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Roman Garrisons and Soldiers in Asia Minor

  • W. M. Ramsay and A. Margaret Ramsay

Extract

As the following notes are primarily concerned with the Roman Army in Asia Minor, and are not epigraphical, though based on epigraphical evidence, it is best to omit epigraphic texts and employ otherwise the space gained. Epigraphic texts will be published elsewhere, or are already published.

It may be assumed that the cohorts concerned are likely to be milliariae, not quingenariae, as they were evidently widely scattered in detachments (numeri or vexilla) over a very large country. A cohort nominally stationed at Iconium or at Ancyra would really be employed in small bodies over many parts of south-eastern or of northern Galatia, and milliariae were needed to cover the large district. They were all equitatae, as the evidence shows.

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page 181 note 1 Κουράτωρ Σαουαθρεύς cannot be taken as curator civitatis Savatrensium. A soldier could not hold so high an office at home. Φιλιππι cannot be taken as an abbreviation of Φιλππικοû: the abbreviation should not end with iota except in such a case as I for Ἰοûλιος.

page 182 note 1 Another rendering of the same name, perhaps, is εὐμεγεθής in Monum. As. Min. Antiqua I, no. 194, repeated from Ath. Mitt., 1888, p. 254, no. 65. The anagnostes there may be Appas, with a second name meaning ‘big.’

page 182 note 2 Strictly Pappas was the god, and papa meant ‘opium’: but both are often mis-spelt.

page 182 note 3 ἡ Ασία τὸ ἒθνος translates Provincia Asia: so Galatia.

page 182 note 4 It is of course possible, by pressing to an extreme the view about Greek ignorance of propriety in Roman nomenclature, to maintain that Philippicus was also a Roman, [Q.?] Valerius Phil., father of Q. and L.; and that the eldest son ought to have been described as Q. Valerius Q. ? f. Valens, but is erroneously styled Κούιντ. ϕιλιππι(κον) in pure Greek style. Valerius Valens, praef. classis Misen., C.I.L. X, 3336, belongs to the reign of Gordian.

page 183 note 1 It is quite possible that they were of a good provincial family: to serve as a soldier was no disgrace for such a family (see Sections II–IV).

page 183 note 2 άπὸ βασιλέων καὶ τετραρχῶν. The identification of this Ti. (Iulius) Severus (C.I.G. 4034, I.G.R.R. iii, 175, Dittenberger O.G.I.S. 543) with the Severus of Aelius Aristides, and even the reading of his name, are matters of much controversy: see Groag's important article on C. Iulius Severus in P.-W. x, 311 sqq. We follow Waddington, who takes the opening Τι of Hamilton as correct: Domaszewski read II, but the top stroke is probably as Hamilton saw it a century ago. Mommsen, Groag and Dittenberger correct to ΓΙ, and understand Τ(άιον) Ἰ(ούλιον). That he should be named by praenomen and cognomen in the Angora inscriptio is not unlikely; but that I should be for Ἰ(ούλιον) is improbable. The topic cannot be treated here. An inscription later than Waddington's time has been ignored in the articles of Keil (Hermes xxv, 316) and of Schmid (Rhein. Mus. xlviii, 79). The name Τι. Ἰούλιος came into the family from Tiberius, who was by adoption a Julius; and this is an important date, inasmuch as Ti. Iulius Severus and Ti. Iulius Sauromates indirectly attest the attention which Tiberius devoted to the east and north-east of the Empire. The tendency is to regard C. Iulius C. f. Severus, cos. stuff. in 155, as son of this man, whose name is therefore read as ΓΙ instead of Τι. (the distinction of the father helped the son's career); but this is precarious. We stand by Hamilton's reading and regard C. Iulius Severus, cos. 155, as a relative of the distinguished Severus, whose influence would be used to aid a nephew as well as a son. Groag rightly accepts the identification of this Ti. Severus with the proconsul mentioned by Aristides, which is denied by some.

page 183 note 3 Assuming that the omission of Aug. in this case is not essential, but is due to carelessness of a Greek about exact Roman designation. Cohors I Cyren. was stationed in Upper Germany (see P.-W. s.v. Cohors, col. 277).

page 184 note 1 In l. 8 read τὸν δὲ κάτω οἷκον,in the lower (underground, elsewhere κατάγαιον) chamber a place may be given to those who shall be designated in the will of Aponius. Sometimes the lower chamber was under, sometimes on, the ground, and sometimes actually above the ground in a vault.

page 185 note 1 In 1901 we copied a part to the right of what Sterrett saw: it was hidden by masonry. The form of omega makes the distinction between ω and ο difficult: we follow our copy made on the margin of Sterrett.

page 185 note 2 In l. 4 the intention is ‘it shall not be lawful for any other to have his sarcophagus carried into the grave chamber’: this right was a legal property. The proper custom, very often observed, was that the wedded pair should make a tomb for themselves as soon as the husband became οἰκοδεσπότης. So long as he was living with his father and was, therefore, under the authority of his father as head of the family, the family-tomb was open to him and his wife (νύμΦη), unless for some reason they were excluded formally : see note on page 186.

page 185 note 3 The assumption of the reigning Emperor's name by a new civis was permitted (i) when a provincial took praenomen and nomen from the Emperor and cognomen from the governor of the province (probably a higher honour than, what was also a common practice, taking praenomen and nomen from the governor and retaining the original name as cognomen), and (ii) when the son of a civis, as here, takes at birth the Emperor's praenomen and nomen. Collection and comparison of instances might show the cause in such cases.

page 185 note 4 Pomponius Bassus governed Galatia A.D. 95–101.

page 186 note 1 A married daughter passes to her husband's family as νύμΦη, and shares the family rights as to burial: that is shown by many inscriptions, and is in itself natural in the society of the country and period.

page 187 note 1 Another Cohors IV Raet., probably distinguished as not eq., was stationed in Moesia Superior.

page 187 note 2 Soublaion was an imperial estate at one time; but Seiblia struck coins. Many such komai were raised to be coin-striking poleis: see Rostovtzeff Social and Economic History, p. 171.

page 188 note 1 We used horses bought there several times, last in 1907.

page 188 note 2 Faustianus was tribune of a cohort, and his case would prove nothing, as he might be doing his equestres militiae.

page 188 note 3 C. Iuventius Rufus probably took his nomen from P. Iuventius Celsus, who governed Galatia 161–4 or earlier: he was cos. ord. in 164. Rufus was his native name, probably the Latin rendering of a name meaning ‘red.’

page 189 note 1 The cursus honorum of C. Caristanius was published by Cheesman, in J.R.S. III, p. 260 sqq.

page 190 note 1 Other Servaei have such cognomina or additional nomina as Amicus, Potitianus, Firmus, Honoratus, Innocens, Flavia, Statiana, Valeriana, Novella, Rufina. Of these Potitus, Rufinus, Firmus, Statiana, Valerius, Honoratus, occur as names in the Province Galatia.

Roman Garrisons and Soldiers in Asia Minor

  • W. M. Ramsay and A. Margaret Ramsay

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