (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010); Thomas Robertson, The Malthusian Moment: Global Population Growth and the Birth of American Environmentalism (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, May 2012); Christopher F. Jones, Routes to Power: Energy and Modern America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014); Ashley Carse, Beyond the Big Ditch: Politics, Ecology, and Infrastructure at the Panama Canal (Boston: MIT Press, 2014); Paul Sabin, Crude Politics: The California Oil Market, 1900–1940 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004); William Cronon, Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West (New York: W. W. Norton, 1992). On the state of the field of environmental history, see Sutter, Paul S., “The World With Us: The State of American Environmental History,” Journal of American History 100:1 (2013): 94119 ; For an ambitious integration of ecological and political-economic approaches to capitalism, see Jason W. Moore, Capitalism in the Web of Life: Ecology and the Accumulation of Capital (New York: Verso, 2015).

12 Emily Rosenberg, Spreading the American Dream: American Economic and Cultural Expansion, 1890–1945 (New York: Hill and Wang, 1982).

13 Peter A. Hall and David Soskice, eds., Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Comparative Advantage (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001). As in the larger debates about the status of the nation-state in historical writing, transnational history does not, in and of itself, presume that states did not “matter” (a common error, particularly among the opponents of the approach), but rather that they should not be the a priori subject and horizon of historical inquiry.

14 Michael Geyer, “Portals of Globalization” in The Plurality of Europe: Identities and Spaces, eds. Winfried Eberhard, Christian Lübke, and Madlem Benthin (Leipzig: Leipziger Universitätsverlag, 2010), 509–20.

15 See, for example, Brenner, Neil, “Beyond State-Centrism? Space, Territoriality, and Geographical Scale in Globalization Studies,” Theory and Society 28:1 (Feb. 1999): 3978 ; Brenner, Neil, “The Limits of Scale? Methodological Reflections on Scalar Structuration,” Progress in Human Geography 25:4 (2001): 591614 ; Andrew Herod, Scale (New York: Routledge, 2010).

16 Bradley Simpson, “Explaining Political Economy” in Explaining the History of American Foreign Relations, 3rd ed., eds. Michael Hogan and Frank Costigliola (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), 58–73.

17 Kramer, Paul A., “Power and Connection: Imperial Histories of the United States in the World,” American Historical Review 116:5 (Dec. 2011): 144 .

18 Daniel T. Rodgers, “Exceptionalism” in Imagined Histories: American Historians Interpret the Past, eds. Anthony Molho and Gordon S. Wood (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998), 21–40.

19 For the classic expression of “informal imperialism,” see Robinson, Ronald and Gallagher, John in “The Imperialism of Free Trade,” Economic History Review, 2nd ser., VI:1 (1953): 115 .

20 On the ideological fusion of U.S. national and global interest more broadly, see John Foucek, To Lead the Free World: American Nationalism and the Cultural Roots of the Cold War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003). Importantly, the American presumption of access to world markets was accompanied by the right to protect the U.S. market from foreign goods. Marc-William Palen, The “Conspiracy” of Free Trade: The Anglo-American Struggle over Empire and Economic Globalization, 1846–1896 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016); The Imperialism of Economic Nationalism, 1890–1913,” Diplomatic History 39:1 (2015): 157–85; Speck, Mary, “Closed-Door Imperialism: The Politics of Cuban-U.S. Trade, 1902–1933,” Hispanic American Historical Review 85:3 (Aug. 2005): 449–84.

21 One way to avoid the generalizing, typological sense of “informal empire” involves explaining particular kinds of US state intervention in terms of specific overseas economic interests: see Frieden, Jeffrey, “The Economics of Intervention: American Overseas Investments and Relations with Underdeveloped Areas, 1890–1950,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 31:11 (1989): 5580 .

22 On status of forces agreements, for example, see Chalmers Johnson, The Sorrows of Empire: Militarism, Secrecy, and the End of the Republic (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2004).

23 Williams, The Tragedy of American Diplomacy, ch. 1.

24 On transnational police training, a core dimension of this maximalist approach, see Jeremy Kuzmarov, Modernizing Repression: Police Training and Nation-Building in the American Century (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2012); Stuart Schrader, American Streets, Foreign Territory: How Counterinsurgent Police Waged War on Crime (work in progress).

25 For a discussion of various permutations of nation and empire, including nationalizing empires, empire-building nations, empires of nationalities, nation-building colonialisms, and international empires, see Kramer, “Power and Connection,” 1366–73.

26 On high-modernist social engineering and legibility, see James C. Scott, Seeking Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998).

27 My description of the maximalism of commodifying empire has a kinship with Victoria De Grazia's account of the United States' “market empire” in twentieth-century Europe: Irresistible Empire: America's Advance through Twentieth-Century Europe (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005).

28 Friedman, Max Paul, “Anti-Americanism and U.S. Foreign Relations,” Diplomatic History 32:4 (2008): 497514 .

29 On William A. Williams's encounters with the House Un-American Activities Committee, see Buhle and Rice-Maximin, William Appleman Williams.

30 For a discussion of this earlier generation of anti-imperialist publication, see Emily Rosenberg, “Economic Interest and United States Foreign Policy” in American Foreign Relations Reconsidered, 1890–1993, ed. Gordon Martel (London, New York: Routledge, 1994), 37–51. For the Christian ecumenical dimensions of interwar radical anti-imperialism, see Michael G. Thompson, For God and Globe: Christian Internationalism in the United States between the Great War and the Cold War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2015). For Beard's perspective, see Charles A. Beard, The Idea of National Interest: An Analytical Study in American Foreign Policy (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1934); Clyde W. Barrow, More than a Historian: The Political and Economic Thought of Charles A. Beard (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2000), esp. ch. 6.

31 Among the central works in the Wisconsin School are William Appleman Williams, The Tragedy of American Diplomacy (Cleveland: World Pub. Co, 1959); Walter LaFeber, The New Empire: An Interpretation of American Expansion, 1860–1898 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1963); Lloyd Gardner, Economic Aspects of New Deal Diplomacy (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1964); Thomas J. McCormick, China Market: America's Quest for Informal Empire, 1893–1901 (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1967); Marilyn Blatt Young, The Rhetoric of Empire: American China Policy, 1895–1901 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968); William Appleman Williams, Empire as a Way of Life: An Essay on the Causes and Character of America's Present Predicament along with a Few Words about an Alternative (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980). For an anthology dedicated to the work of the Wisconsin School, see Lloyd Gardner, ed., Redefining the Past: Essays in Diplomatic History in Honor of William Appleman Williams (Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 1986). On William A. Williams, founder of the Wisconsin School, see Paul Buhle and Edward Rice-Maximin, William Appleman Williams: The Tragedy of Empire (New York: Routledge, 1995). On Williams's scholarship and its legacy, see Perkins, Bradford, “The Tragedy of American Diplomacy: Twenty-Five Years After,” Reviews in American History 12:1 (1984): 118 . For assessments of his scholarship and politics, see Thompson, J. A., “William Appleman Williams and the American Empire,” Journal of American Studies 7:11 (1973): 91104 ; Melanson, Richard A., “The Social and Political Thought of William Appleman Williams,” Western Political Quarterly 31:3 (1978): 392409 ; William Appleman Williams: A Roundtable,” Diplomatic History 25:2 (2001): 275316 . For a collection of Williams's writings, see Henry W. Berger, ed., A William Appleman Williams Reader: Selections from His Major Historical Writings (Chicago: I. R. Dee, 1992). For an overview that distinguishes the Wisconsin School from New Left thought, see James G. Morgan, Into New Territory: American Historians and the Concept of US Imperialism (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2014).

32 On Williams from a regional perspective, see David S. Brown, Beyond the Frontier: The Midwestern Voice in American Historical Writing (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009), ch. 6.

33 Louis A. Pérez, Jr., “Dependency” in Explaining the History of American Foreign Relations, 2nd ed., eds. Michael J. Hogan and Thomas G. Paterson (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 99–111; Thomas. J. McCormick, “World Systems” in Explaining, 89–98, eds. Hogan and Paterson; Thomas J. McCormick, “‘Every System Needs a Center Sometimes’: An Essay on Hegemony and American Foreign Policy, in Redefining the Past, 195–220; Thomas J. McCormick, America's Half-Century: United States Foreign Policy in the Cold War and After, 2nd edition (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995).”

34 On “modernization” undertaken by authoritarian means, see Bradley R. Simpson, Economists with Guns: Authoritarian Development and U.S.-Indonesian Relations, 1960–1968 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008); Thomas C. Field Jr., From Development to Dictatorship: Bolivia and the Alliance for Progress in the Kennedy Era (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2014).

35 Arjun Appadurai, The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986); Gary Gereffi and Miguel Korzeniewicz, eds.,Commodity Chains and Global Capitalism (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994).

36 Burnett, Christina Duffy, “The Edges of Empire and the Limits of Sovereignty: American Guano Islands,” American Quarterly 57:3 (Sept. 2005): 779803 ; Teresita A. Levy, Puerto Ricans in the Empire: Tobacco Growers and U.S. Colonialism (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2014); April Merleaux, Sugar and Civilization: American Empire and the Cultural Politics of Sweetness (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2015); César J. Ayala, American Sugar Kingdom: The Plantation Economy of the Spanish Caribbean, 1898–1934 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999); Steve Striffler and Mark Moberg, eds., Banana Wars: Power, Production, and History in the Americas (Durham: Duke University Press, 2003); Mitman, Gregg and Erickson, Paul, “Latex and Blood: Science, Markets, and American Empire,” Radical History Review 107 (Spring 2010): 4573 ; Rosenberg, Emily S., “The Invisible Protectorate: The United States, Liberia, and the Evolution of Neocolonialism, 1909–1940,” Diplomatic History 9:3 (July 1985): 191214 ; John Soluri, Banana Cultures: Agriculture, Consumption, and Environmental Change in Honduras and the United States (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2006); Heidi Tinsman, Buying into the Regime: Grapes and Consumption in Cold War Chile and the United States (Durham: Duke University Press, 2014); Gary Okihiro, Pineapple Culture: A History of the Tropical and Temperate Zones (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010); Augustine Sedgewick, “What's Imperial about Coffee?: Rethinking ‘Informal Empire’” in Making the Empire Work: Labor and United States Imperialism, eds. Daniel E. Bender and Jana Lipman (New York: New York University Press, 2015): 312–34; Richard P. Tucker, Insatiable Appetite: The United States and the Ecological Degradation of the Tropical World (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2007); Hoganson, Kristin, “Meat in the Middle: Converging Borderlands in the U.S. Midwest, 1865–1900,” Journal of American History 98:4 (2012): 1025–51.

37 Brian DeLay, Shoot the State: Arms, Business, and Freedom in the Americas before Gun Control (work in progress); Mona Domosh, American Commodities in an Age of Empire (New York: Routledge, 2006); Enstad, Nan, “To Know Tobacco: Southern Identity in China in the Jim Crow Era,” Southern Cultures 13:4 (Winter 2007): 623 .

38 Christine Skwiot, The Purposes of Paradise: U.S. Tourism and Empire in Cuba and Hawaii (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010); Dennis Merrill, Negotiating Paradise: U.S. Tourism and Empire in Twentieth-Century Latin America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009); Christopher Endy, Cold War Holidays: American Tourism in France (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004); Adria L. Imada, Aloha America: Hula Circuits through the U.S. Empire (Durham, London: Duke University Press, 2012).

39 On smuggling, see Andrew Wender Cohen, Contraband: Smuggling and the Birth of the American Century (New York: W. W. Norton, 2015).

40 Peter A. Schulman, Coal and Empire: The Birth of Energy Security in Industrial America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2015).

41 Black, Megan, “Interior's Exterior: The State, Mining Companies, and Resource Ideologies in the Point Four Program,” Diplomatic History 40:1 (Jan. 2016): 81110 .

42 Thomas Borstelmann, Apartheid's Reluctant Uncle: The United States and Southern Africa in the Early Cold War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993); Frazier, Javan David, “Almost Persuaded: The Johnson Administration's Extension of Nuclear Cooperation with South Africa, 1965–1967,” Diplomatic History 32:2 (Apr. 2008): 239–58.

43 Suzanna Reiss, We Sell Drugs: The Alchemy of US Empire (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2014).

44 Painter, David S., “Oil and the American Century,” Journal of American History, 99:1 (2012): 2439 ; Jones, Toby Craig, “America, Oil, and War in the Middle East,” Journal of American History 99:1 (2012): 208–18; Priest, Tyler, “The Dilemmas of Oil Empire,” Journal of American History 99:1 (2012): 236–51; Timothy Mitchell, Carbon Democracy: Political Power in the Age of Oil (London, New York: Verso, 2011); David S. Painter, Private Power and Public Policy: Multinational Oil Corporations and United States Foreign Policy, 1941–1954 (I. B. Tauris, 1987); Michael B. Stoff, Oil, War, and American Security: The Search for a National Policy on Foreign Oil, 1941–1947 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1980); Aaron David Miller, Search for Security: Saudi Arabian Oil and American Foreign Policy, 1939–1949 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1980); Irvine Anderson, Aramco, the United States, and Saudi Arabia: A Study of the Dynamics of Foreign Oil Policy, 1933–1950 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1981); Uri Bialer, Oil and the Arab-Israeli Conflict (New York: Palgrave McMillan, 1998); Mary Ann Heiss, Empire and Nationhood: The United States, Great Britain, and Iranian Oil, 1950–1954 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997); Steve Galpern, Money, Oil, and Empire in the Middle East: Sterling and Postwar Imperialism, 1944–1971 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009); Chad H. Parker, Making the Desert Modern Americans, Arabs, and Oil on the Saudi Frontier, 1933–1973 (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2015); Robert Vitalis, America's Kingdom: Mythmaking on the Saudi Oil Frontier (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006); Nathan Citino, From Arab Nationalism to OPEC: Eisenhower, King Sa'ud, and the Making of US-Saudi Relations (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2010); Citino, Nathan J., “Internationalist Oilmen, the Middle East, and the Remaking of American Liberalism, 1945–1953,” Business History Review 84:2 (Summer 2010): 227–51; Dietrich, Christopher, “Oil Power and Economic Theologies: The United States and the Third World in the Wake of the Energy Crisis,” Diplomatic History 40:3 (2016): 500–29; Oil Revolution: Anti-Colonial Elites, Sovereign Rights, and the Economic Culture of Decolonization (forthcoming, Cambridge University Press); Brandon Wolfe-Hunnicutt, “The End of the Concessionary Regime: Oil and American Power in Iraq, 1958–1972 (Stanford University, PhD thesis, 2011); Victor McFarland, “The United States, the Arab Gulf, and the Oil Crisis of the 1970s” (Yale University, PhD thesis, 2013).

45 Kristin L. Ahlberg, Transplanting the Great Society: Lyndon Johnson and Food for Peace (Columbia: University of Missouri, 2009); Jeffrey Taffet, Foreign Aid as Foreign Policy: The Alliance for Progress in Latin America (New York: Routledge, 2007); Samantha Iyer, The Agricultural Metropolis: The Politics of Food in the United States, Egypt, and India, 1870s to 1970s (work in progress).

46 For transnational histories of consumption, see John Brewer and Frank Trentmann, eds., Consuming Cultures, Global Perspectives: Historical Trajectories, Transnational Exchanges (New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2006).

47 On U.S. firms operating abroad see, for example, Jennifer van Vleck, Empire of the Air: Aviation and the American Ascendancy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013); Julio Moreno, Yankee Don't Go Home! American Business Culture and the Shaping of Modern Mexico, 1920–1950 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003); Salvatore, Ricardo, “Yankee Advertising in Buenos Aires: Reflections on Americanization,” Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies 7:2 (July 2005): 216–35; Fred V. Carstensen, American Enterprise in Foreign Markets: Singer and International Harvester in Imperial Russia (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984); Domosh, Mona, “Uncovering the Friction of Globalization: American Commercial Embeddedness and Landscape in Revolutionary-Era Russia,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 100:2 (April 2010): 427–43; Anne L. Foster, Projections of Power: The United States and Europe in Colonial Southeast Asia, 1919–1941 (Durham: Duke University Press, 2010); Mira Wilkins, The Emergence of Multinational Enterprise: American Business Abroad from the Colonial Era to 1914 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970); Mira Wilkins, The Maturing of Multinational Enterprise: American Business Abroad from 1914 to 1970 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974); Annabel Jane Wharton, Building the Cold War: Hilton International Hotels and Modern Architecture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001). For Ford Motor Company's international operations, see Mira Wilkins and Frank Hill, American Business Abroad: Ford on Six Continents (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011); Elizabeth Esch, “Whitened and Enlightened: The Ford Motor Company and Racial Engineering in the Brazilian Amazon” in Company Towns in the Americas: Landscape, Power, and Working-Class Communities, eds. Oliver J. Dinius and Angela Vergara (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2011), 91–110; Greg Grandin, Fordlandia: The Rise and Fall of Henry Ford's Forgotten Jungle City (New York: Picador, 2010); Fetzer, Thomas, “Exporting the American Model? Transatlantic Entanglements of Industrial Relations at Opel and Ford Germany (1948–1965),” Labor History 51:2 (May 2010): 173–91; Tignor, Robert, “In the Grip of Politics: The Ford Motor Company of Egypt, 1945–1960,” Middle East Journal 44:3 (Summer 1990): 383–98. For an overview of U.S. firms' relationships to the Nazi state, see Pauwels, Jacques R., “Profits über Alles! American Corporations and Hitler,” Labour/Le Travail 51 (Spring 2003): 223–49. On Walmart, see Nelson Lichtenstein, ed., Wal-Mart: The Face of Twenty-First Century Capitalism (New York: New Press, 2006); Bethany Moreton, To Serve God and Walmart: The Making of Christian Free Enterprise (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009).

48 See, for example, Uta G. Poiger, Jazz, Rock, and Rebels: Cold War Politics and American Culture in a Divided Germany (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000); Rosenberg, Emily, “Consuming Women: Images of Americanization in the ‘American Century,” Diplomatic History 23:3 (Summer 1999): 479–97.

49 See, especially, Richard F. Kuisel, Seducing the French: The Dilemma of Americanization (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993); Reinhold Wagnleitner, Coca-Colonization and the Cold War: The Cultural Mission of the United States in Austria after the Second World War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994); Rob Kroes, Robert W. Rydell, and Doeko F. J. Bosscher, eds., Cultural Transmissions and Receptions: American Mass Culture in Europe (Amsterdam, 1993); Rob Kroes and Robert W. Rydell, Buffalo Bill in Bologna: The Americanization of the World, 1869–1922 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005); Brian A. McKenzie, Remaking France: Americanization, Public Diplomacy, and the Marshall Plan (New York: Berghahn Books, 2005). For a sweeping account of these dynamics through the Americanization lens, see Victoria de Grazia, Irresistible Empire.

50 Maier, Charles S., “The Politics of Productivity: Foundations of American International Economic Policy after World War II,” International Organization 31:4 (Autumn 1977): 607–33; Robert H. Haddow, Pavilions of Plenty: Exhibiting American Culture Abroad in the 1950s (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1997); Castillo, G., “Domesticating the Cold War: Household Consumption as Propaganda in Marshall Plan Germany,” Journal of Contemporary History 40:2 (April 2005): 261–88.

51 For criticisms of the Americanization paradigm, see Heide Fehrenbach and Uta G. Poiger, “Americanization Reconsidered” in Transactions, Transgressions, Transformations: American Culture in Western Europe and Japan (New York, 2000), xiii–xl.; Mary Nolan, “Americanization as a Paradigm of German History” in Mark Roseman, Hanna Schissler and Frank Biess, eds., Conflict, Catastrophe, and Continuity: Essays on Modern German History (New York, 2007), 200–18; Mary Nolan, The Transatlantic Century: Europe and the United States, 1890–2010 (Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2012); Rob Kroes, “American Empire and Cultural Imperialism: A View from the Receiving End” in Thomas Bender, ed., Rethinking American History in a Global Age (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002), 295–313; Stefan Schwarzkopf, “Who Said ‘Americanization’? The Case of Twentieth-Century Advertising and Mass Marketing from a British Perspective” in Jessica C. E. Gienow-Hecht, Decentering America (New York, 2007), 23–72; Hoganson, Kristin, “Stuff It: Domestic Consumption and the Americanization of the World Paradigm,” Diplomatic History 30:4 (2006), 571–94. Works that emphasize the active role of non-U.S. actors in appropriating American elements as filtered through their own histories and interests include Mary Nolan, Visions of Modernity: American Business and the Modernization of Germany (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994); Poiger, Jazz, Rock, and Rebels; Scarpellini, Emanuela, “Shopping American-Style: The Arrival of the Supermarket in Postwar Italy,” Enterprise and Society 5:4 (2004), 625–68; Karin Zachmann, Cold War Kitchen: Americanization, Technology, and European Users (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2009).

52 Rosenberg, Spreading the American Dream. On State Department assistance to the U.S. film industry in accessing European cinemas, see John Trumpbour, Selling Hollywood to the World: U.S. and European Struggles for Mastery of the Global Film Industry, 1920–1950 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002).

53 McCormick, China Market; David M. Pletcher, The Diplomacy of Involvement: American Economic Expansion Across the Pacific, 1784–1900 (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2001); Daniel Margolies, Henry Watterson and the New South: The Politics of Empire, Free Trade, and Globalization (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2006).

54 Emily Rosenberg, “U.S. Mass Consumerism in Transnational Perspective” in Michael J. Hogan and Frank Costigliola, eds., America in the World: The Historiography of U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1941 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 307–37. Sedgewick, Augustine, “'The Spice of the Department Store’: The ‘Consumer's Republic,’ Imported Knock-Offs from Latin America, and the Invention of International Development, 1936–1941,” International Labor and Working-Class History 81 (Spring 2012): 4968 ; Kristin L. Hoganson, Consumers' Imperium: The Global Production of American Domesticity, 1865–1920 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007). For a more global perspective, see Frank Trentmann, Empire of Things: How We Became a World of Consumers, from the Fifteenth Century to the Twenty-First (New York: Harper, 2016).

55 For a guide to legal histories of the United States in the world, see Mary Dudziak, “Legal History as Foreign Relations History” in Frank Costigliola and Michael J. Hogan, eds., Explaining the History of American Foreign Relations, 3rd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), 135–50.

56 On law, political economy, and global governance in related, contemporary contexts, see David Kennedy, A World of Struggle: How Power, Law, and Expertise Shape Global Political Economy (Princeton, NU: Princeton University Press, 2016).

57 On the United States and extraterritoriality, see Teemu Ruskola, Legal Orientalism: China, the United States, and Modern Law (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2013); Eileen P. Scully, Bargaining with the State from Afar: American Citizenship in Treaty Port China, 1844–1942 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001).

58 On extradition, see Daniel S. Margolies, Spaces of Law in American Foreign Relations: Extradition and Extraterritoriality in the Borderlands and Beyond, 1877–1898 (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2011); Katherine Unterman, Uncle Sam's Policemen: The Pursuit of Fugitives across Borders (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2015).

59 On the United States' legalist empire of the early twentieth century, and the imperial uses of international law, see Benjamin Allen Coates, Legalist Empire: International Law and American Foreign Relations in the Early 20th Century (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016); Coates, Benjamin, “Securing Hegemony through Law: Venezuela, the U.S. Asphalt Trust, and the Uses of International Law, 1904–1909,” Journal of American History 102:2 (2015): 380–05.

60 On tariff enforcement, custom houses, and smuggling, see Cohen, Contraband; Gautham Rao, National Duties: Custom Houses and the Making of the American State (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016).

61 The literature on the legal status of the post-1898 colonies is extensive. See, especially, Christina Duffy Burnett and Burke Marshall, eds., Foreign in a Domestic Sense: Puerto Rico, American Expansion, and the Constitution (Durham: Duke University Press, 2001); Erman, Sam, “Meanings of Citizenship in the U.S. Empire: Puerto Rico, Isabel Gonzalez, and the Supreme Court, 1898 to 1905,” Journal of American Ethnic History 27:4 (2008): 533 .

62 Emily S. Rosenberg, Financial Missionaries to the World: The Politics and Culture of Dollar Diplomacy, 1900–1930 (Durham: Duke University Press, 1999); Cyrus Veeser, A World Safe for Capitalism: Dollar Diplomacy and America's Rise to Global Power (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002); Ellen D. Tillman, Dollar Diplomacy by Force: Nation-Building and Resistance in the Dominican Republic (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2016); Hudson, Peter James, “The National City Bank of New York and Haiti, 1909–1922,” Radical History Review, No. 115 (2013): 91114 . On the United States in the nineteenth century as a debtor nation whose dependence upon European finance impacted its domestic and international politics, see Jay Sexton, Debtor Diplomacy, Finance and American Foreign Relations in the Civil War Era 1837–1873 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2014).

63 James Ledbetter, Unwarranted Influence: Dwight D. Eisenhower and the Military-Industrial Complex (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2011).

64 Christopher Capozzola, “The Secret Soldiers' Union: Labor and Soldier Politics in the Philippine Scout Mutiny of 1924” in Bender and Lipman, eds., Making the Empire Work, 85–103; Hope McGrath, “'An Army of Working-Men’: Military Labor and the Construction of American Empire, 1865–1915” (University of Pennsylvania, PhD thesis, in progress); Justin Jackson, “The Work of Empire: The U.S. Army and the Making of American Colonialisms in Cuba and the Philippines, 1898–1913,” (Columbia University, PhD thesis, 2014); Justin Jackson, “'A Military Necessity Which Must be Pressed’: The U.S. Army and Forced Road Labor in Early American Colonial Philippines” in On Coerced Labor: Work and Compulsion after Chattel Slavery, eds. Marcel van der Linden and Magaly Rodriguez Garcia (Leiden: Brill, 2016). On the Vietnam War as shaped by U.S. soldiers' working-class origins, see Christian G. Appy, Working-Class War: American Combat Soldiers and Vietnam (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993).

65 Dirk Bönker, Militarism in a Global Age: Naval Ambitions in Germany and the United States before World War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2012).

66 See, especially, Paul A. C. Koistinen's five-part history of the political economy of American warfare: Beating Plowshares into Swords: The Political Economy of American Warfare, 1606–1865 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1996); Mobilizing for Modern War: The Political Economy of American Warfare, 1865–1919 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1997); Planning War, Pursuing Peace: The Political Economy of American Warfare, 1920–1939 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998); Arsenal of World War II: The Political Economy of American Warfare, 1940–1945 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004); State of War: The Political Economy of American Warfare, 1945–2011 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2012). For torpedo development as a formative moment in these relationships, see Katherine C. Epstein, Torpedo: Inventing the Military-Industrial Complex in the United States and Great Britain (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014).

67 See, for example, Roger W. Lotchin, Fortress California, 1910–1961: From Warfare to Welfare (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992); Ann Markusen, ed., The Rise of the Gunbelt: The Military Remapping of Industrial America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).

68 Louis A. Pérez Jr., describes the influx of American capital into Cuba the wake of the Spanish-Cuban-American War, for example, in On Becoming Cuban: Identity, Nationality, and Culture (Chapel Hill, London: University of North Carolina Press, 1999). On the Philippine-American War, see Lumba, Allan E. S., “Imperial Standards: Colonial Currencies, Racial Capacities, and Economic Knowledge During the Philippine-American War,” Diplomatic History 39:44 (2015): 603–28. On the militarization of South Korea and corporate globalization, see Patrick Chung, “Building Global Capitalism: Militarization, Standardization, and U.S.-South Korean Relations Since the Korean War” (Brown University, PhD thesis, work in progress).

69 Freeman, Joshua B., “Militarism, Empire, and Labor Relations: The Case of Brice P. Disque,” International Labor and Working-Class History 80:1 (Sept. 2011): 103–20; McEnaney, Laura, “Veterans' Welfare, the GI Bill, and American Demobilization,” Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39:1 (Spring 2011): 4147 .

70 Beth Bailey, America's Army: Making the All-Volunteer Force (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009); Kimberly L. Phillips, War! What Is it Good For?: Black Freedom Struggles and the U.S. Military from World War II to Iraq (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012).

71 Jennifer Mittelstadt, The Rise of the Military Welfare State (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015); P. W. Singer, Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003).

72 On the labor politics of U.S. military basing, see Jana K. Lipman, Guantánamo: A Working-Class History Between Empire and Revolution (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009); on the politics of sexual labor, see Katharine H. S. Moon, Sex Among Allies: Military Prostitution in U.S. Korea Relations (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997); Saundra Pollock Sturdevant and Brenda Stoltzfus, Let the Good Times Roll: Prostitution and the U.S. Military in Asia (New York: The New Press, 1992); Paul A. Kramer, “Colonial Crossings: Prostitution, Disease and the Boundaries of Empire during the Philippine-American War” in Body and Nation: The Global Realm of U.S. Body Politics in the 20th Century, eds. Emily Rosenberg and Shanon Fitzpatrick (Durham: Duke University Press, 2014), 17–41. For a collection of essays on the global history of U.S. military bases, with special attention to the politics of gender, race and sex, see Maria Höhn and Seungsook Moon, eds., Over There: Living with the U.S. Military Empire from World War II to the Present (Durham: Duke University Press, 2010).

73 See, for example, Gunther Peck, Reinventing Free Labor: Padrones and Immigrant Workers in the North American West, 1880–1930 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000); Kornel Chang, Pacific Connections: The Making of the U.S.-Canadian Borderlands (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012); Robert Eric Barde, Immigration at the Golden Gate: Passenger Ships, Exclusion, and Angel Island (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2008); Blue, Ethan, “Finding Margins on Borders: Shipping Firms and Immigration Control Across Settler Space,” Occasion: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Humanities 5 (Mar. 1, 2013): 120 .

74 Cindy Hahamovitch, No Man's Land: Jamaican Guestworkers in America and the Global History of Deportable Labor (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2011); Deborah Cohen, Braceros: Migrant Citizens and Transnational Subjects in the Postwar United States and Mexico (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011); Gabrielle E. Clark, “From the Panama Canal to Post-Fordism: Producing Temporary Labor Migrants Within and Beyond Agriculture in the United States (1904–2013)” forthcoming 2016, Antipode: A Radical Journal of Geography. For a global survey of the “guest worker” phenomenon, see Hahamovich, Cindy, “Creating Perfect Workers: Guest Workers in Historical Perspective,” Labor History 44:1 (2003): 6994 .

75 Martha Gardner, The Qualities of a Citizen: Women, Immigration and Citizenship, 1870–1965 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009); Jeanne D. Petit, The Men and Women We Want: Gender, Race, and the Progressive Era Literacy Test Debate (Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2010); George Peffer, If They Don't Bring Their Women Here: Chinese Female Immigration before Exclusion (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999); Baynton, Douglas C., “Defectives in the Land: Disability and American Immigration Policy, 1882–1924,” Journal of American Ethnic History 24:3 (Summer 2005): 3144 .

76 On anti-radicalism in U.S. immigration restriction politics, see John Higham, Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860–1925 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002); Barton, Mary S., “The Global War on Anarchism: The United States and International Anarchist Terrorism, 1898–1904,” Diplomatic History 39:2 (Apr. 2015): 303–30; Jung, Moon-ho, “Seditious Subjects: Race, State Violence, and the U.S. Empire,” Journal of Asian American Studies 14 (June 2011): 221–47.

77 Kramer, Paul A., “Imperial Openings: Civilization, Exemption, and the Geopolitics of Mobility in the History of Chinese Exclusion, 1868–1910,” Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 14 (2015): 317–47; Kramer, Paul A., “Is the World Our Campus? International Students and U.S. Global Power in the Long Twentieth Century,” Diplomatic History 33:5 (Nov. 2009): 775806 .

78 Bender and Lipman, eds., Making the Empire Work; Leon Fink, Sweatshops at Sea: Merchant Seamen in the World's First Globalized Industry, from 1812 to the Present (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011).

79 Jefferson Cowie, Capital Moves: RCA's Seventy-Year Quest for Cheap Labor (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999).

80 David Roediger and Elizabeth Esch, The Production of Difference: Race and the Management of Labor in U.S. History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).

81 For transnational histories of labor and migrant politics see, for example, Leon Fink, ed., Workers across the Americas: The Transnational Turn in Labor History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011); Lara Putnam, Radical Moves: Caribbean Migrants and the Politics of Race in the Jazz Age (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2013); Turcato, Davide, “Italian Anarchism as a Transnational Movement, 1885–1915,” International Review of Social History 52:3 (Dec. 2007): 407–44.

Ngai, Mae M., “Chinese Gold Miners and the ‘Chinese Question’ in Nineteenth-Century California and Victoria,” Journal of American History 101:4 (2015):10821105 .

82 On nineteenth-century American maritime workers as “working-class diplomats,” see Brian Rouleau, With Sails Whitening Every Sea: Marines and the Making of an American Maritime Empire (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2014). On organized labor and U.S. foreign policy, see Davis, Horace B., “American Labor and Imperialism Prior to World War I,” Science and Society 27:1 (Jan. 1963): 7076 ; Montgomery, David, “Workers' Movements in the United States Confront Imperialism: The Progressive Era Experience,” The Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era 7:1 (2008): 742 ; Gregg Andrews, Shoulder to Shoulder? The American Federation of Labor, the United States, and the Mexican Revolution, 1910–1924 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991); McKillen, Elizabeth, “Integrating Labor in the Narrative of Wilsonian Internationalism: A Literature Review,” Diplomatic History 34:4 (2010): 643–62; Elizabeth McKillen, Making the World Safe for Workers: Labor, the Left, and Wilsonian Internationalism (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2013); Elizabeth McKillen, Chicago Labor and the Quest for a Democratic Diplomacy, 1914–1924 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995); Van Goethem, Geert, “Labor's Second Front: The Foreign Policy of the American and British Trade Union Movements during the Second World War,” Diplomatic History 34:4 (2010): 663–80; Kofas, Jon V., “U.S. Foreign Policy and the World Federation of Trade Unions, 1944–1948,” Diplomatic History 26:1 (2002): 2160 ; Carew, Anthony, “The American Labor Movement in Fizzland: The Free Trade Union Committee and the CIA,” Labor History 39:1 (1998): 2542 ; Weiler, Peter, “The United States, International Labor, and the Cold War: The Breakup of the World Federation of Trade Unions,” Diplomatic History 5:1 (1981): 122 ; Eisenberg, Carolyn, “Working-Class Politics and the Cold War: American Intervention in the German Labor Movement, 1945–49,” Diplomatic History 7:4 (1983): 283306 ; Federico Romero, The United States and the European Trade Union Movement, 1944–1951 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992); Ronald L. Filippelli, American Labor and Postwar Italy, 1943–1953: A Study of Cold War Politics (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989); Schonberger, Howard, “American Labor's Cold War in Occupied Japan,” Diplomatic History 3:3 (1979): 249–72; Gerteis, Christopher, “Labor's Cold Warriors: The American Federation of Labor and ‘Free Trade Unionism’ in Cold War Japan,” Journal of American-East Asian Relations 12:3 (2003): 207–24; Seth Wigderson, “The Wages of Anticommunism: U.S. Labor and the Korean War” in  Labor's Cold War: Local Politics in a Global Context, ed. Shelton Stromquist (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008), 226–57; Yu, Rose T., “Foreign Labor Aid and the Philippine Experience,” Philippine Social Sciences and Humanities Review 47:1–4 (1983): 193217 ; Welch, Cliff, “Labor Internationalism: U.S. Involvement in Brazilian Unions, 1945–65,” Latin American Research Review 30:2 (1995): 6189 ; Waters, Robert and Daniels, Gordon, “The World's Longest General Strike: The AFL-CIO, the CIA, and British Guiana,” Diplomatic History 29:2 (2005): 279307 ; Gigi Peterson, “'A Dangerous Demagogue’: Containing the Influence of the Mexican Labor-Left and its United States Allies” in American Labor and the Cold War: Grassroots Politics and Postwar Political Culture, eds. Robert Cherny et al. (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2004), 245–76; Edmund F. Wehrle, Between a River and a Mountain: The AFL-CIO and the Vietnam War (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005); Frank F. Koscielski, Divided Loyalties: American Unions and the Vietnam War (Wayne State University, PhD thesis, 1997); Battista, Andrew, “Unions and Cold War Foreign Policy in the 1980s: The National Labor Committee, the AFL-CIO, and Central America,” Diplomatic History 26:3 (2006): 419–51; Sears, John Bennett, “Peace Work: The Antiwar Tradition in American Labor from the Cold War to the Iraq War,” Diplomatic History 34:4 (2010): 699720 ; Geert Van Goethem and Robert Anthony Waters Jr., eds., American Labor's Global Ambassadors: The International History of the AFL-CIO during the Cold War (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013).

83 For a compelling, comparative account of radicalization grounded in political-economic analysis, see Patrick J. Wolfe, Traces of History: Elementary Structures of Race (London, New York: Verso Press, 2016).

84 On racially-stratified labor systems in U.S. imperial enclaves, see Julie Greene, The Canal Builders: Making America's Empire at the Panama Canal (New York: Penguin, 2009); Jason M. Colby, The Business of Empire: United Fruit, Race, and U.S. Expansion in Central America (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2011); Vitalis, America's Kingdom.

85 Andrew Zimmerman, Alabama in Africa: Booker T. Washington, the German Empire, and the Global South (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010).

86 Paul A. Kramer, “Shades of Sovereignty: Racialized Power, the United States and the World” in Explaining the History of American Foreign Relations, 3rd ed., eds. Frank Costigliola and Michael Hogan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), 245–70.

87 Mitchell, Timothy, “Fixing the Economy,” Cultural Studies 12:1 (1998): 82101 ; Timothy Mitchell, Rule of Experts: Egypt, Techno-Politics, Modernity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002).

88 Zimmerman, Alabama in Africa.

89 Ian Tyrrell, True Gardens of the Gods: Californian-Australian Environmental Reform, 1860–1930 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999); Ian Tyrrell, Crisis of the Wasteful Nation: Empire and Conservation in Theodore Roosevelt's America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015); Black, “Interior's Exterior”; Tuffnell, Stephen, “Engineering Inter-Imperialism: American Miners and the Transformation of Global Mining, 1871–1910,” Journal of Global History 10 (2015): 5376 ; Mark Hendrickson, From the (Under)Ground Up: Mining Engineers, Geologists, Foreign Direct Investment, and American Economic Development, 1880–1930 (work in progress).

90 Bönker, Militarism in a Global Age.

91 Singerman, David, “'A Doubt is At Best an Unsafe Standard: Measuring Sugar in the Early Bureau of Standards,” Journal of Research of NIST 112:1 (Jan. 2007): 5366 . See also Singerman's contribution to this volume, “Science, Commodities, and Corruption in the Gilded Age.”

92 Mary Bridges, “Constructing Credit, Expanding Commerce: U.S. Branch Banking in Latin America in the Early Twentieth Century” (Vanderbilt University, PhD thesis, work in progress).

93 On modernization and development, see Engerman, David C. and Unger, Corinna R., “Towards a Global History of Modernization,” Diplomatic History 33:3 (2009): 375–85; Cullather, Nick, “Development? It's History,” Diplomatic History 24:4 (2000): 641–53. David C. Engerman, Nils Gilman, Mark H. Haefele, and Michael E. Latham, eds., Staging Growth: Modernization, Development, and the Global Cold War (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2003); Dennis Merrill, Bread and the Ballot: The United States and India's Economic Development, 1947–1963 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990); Simpson, Economists with Guns; Nick Cullather, The Hungry World: America's Cold War Battle Against Poverty in Asia (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2010); David Ekbladh, The Great American Mission: Modernization and the Construction of an American World Order (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010); Michael E. Latham, The Right Kind of Revolution: Modernization, Development and U.S. Foreign Policy from the Cold War to the Present (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2011); Field Jr., From Development to Dictatorship; Daniel Immerwahr, Thinking Small: The United States and the Lure of Community Development (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015). On neoliberalism, see David Harvey, A Brief History of Neoliberalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007); Angus Burgin, The Great Persuasion: Reinventing Free Markets since the Depression (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012); Daniel Stedman Jones, Masters of the Universe: Hayek, Friedman, and the Birth of Neoliberal Politics (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012); Aaron Major, Architects of Austerity: International Finance and the Politics of Growth (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2014). For striking accounts of the relationship between the “outsides” and “insides” of American economic thought and practice, see Sheyda Jahanbani, “One Global War on Poverty: The Johnson Administration Fights Poverty at Home and Abroad, 1964–1968” in Beyond the Cold War: Lyndon Johnson and the New Global Challenges of the 1960s, eds. Francis J. Gavin and Mark Atwood Lawrence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), 97–117; Amy Offner, “Anti-Poverty Programs, Social Conflict, and Economic Thought in Colombia and the United States, 1948–1980,” (PhD thesis, Columbia University, 2012).

94 Daniel T. Rodgers, Atlantic Crossings: Social Politics in a Progressive Age (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998); Paul Adler “Planetary Citizens: U.S. NGOs and the Politics of International Development in the Late 20th Century,” (PhD thesis, Georgetown University, 2014); Turcato, “Italian Anarchism.”

95 Henry Gorman, “Words from Across the Sea: Americans, Syrians, Movement and Translation in an Age of Empire” (Vanderbilt University, PhD thesis, work in progress).

96 Coates, Legalist Empire.

97 Kramer, “Is the World our Campus?”

98 On foundations and international relations, see Inderjeet Parmar, Foundations of the American Century: The Ford, Carnegie, and Rockefeller Foundations and the Rise of American Power (New York: Columbia University Press, 2015). For a powerful, political-economic history of the Fulbright program, the most prestigious expression of postwar educational internationalism, see Lebovic, Sam, “From War Junk to Educational Exchange: The World War II Origins of the Fulbright Program and the Foundations of American Cultural Globalism, 1945–1950,” Diplomatic History vol. 37, no. 2 (2013): 280312 . On Rotary, an exemplary institution of cosmopolitan, capitalist internationalism, see Brendan Goff, “The Heartland Abroad: The Rotary Club’s Missions of Civic Internationalism” (PhD thesis, University of Michigan, 2008).

99 Akira Iriye, Global Community: The Role of International Organizations in the Making of the Contemporary World (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004).

This essay is dedicated to the memory of Patrick Wolfe. My thanks to Megan Black, Dirk Bönker, Benjamin Coates, Christopher Dietrich, Walter Licht, Daniel Margolies, Amy Offner, Jeffrey Sklansky, Michael Thompson, Christy Thornton, and especially Noam Maggor, for their comments, assistance, critiques, and encouragement.

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