Skip to main content Accessibility help

Late Miocene chondrichthyans from Lago Bayano, Panama: Functional diversity, environment and biogeography

  • Victor J. Perez (a1) (a2), Catalina Pimiento (a3) (a4), Austin Hendy (a4) (a5), Gerardo González-Barba (a6), Gordon Hubbell (a7) and Bruce J. MacFadden (a1) (a2)...


This newly described chondrichthyan fauna from the late Miocene Chucunaque Formation of Lago Bayano reveals a prolific and highly diverse assemblage from Panama, and one of the richest shark faunas from the Neotropics. Strontium geochronology indicates an age of 10–9.5 Ma for the chonrichthyan-bearing strata. Field efforts resulted in 1429 identifiable specimens comprising at least 31 taxa, of which at least eight are new to the documented fossil record of Panama. With this information an analysis of functional diversity was conducted, indicating ecosystems dominated by generalist species feeding upon a wide range of organisms, from plankton to marine mammals. A probabilistic approach of paleobathymetric estimation suggests a neritic environment. Previous studies based on foraminifera have suggested that the Chucunaque Formation had a greater Pacific Ocean affinity, making this the first Miocene chondrichthyan fauna described from the Pacific shelf of Panama. However, our geographic comparisons show that this fauna has mixed Caribbean and Pacific biogeographic affinities, which likely supports the previously purported connection between chondrichthyan faunas during the late Miocene.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Late Miocene chondrichthyans from Lago Bayano, Panama: Functional diversity, environment and biogeography
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Late Miocene chondrichthyans from Lago Bayano, Panama: Functional diversity, environment and biogeography
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Late Miocene chondrichthyans from Lago Bayano, Panama: Functional diversity, environment and biogeography
      Available formats



Hide All
Adnet, S., Cappetta, H., Guinot, G., and Notarbartolo Di Sciara, G., 2012, Evolutionary history of the devilrays (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes) from fossil and morphological inference: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, v. 166, p. 132159.
Agassiz, L. 1833–1843, Recherches sur les Poissons Fossils: Petitpierre, Neuchâtel, Suisse, v. 3, 390 p.
Aguilera, O., and Rodrigues De Aguilera, D., 2001, An exceptional coastal upwelling fish assemblage in the Caribbean Neogene: Journal of Paleontology, v. 75, p. 732742.
Antunes, M.T., 1970, Sur Lamna cattica ssp. tortuserrata; un cas de distribution antiéquatoriale: Revista da Faculdade de Ciencias: Universidade de Lisboa, v. 16, p. 3762.
Antunes, M.T., 1978, Faunes ichthyologiques du Néogène supérieur d’Angola, leur âge, remarques sur le Pliocène marin en Afrique Australe: Ciências da Terra (University Lisboa), v. 4, p. 5990.
Applegate, S.P., 1967, A survey of shark hard parts, in Gilbert, P.W., Mathewson, R.F., and Rall, D.P., eds., Sharks, Skates and Rays: Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, p. 3767.
Bass, A.J., Heemstra, P.C., and Compagno, L.J.V., 1986, Carcharhinidae, in Smith, M.M., and Heemstra, P.C., eds., Smiths’ Sea Fishes: Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 6787.
Berg, L.S., 1940, Classification of fishes both recent and fossil: Travaux de l’Institut Zoologique de l’academie des Sciences de l’U.R.S.S., Leningrad, v. 5, p. 85517. (in Russian)
Berg, L.S., 1958, System der rezenten und fossilen fischartigen und fische: Berlin, Deutsche Verlag Wissenschaften, 310 p.
Bertolini, F., 1933, Dentatura dei Selaci in rapporto con la nutrizione: Rendiconti Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, v. 18, p. 234237.
Bianchi, G., Carpenter, K.E., Roux, J.-P., Molloy, F.J., Boyer, D., and Boyer, H.J., 1999, Field Guide to the Living Marine Resources of Namibia. FAO Species Identification Field Guide for Fishery Purposes: Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 265 p.
Bizzarro, J., Smith, W., Baum, J., Domingo, A., and Menni, R., 2009, Mobula hypostoma. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <> (accessed June 2015).
Blainville, H.M.D. de, 1816, Prodrome d’une nouvelle distribution systematique de regne animal: Bulletin de Sciences de la Société Philomatique de Paris, Pt. 8, p. 113124.
Blainville, H.M.D. de, 1818, Sur les ichthyolites ou les poissons fossils: Nouveau Dictionnaire d’Histoire Naturelle, v. 27, p. 310391.
Bleeker, P., 1859, Enumeratio specierum piscium hucusque in Archipelago indico observatarum: Acta Societatis Scientiarum Indo-Neerlandae, v. 6, p. 1276.
Bloch, M.E., and Schneider, J.G., 1801, Blochii systema ichthyologiae iconibus ex illustratum. Post Obitum Auctoris Opus Inchoatum Absolvit, Correxit, Interpolavit: Saxo, Jo. Gottlob Schneider, Berolini. Sumtibus Austoris Impressum et Bibliopolio Sanderiano Commissum, 584 p.
Bonaparte, C.L., 1838, Selachorum tabula analytica: Nuovi Annali delle Scienze Naturali, Bologna, v. 1, p. 195214.
Bonfil, R., Amorim, A., Anderson, C., Arauz, R., Baum, J., Clarke, S.C., Graham, R.T., Gonzalez, M., Jolón, M., Kyne, P.M., Mancini, P., Márquez, F., Ruíz, C., and Smith, W., 2009, Carcharhinus falciformis: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009, e.T39370A10183906. (accessed July 2016).
Bonnaterre, J.P., 1788, Ichthyologie. Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois regnes de la nature. Paris, p. 215.
Burgess, G.H. 2009, Carcharhinus brevipinna. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T39368A10182758. (accessed July 2016).
Burke, W. H., Denison, R. E., Hetherington, E. A., Koepnick, R. B., Nelson, H. F., and Otto, J. B., 1982, Variation of seawater 87Sr/86Sr throughout Phanerozoic time. Geology, v. 10, p. 516519.
Cailliet, G.M., and Goldman, K.J., 2004, Age determination and validation in chondrichthyan fishes, in Carrier, J., Musick, A., and Hiethaus, M.R., eds., Biology of Sharks and Their Relatives: Boca Raton, Florida, CRC Press, p. 299447.
Cailliet, G.M., Natanson, L.J., Welden, B.A., and Ebert, D.A., 1985, Preliminary studies on the age and growth of the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, using vertebral bands: Memoirs of the Southern California Academy of Science, v. 9, p. 4960.
Cailliet, G.M., Radke, R.L., and Welden, B.A., 1986, Elasmobranch age determination and verification: a review, in Uyeno, T., Arai, R., Taniuchi, T., and Masuura, K., eds., Indo-Pacific Fish Biology. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Indo-Pacific Fishes: Tokyo, Ichthyological Society of Japan, p. 345–359.
Cailliet, G.M., Smith, W.D., Mollet, H.F., and Goldman, K.J., 2006, Age and growth studies of chondrichthyan fishes: the need for consistency in terminology, verification, validation, and growth function fitting: Environmental Biology of Fishes, v. 77, p. 211228.
Cappetta, H., 1970, Les sélaciens du Miocène de la région de Montpellier: Paleovertebrata, Mémoire Extraordinaire, 139 p.
Cappetta, H., 1980, Modification du satut générique de queleques espèces de sélaciens crétacés et tertiares: Palaeovertebrata, v. 10, p. 2942.
Cappetta, H., 1986, Types dentaires adaptaifs chez les selaciens actuels et post-paleozoiques: Paleovertebrata, v. 16, p. 5776.
Cappetta, H., 1987, Chondrichthyes II: Mesozoic and Cenozoic Elasmobranchii. Handbook of Paleoichthyologie, 3B: Stuttgart, Gustav Fischer Verlag, 193 p.
Cappetta, H., 2012, Chondrichthyes II (Mesozoic and Cenozoic Elasmobranchii: Teeth). Handbook of Paleoichthyology, 3E: Stuttgart, Gustav Fischer Verlag, 512 p.
Cappetta, H., and Nolf, D., 1991, Les sélaciens du Pliocène inférieur de Le-Puget-sur-Argens (Sud-Est de la France): Palaeontographica Abteilung A, p. 49–67.
Caretto, P.G., 1972, Osservazoini tassonomiche su alcuni Galeoidei del Miocene Piemontese: Bolletino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, v. 11, p. 1485.
Carrillo-Briceño, J.D., Aguilera, O.A., and Rodriguez, F., 2014, Fossil Chondrichthyes from the central eastern Pacific Ocean and their paleoceanographic significance: Journal of South American Earth Sciences, v. 51, p. 7690. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsames.2014.01.001.
Carrillo-Briceño, J.D., De Gracia, C., Pimiento, C., Aguilera, O.A., Kindlimann, R., Santamarina, P., and Jaramillo, C., 2015a, A new Late Miocene chondrichthyan assemblage from the Chagres Formation, Panama: Journal of South American Earth Sciences, v. 60, p. 5670.
Carrillo-Briceño, J.D., Maxwell, E., Aguilera, O.A., Sánchez, R., and Sánchez-Villagra, M.R., 2015b, Sawfishes and other elasmobranch assemblages from the Mio-Pliocene of the South Caribbean (Urumaco sequence, Northwestern Venezuela): PLoS One, 10 (10), e0139230. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139230.
Carrillo-Briceño, J.D., Argyriou, T., Zapata, V., Kindlimann, R., and Jaramillo, C., 2015c, A new early Miocene (Aquitanian) Elasmobranchii assemblage from the Guajira Peninsula, Colombia. Ameghiniana. v. 53, n. 2. <>.
Case, G.R., 1980, A selachian fauna from the Trent Formation, Lower Miocene (Aquitanian) of Eastern North Carolina: Palaeontographica Abt. A, v. 171, p. 75103.
Casper, B.M., Domingo, A., Gaibor, N., Heupel, M.R., Kotas, E., Lamónaca, A.F., Pérez Jimenez, J.C., Simpfendorfer, C., Smith, W.D., Stevens, J.D., Soldo, A., and Vooren, C.M., 2005, Sphyrna zygaena: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. (accessed August 2015).
Cigala-Fulgosi, F., 1983, First Record of Alopias superciliosus (Lowe, 1839) in the Mediterranean, with Notes on Some Fossil Species of the Genus Alopias : Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, v. 84, p. 211229.
Cigala-Fulgosi, F., 1988, Additions to the Eocene and Pliocene Fish Fauna of Italy: evidence of Alopias cf. denticulatus Cappetta, 1981 in the Bartonian-Priabonian of the Monte Piano Marl (Northern Apennines) and of A. superciliosus (Lowe, 1840) in the Pliocene of Tuscany (Chondrichthyes, Alopiidae): Tertiary Research, v. 10, p. 9399.
Clark, T.B., Smith, W.D., and Bizzarro, J.J., 2006a, Mobula thurstoni: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. (accessed July 2015).
Clark, T.B., Smith, W.D., and Bizzarro, J.J., 2006b, Mobula tarapacana: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. (accessed July 2015).
Claro, R., 1994, Características generales de la ictiofauna, in Claro, R., ed., Ecología de los peces marinos de Cuba: Instituto de Oceanología Academia de Ciencias de Cuba and Centro de Investigaciones de Quintana Roo, Mexico, p. 55–70.
Coates, A.G., and Obando, J.A., 1996, The geologic evolution of the Central American Isthmus, in Jackson, J.B.C., Budd, A.F., and Coates, A.G., eds., Evolution and Environment in Tropical America: Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p. 2156.
Coates, A.G., Collins, L.S., Aubry, M.P., and Berggren, W.A., 2004, The geology of the Darien, Panama, and the late Miocene–Pliocene collision of the Panama arc with northwestern South America: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 116, p. 13271344.
Collins, L.S., Coates, A.G., Berggren, W.A., Aubry, M.P., and Zhang, J.J., 1996, The late Miocene Panama isthmian strait: Geology, v. 24, p. 687690.
Compagno, L.J.V., 1973, lnterrelationships of living elasmobranchs: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, v. 53, p. 1561.
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984, FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date: Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 655 p.
Compagno, L.J.V., 1988, Sharks of the Order Carcharhiniformes: Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 486 p.
Compagno, L.J.V., 1990, Alternative life-history styles of cartilaginous fishes in time and space: Environmental Biology of Fishes, v. 10, p. 3375.
Compagno, L.J.V., 1997, Myliobatidae. Eagle rays, in Carpenter, K.E., and Niem, V.H., eds., FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes. Part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae): Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, p. 15111519.
Compagno, L.J.V., 1998, Lamnidae. Mackerel sharks, makos, white sharks, porbeagles, in Carpenter, K.E., and Niem, V.H., eds., FAO Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific: Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, p. 12741278.
Compagno, L.J.V., 2001, Sharks of the World. An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Shark Species Known to Date. Vol. 2. Bullhead, mackerel and carpet sharks (Heterodontformes, Lamniformes and Orectolobiformes). FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes: Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 269 p.
Compagno, L.J.V., and Marshall, A.D., 2006, Rhynchobatus luebberti, in IUCN 2011, IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <>.
Compagno, L.J.V., and Niem, V.H., 1998, Squalidae. Dogfish sharks, in Carpenter, K.E., and Niem, V.H., eds., FAO Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific: Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, p. 12131232.
Compagno, L.J.V. and Springer, S., 1971, Iago, a new genus of carcharhinid sharks, with a redescription of I. omanensis : Fishery Bulletin, v. 69, p. 615626.
Compagno, L.J.V., Ebert, D.A., and Smale, M.J., 1989, Guide to the Sharks and Rays of Southern Africa: London, New Holland (Publ.) Ltd., 158 p.
Compagno, L.J.V., Dando, M., and Fowler, S., 2005, Sharks of the World: Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 368 p.
Cox, G., and Francis, M., 1997, Sharks and Rays of New Zealand: Canterbury, NZ, Canterbury University Press, University of Canterbury, 68 p.
Cuvier, G.L.C.F.D., 1829, Le regne animal, distribue dapres son organisation, pour servir de base a l’histoire naturelle des animaux et d’introduction a l’anatomie comparee. Edition 2: Paris, Deterville, 406 p.
De Muizon, C., and De Vries, T.J., 1985, Geology and paleontology of late Cenozoic marine deposits in the Sacaco area (Peru): Geologische Rundschau, v. 74, p. 547563.
Donovan, S.K., and Gunter, G.C., 2001, Fossil sharks from Jamaica: Bulletin of the Mizunami Fossil Museum, v. 28, p. 211215.
Duque-Caro, H., 1990, Neogene stratigraphy, palaeoceanography and palaeobiogeography in northwest South America and the evolution of the Panama Seaway: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 77, p. 203234.
Eschmeyer, W.N., 1998, Catalog of Fishes: San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences. v. 1–3, p. 12905. (also CD-ROM with Access database).
Euphrasen, B.A., 1790, Raja (Narinari): Kongliga Vetenskaps Akademiens nya Handlingar, Stockholm, v. 11, p. 217219.
Feitoza, B.M., Rocha, L.A., Luiz-Júnior, O.J., Floeter, S.R., and Gasparini, J.L., 2003, Reef fishes of St. Paul’s Rocks: new records and notes on biology and zoogeography: aqua International Journal of Icthyology, v. 7, p. 6182.
Frazzetta, T.H., 1988, The mechanics of cutting and the form of shark teeth (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii): Zoomorphology, v. 108, p. 93107.
Garcia, S., 1994, World review of highly migratory species and straddling stocks: FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 337, Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 70 p.
Garman, S., 1913, The Plagiostomia (Sharks, Skates and Rays): Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 528 p.
Garrick, J.A.F., 1985, Additions to a Revision of the Shark Genus Carcharhinus: Synonymy of Aprionodon and Hypoprion, and Description of a New Species of Carcharhinus (Carcharhinidae): National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service Technical Report, v. 34, p. 126.
Garrick, J.A.F., Backus, R.H., and Gibbs, R.H. Jr., 1964, Carcharhinus floridanus, the silky shark, a synonym of C. falciformis : Copeia, v. 1964, p. 369375.
Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, E., 1817, Poissons du Nil, de la Mer Rouge et de la Méditerranée, in Description de l’Egypte ou recueil des observations et des recherches qui ont été faites en Égypte pendant l’expedition de l’Armée fracais, publié par les orders de sa Majesté–L’Empereur Napoléon le Grand (Imprimerie Impériale): Paris, Histoire Naturelle, v. 1, pl. 1827.
Gibbes, R.W., 1848–1849, Monograph of the fossil Squalidae of the United States: Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, ser. v. 2, pt. 1, p. 139206.
Gilbert, C.R., 1967, A revision of the Hammerhead Sharks (Family Sphyrnidae): Proceedings of the United States National Museum, v. 119, n. 3539, p. 1–82.
Gill, T., 1872, Arrangement of the families of fishes, or Classes Pisces, Marsupiobranchii, and Leptocardii: Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, v. 247, p. 149.
Gill, T., 1893, Families and subfamilies of fishes: Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 6, p. 125138.
Gillette, D.D., 1984, A marine chondrichthyan fauna from the Miocene of Panama, and the Tertiary Caribbean faunal province: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 4, p. 172186.
Glikman, L.S., 1964, Sharks of the Paleogene and their stratigraphic significance: Moscow, Nauka Press, 229 p. (in Russian).
Goodrich, E.S., 1909, Vertebrata Craniata: (First Fascicle: Cyclostomes and Fishes): London, Adam and Charles Black, 518 p.
Gottfried, M.D., 1993, An associated tiger shark dentition from the Miocene of Maryland: The Mosasaur, v. 5, p. 5961.
Gottfried, M.D., Compagno, L.J.V., and Bowman, S.C., 1996, Size and skeletal anatomy of the giant megatooth shark Carcharodon megalodon , in Klimley, A., and Ainley, D., eds., Great White Sharks: The Biology of Carcharodon carcharias : San Diego, CA, Academic Press, p. 5589.
Gray, J. E., 1851, List of the specimens of fish in the collection of the British Museum. Part I. Chondropterygii: London, British Museum (Natural History), 160 p.
Griffith, E. and Smith, C.H., 1834, The class Pisces, arranged by the Baron Cuvier, with supplementary additions, by Edward Griffith, F.R.S. and Lieut.-Col. Charles Hamilton Smith, F.R., L.S.S., in Baron Cuvier, ed., The Animal Kingdom Arranged in Conformity with its Organization, with Additional Descriptions of all the Species Hitherto Named, and of Many Not Before Noticed, By Edward Griffith, and Others: London, L.S.S. & Co., 680 p.
Grogan, E.D., Lund, R., and Greenfest-Allen, E., 2012, The origin and relationships of early chondrichthyans, in Carrier, J.C., Musick, J.A., and Heithaus, M.R., eds., Biology of Sharks and Their Relatives, 2nd ed.: New York, CRC Press, p. 329.
Gudger, E.W., 1937, Abnormal dentition in sharks, Selachii: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, v. 73, p. 249280.
Heist, E.J., Musick, J.A., and Graves, J.E., 1996, Genetic population structure of the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) inferred from restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of mitochondrial DNA: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, v. 53, p. 583588.
Hendy, A.J.W., 2013, Spatial and stratigraphic variation of marine paleoenvironments in the upper Miocene Gatun Formation, Isthmus of Panama: Palaios, v. 28, p. 210227.
Herman, J., 1982, Additions to the Eocene fish fauna of Belgium. 5. The discovery of Mustelus teeth in Ypresian, Paniselian and Wemmelian strata: Tertiary Research, v. 3, p. 189193.
Herman, J., Hovestadt-Euler, M., and Hovestadt, D.C., 1988, Part A: Selachii. No. 2a: Order: Carcharhiniformes - Family: Triakidae: Bulletin de L’Institut Royal Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, v. 58, p. 99126.
Hodell, D.A., and Woodruff, F., 1994, Variations in the strontium isotopic ratio of seawater during the Miocene: stratigraphic and geochemical implications: Paleoceanography, v. 9, 405426.
Hoey, J.J., 1983, Analysis of longline fishing effort for apex predators (swordfish, shark, and tuna) in the western North Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico [Ph.D. Dissertation]: Kingston, University of Rhode Island, 288 p.
Holts, D.B., and Bedford, D.W., 1993, Horizontal and vertical movements of the shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus, in the Southern California Bight: Marine and Freshwater Research, v. 44, p. 901909.
Hooper, D.U., Solan, M., Symstad, A., Diaz, S., Gessner, M.O., Buchmann, N., Degrange, V., Grime, P., Hulot, F., Mermillod-Blondin, F., Roy, J., Spehn, E., and Van Peer, L., 2002, Species diversity, functional diversity and ecosystem functioning, in Loreau, M., Naeem, S., and Inchausti, P., eds., Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Syntheses and Perspectives, v. 17: Oxford, Oxford University Press, p. 195208.
Howarth, R.J., and McArthur, J.M., 1997, Statistics for strontium isotope stratigraphy: a robust LOWESS fit to the marine Sr‐isotope curve for 0 to 206 Ma, with look‐up table for derivation of numeric age: The Journal of Geology, v. 105, p. 441456.
Hulbert, R.C. Jr., Petkewich, R.M., Bishop, G.A., Bukry, D., and Aleshire, D.P., 1998, A new middle Eocene protocetid whale (Mammalia: Cetacea: Archaeoceti) and associated biota from Georgia: Journal of Paleontology, v. 72, p. 907927.
Humann, P., and Deloach, N., 1993, Reef fish identification. Galápagos: Jacksonville, FL, New World Publications, Inc., 267 p.
Huxley, T.H., 1880, On the application of the laws of evolution to the arrangement of the Vertebrata, and more particularly of the Mammalia: Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, v. 43, p. 649–662.
Iturralde-Vinent, M., Hubbell, G., and Rojas, R., 1996, Catalogue of Cuban fossil Elasmobranchii (Paleocene to Pliocene) and paleogeographic implications of their lower to middle Miocene occurrence: Journal of Geological Society of Jamaica, v. 31, p. 721.
Jordan, D.S., 1888, A Manual of Vertebrate Animals of the Northern United States, Including the District North and East of the Ozark Mountains, South of the Laurentian Hills, North of Virginia, and East of the Missouri River, Inclusive of Marine Species (fifth edition): Chicago, A.C. McClurg, 375 p.
Jordan, D.S., and Evermann, B.W., 1896, The fishes of North and Middle America: Bulletin of the United States National Museum, v. 47, p. 11240.
Jordan, D.S., and Hannibal, H., 1923, Fossil sharks and rays of the Pacific Slope of North America: Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, v. 22, p. 2763.
Kent, B.W., 1994, Fossil Sharks of the Chesapeake Bay Region: Columbia, Maryland, Egan Rees and Boyer, Inc., 146 p.
Kiraly, S.J., Moore, J.A., and Jasinski, P.H., 2003, Deepwater and other sharks of the U.S. Atlantic Ocean Exclusive Economic Zone: Marine Fisheries Review. v. 65, n. 4, p. 164.
Kirby, M.X., and MacFadden, B.J., 2005, Was southern Central America an archipelago or a peninsula in the middle Miocene? A test using land-mammal body size: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 228, p. 193202.
Kirby, M.X., Jones, D.S., and Ávila, S.P., 2007, Neogene shallow-marine paleoenvironments and preliminary strontium isotope chronostratigraphy of Santa Maria Island, Azores, in Ávila, S.P., and De Frias Martin, A.M., eds., Proceedings of the 1st “Atlantic Islands Neogene” International Congress, Ponta Delgada, 12–14 June 2006: Açoreana, Suplemento, 5, p. 112–115.
Kirby, M.X., Jones, D.S., and MacFadden, B.J., 2008, Lower Miocene stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and its bearing on the Central American Peninsula: PLoS One, 3(7), e2791.
Klausewitz, W., 1960, Die Typen und Typoide des Naturmuseums Senckenberg, 23: Pisces, Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii: Senckenbergiana Biologica, v. 41, p. 289296.
Klunzinger, C.B., 1880, Die von Müller’sche Sammlung australischer Fische in Stuttgart: Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichten Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, v. 80, p. 325430.
Koepnick, R.B., Burke, W.H., Denison, R.E., Heatherington, E.A., Nelson, H.F., Otto, J.B., and Waite, L.E., 1985, Construction of the seawater 87Sr/86Sr curve for the Cenozoic and Cretaceous: supporting data: Chemical Geology (Isotope Geoscience Section), v. 58, p. 5581.
Lambert, O., Bianucci, G., Post, K., Muizon, C., Salas-Gismondi, R., Urbina, M., and Reumer, J., 2010, The giant bite of a new raptorial sperm whale from the Miocene epoch of Peru: Nature, v. 466, p. 105108.
Last, P.R., and Stevens, J.D., 1994, Sharks and Rays of Australia: Clayton, VIC, Australia, CSIRO Publishing, 513 p.
Laurito, C.A., 1999, Los selaceos fosiles de la localidad de Alto Guayacan (y otros ictiolitos asociados), Mioceno Superior–Plioceno Inferior de la Formación Uscari, Provincia de Limon, Costa Rica: San Jose, Editora San Jose, 168 p.
Laurito, C.A., 2004, Ictiofauna de la Formación Punta Judas, Mioceno Medio, Provincia de Puntarenas, Costa Rica: Brenesia, v. 62, p. 5773.
Laurito, C.A., and Valerio, A.L., 2005, First record of Rhynchotherium blicki (Frick, 1933) for the Late Cenozoic of Costa Rica: Revista Geologica de America Central, v. 33, p. 7582.
Laurito, C.A., and Valerio, A.L., 2008, Ictiofauna de la localidad de San Gerardo de Limoncito, Formación Curré, Mioceno Superior, cantón de Coto Brus, provincia de Puntarenas, Costa Rica: Revista Geológica de América Central, v. 39, p. 6585.
Leder, R.M., 2013, Eocene Carcharinidae and Triakidae (Elasmobranchii) of Crimea and Kazakhstan: Leipziger Geowissenschaften, v. 20, p. 157.
Leriche, M., 1927, Les poissones de la Molasse Suisse: Memoires de la Societe Paléontologique Suisse, v. 46–47, p. 1120.
Lesueur, C.A., 1818, Description of several new species of North American fishes: Journal of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, v. 1, p. 222235.
Linck, H.F., 1790, Versuch einer Eintheilung der Fische nach den Zahnen: Magazin für das Neueste aus der Physik und Naturgeschichte, v. 6, n. 3, p. 2838.
Linnaeus, C., 1758, Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae: Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis, 10th ed.: Stockholm, Laurentius Salvius, 824 p.
Lloyd, R.E., 1908, On two new species of eagle-rays (Myliobatidae), with notes on the skull of the genus Ceratoptera : Records of the Indian Museum, v. 2, p. 175180.
Long, D.J., 1993, Late Miocene and early Pliocene fish assemblages from the north central coast of Chile: Tertiary Research, v. 14, p. 117126.
Longbottom, A.E., 1979, Miocene sharks’ teeth from Ecuador: Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), London, (Geology), v. 32, p. 5770.
Love, M.S., Mecklenburg, C.W., Mecklenburg, T.A., and Thorsteinson, L.K., 2005, Resource Inventory of Marine and Estuarine Fishes of the West Coast and Alaska: A Checklist of North Pacific and Arctic Ocean Species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon Border: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Seattle, Washington, 98104, OCS Study MMS 2005-030 and USGS/NBII 2005-001.
Lowe, R.T., 1839–1841, A paper from the Rev. R.T. Lowe, M.A., describing certain new species of Madeiran fishes, and containing additional information relating to those already described: Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, v. 8, p. 36–39.
Lucifora, L.O., García, V.B., and Worm, B., 2011, Global diversity hotspots and conservation priorities for sharks: PLoS One, 6(5), e19356.
MacFadden, B.J., Morgan, G.S., Jones, D.S., and Rincon, A.F., 2015, Gomphothere proboscidean (Gomphotherium) from the late Neogene of Panama: Journal of Paleontology, v. 89, p. 360365.
MacFadden, B.J., Jones, D.S., Jud, N.A., Moreno, J., Morgan, G.S., Portell, R.W., Perez, V.J., Moran, S.M., and Wood, A.R., 2017, Integrated chronology, flora and faunas, and paleoecology of the Alajuela Formation, late Miocene of Panana: PLoS One, v. 12(1), p. e0170300.
MacPhee, R.D.E., Iturralde-Vinent, M.A., and Gaffney, E.S., 2003, Domo de Zaza, an early Miocene vertebrate locality in south-central Cuba, with notes on the tectonic evolution of Puerto Rico and the Mona Passage: American Museum Novitates, v. 3394, p. 142.
Martin, R.A., 2005, Conservation of freshwater and euryhaline elasmobranchs: a review: Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, v. 85, p. 10491073.
McArthur, J.M., 1994, Recent trends in strontium isotope stratigraphy: Terra Nova, v. 6, p. 331358.
McArthur, J.M., Howarth, R.J., and Bailey, T.R., 2001, Strontium isotope stratigraphy: LOWESS version 3: best fit to the marine Sr‐isotope curve for 0–509 Ma and accompanying look‐up table for deriving numerical age: The Journal of Geology, v. 109, p. 155170.
McEachran, J.D., 1995, Urolophidae. Rayas redondas, in Fischer, W., Krupp, F., Schneider, W., Sommer, C., Carpenter, K.E., and Niem, V., eds., Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca: Pacifico Centro-Oriental, v. 3, p. 786792.
McEachran, J.D., and Carvalho, M.D., 2002, Batoid fishes, in Carpenter, K.E., ed., The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Volume 1: Introduction, Molluscs, Crustaceans, Hagfishes, Sharks, Batoid Fishes and Chimaeras. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fisheries Purposes and American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Special Publication No 5: Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, v. 1, p. 507–589.
McEachran, J.D., and Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., 1995, Mobulidae. Mantas, diablos, in Fischer, W., Krupp, F., Schneider, W., Sommer, C., Carpenter, K.E., and Niem, V., eds., Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para los Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro Oriental, 3 v.: Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, p. 759764.
McEachran, J.D., Dunn, K.A., and Miyake, T., 1996, Interrelationships of the batoid fishes (Chondrichthyes: Batoidei), in Stiassny, M.L.J., Parenti, L.R., and Johnson, G.D., eds., Interrelationships of Fishes: San Diego, London, Academic Press, p. 6384.
McMillan, P.J., Griggs, L.H., Francis, M.P., Marriott, P.J., Paul, L.J., Mackay, E., Wood, B.A., Sui, H., and Wei, F., 2011, New Zealand fishes. Volume 3: a field guide to common species caught by surface fishing: New Zealand Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Report No. 69, 145 p.
Michael, S.W., 1993, Reef Sharks and Rays of the World. A Guide to Their Identification, Behavior, and Ecology: Monterey, CA, Sea Challengers, 107 p.
Mondal, S., Das, S., Mallick, S., and Adhikary, D., 2009, Miocene shark teeth assemblages and ancillary fish taxa from Baripada, Orissa: taxonomic revision and a global palaeobiogeographic overview: Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, v. 54, p. 1135.
Montes, C., Bayona, G.A., Cardona, A.A., Bush, D.M., Silva, C.A., Moron, S.E., Hoyos, N., Ramirez, D.A., Jaramillo, C.A., and Valencia, V., 2012a, Arc-continent collision and orocline formation: closing of the Central American seaway: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 117, B04105.
Montes, C., Cardona, A., Bayona, G.A., McFadden, R., Buchs, D.M., Morón, S.E., Silva, C.A., Hoyos, N., Restrepo-Moreno, S., Ramírez, D.A., Wilson, J., Ortiz, J., Farris, D., Jaramillo, C.A., Valencia, V., Bryan, J., and Flores, J.A., 2012b, Evidence for middle Eocene and younger land emergence in central Panama: Implications for Isthmus closure: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, v. 124, p. 780799.
Moore, J.C., 2001, Diversity, taxonomic versus functional, in Levin, S., ed., Encyclopedia of Biodiversity: Oxford, Elsevier, v. 2, p. 205215.
Moss, M.L., 1977, Skeletal tissues in sharks: American Zoologist, v. 17, p. 335392.
Müller, J., and Henle, F.G.J., 1837, Gattungen der Haifische und Rochen nach einer vom ihm mit Hrn Henle unternomenen gemeinschaftlichen Arbeit uber die Naturgeschichte der Knorpelfische: Berichte der königlich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Berlin, v. 1837, p. 111118.
Müller, J., and Henle, F.G.J., 1838, On the generic characters of cartilaginous fishes: Magazine of Natural History, v. 2, p. 3391.
Müller, J., and Henle, F.G.J., 1839–1841, Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen: Berlin, Verlag von Veit and Co., 200 p.
Mundy, B.C., 2005, Checklist of the fishes of the Hawaiian Archipelago: Bishop Museum Bulletins in Zoology, v. 6, p. 1704.
Nair, R.V., and Soundararajan, R., 1976, On the occurrence of the stingray Dasyatis (Dasyatis) microps (Annandale) on the Madras Coast and in the Gulf of Mannar: Indian Journal of Fisheries, v. 23, p. 278279.
Nardo, J.D., 1827, Prodromus observationum et disquisitionum ichthyologiae Adriaticae: Oken’s Isis, v. 20, p. 472631.
Naylor, G.J.P., and Marcus, L.F., 1994, Identifying isolated shark teeth of the genus Carcharhinus to species: relevance for tracking phyletic change through the fossil record: American Museum Novitates, v. 3109, p. 153.
Nieves-Rivera, A.M., Ruiz-Yantin, M., and Gottfried, M.D., 2003, New record of the Lamnid Shark Carcharodon megalodon from the middle Miocene of Puerto Rico: Caribbean Journal of Science, v. 39, p. 223227.
Norman, J.R., 1939, Fishes. The John Murray Expedition 1933–34: Scientific Reports, John Murray Expedition, v. 7, p. 1116.
Notarbartolo Di Sciara, G., 1987, A revisionary study of the genus Mobula Rafinesque, 1810 (Chondrichthyes: Mobulidae) with the description of a new species: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, v. 91, p. 191.
Notarbartolo Di Sciara, G., 1988, Natural history of the rays of the genus Mobula in the Gulf of California: Fishery Bulletin, v. 86, p. 4566.
Nyberg, K.G., Ciampaglio, C.N., and Wray, G.A., 2006, Tracing the ancestry of the great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, using morphometric analyses of fossil teeth: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 26, p. 806814.
Oksanen, J., Blanchet, F.G., Kindt, R., Legendre, P., O’Hara, R.G., Simpson, G.L., Solymos, P., Stevens, M.H.H., and Wagner, H., 2010, Vegan: community ecology package: R package, version 1. 1720.
Peron, F., and Lesueur, C.A., 1822, Description of a Squalus, of a very large size, which was taken on the coast of New Jersey: Journal of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, v. 2, p. 343352.
Petchey, O.L., and Gaston, K.J., 2006, Functional diversity: back to basics and looking forward: Ecology Letters, v. 9, p. 741758.
Peyer, B., 1968, Comparative Odontology: Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 347 p.
Philippi, R.A., 1892, Algunos peces de Chile: Anales del Museo Nacional de Chile: Primera seccion, Zoología, v. 3, p. 117.
Philippi, R.A., 1893, Algunos peces de Chile: Anales del Museo Nacional de Chile, v. 1, n. 3, p. 117.
Pimiento, C., and Balk, M.A., 2015, Body-size trends of the extinct giant shark Carcharocles megalodon: a deep-time perspective on marine apex predators: Paleobiology, v. 41, p. 479490.
Pimiento, C., and Clements, C.F., 2015, When did Carcharocles megalodon become extinct? A new analysis of the fossil record: PLoS ONE, 10(1), e111086.
Pimiento, C., Ehret, D.J., MacFadden, B.J., and Hubbell, G., 2010, Ancient nursery area for the extinct giant shark Megalodon from the Miocene of Panama: PLoS ONE, 5(5), e10552.
Pimiento, C., González-Barba, G., Ehret, D.J., Hendy, A.J., MacFadden, B.J., and Jaramillo, C., 2013a, Sharks and rays (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the late Miocene Gatun Formation of Panama: Journal of Paleontology, v. 87, p. 755774.
Pimiento, C., Gonzalez-Barba, G., Hendy, A.J., Jaramillo, C., MacFadden, B.J., Montes, C., Suarez, S. C., and Shippritt, M., 2013b, Early Miocene chondrichthyans from the Culebra Formation, Panama: a window into marine vertebrate faunas before closure the Central American Seaway: Journal of South American Earth Sciences, v. 42, p. 159170.
Pimiento, C., MacFadden, B.J., Clements, C.F., Varela, S., Jaramillo, C., Velez‐Juarbe, J., and Silliman, B.R., 2016, Geographical distribution patterns of Carcharocles megalodon over time reveal clues about extinction mechanisms: Journal of Biogeography doi: 10.1111/jbi.12754.
Poey, F., 1868, Synopsis piscium cubensium: Catalogo Razonado de los peces de la isla de Cuba: Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba, v. 2, p. 279484.
Portell, R.W., Hubbell, G., Donovan, S.K., Green, J.L., Harper, D.A.T., and Pickerill, R., 2008, Miocene sharks in the Kendeace and Grand Bay formations of Carriacou, The Grenadines, Lesser Antilles: Caribbean Journal of Science, v. 44, p. 279286.
Purdy, R.W., 1996, Paleoecology of fossil white sharks, in Klimley, A., and Ainley, D., eds., Great White Sharks: The Biology of Carcharodon carcharias : San Diego, CA, Academic Press, p. 6778.
Purdy, R.W., Schneider, V.P., Applegate, S.P., McLellan, J.H., Meyer, R.L., and Slaughter, B.H., 2001, The Neogene sharks, rays, and bony fishes from Lee Creek Mine, Aurora, North Carolina: Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, v. 90, p. 71202.
Quoy, J.R.C., and Gaimard, P., 1824–1825, Description des Poissons. Chapitre IX, in Freycinet,, ed., Voyage autour du Monde...exécuté sur les corvettes de L. M. “L’Uranie” et “La Physicienne,” pendant les années 1817, 1818, 1819 et 1820. Description des Poissons. Zoologie: Paris, Ch. 9., p. 192–401. (1–328 in 1824; 329–616 in 1825)
R Development Core Team, 2012, R: A language and environment for statistical computing: Vienna, Austria, R Foundation for Statistical Computing,. ISBN 3-900051-07-0,
Radcliffe, L., 1916, The Sharks and Rays of Beaufort, North Carolina: Bulletin of the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, v. 34, p. 239384.
Rafinesque, C.S., 1810, Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nouve specie di Animali e Piante della Sicilia con varie osservazioni sopra I medesimi: Palermo, Per le stampe di Sanfilippo, 105 p.
Reif, W.-E., 1988, Evolution of high swimming velocities in sharks—a case of escalation?: Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Palaontologie, Monatshefte, v. 6, p. 361379.
Reiner, F., 1996, Catálogo dos peixes do arquipélago de Cabo Verde: Publicações avulsas do IPIMAR, v. 2, 339 p.
Reis, M.A.F., 2005, Chondrichthyan fauna from the Pirabas Formation, Miocene of northern Brazil, with comments on paleobiogeography: Anuaırio do Instituto de Geociencias, v. 28, p. 3158.
Ritter, E.K., 2014, Coasting of pelagic thresher sharks, Alopias pelagicus, in comparison to two other species of the same ecomorphotype, and the limitation of video capturing in natural settings: Environmental Sciences, v. 2, p. 1323.
Roberts, T.R., and Karnasuta, J., 1987, Dasyatis laosensis, a new whiptailed stingray (family Dasyatidae), from the Mekong River of Laos and Thailand: Environmental Biology of Fishes, v. 20, p. 161167.
Ruppell, W.P.E.S., 1835–1838, Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehorig entdeckt und beschrieben von Dr. Eduard Ruppell. Fisches des rothen Meeres: Frankfurt am Main, Siegmund Schmerber, 148 p.
Sanchez-Villagra, M.R., Burnham, R.J., Campbell, D.C., Feldmann, R.M., Gaffney, E.S., Kay, R.F., Lozsan, R., Purdy, R., and Thewissen, J.G.M., 2000, A new near-shore marine fauna and flora from the early Neogene of northwestern Venezuela: Journal of Paleontology, v. 74, p. 957968.
Schwartz, F.J., 2007, Tail spine characteristics of stingrays (Order Myliobatiformes) frequenting the FAO fishing area 61 (20°N 120°E - 50°N 150°E) of the northwest Pacific Ocean: Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement 14, p. 121130.
Sepulchre, P., Arsouze, T., Donnadieu, Y., Dutay, J.C., Jaramillo, C., Le Bras, J., Martin, E., Montes, C., and Waite, A.J., 2014, Consequences of shoaling of the Central American Seaway determined from modeling Nd isotopes: Paleoceanography, v. 29, p. 176189.
Shelton, B.J., 1952, Geology and Petroleum Prospects of Darien, Southeastern Panama [M.S. Thesis]: Corvallis, OR, Oregon State University, 67 p.
Silas, E.G., and Selvaraj, G.S.D., 1985, On the occurrence of the rough-tail stingray Dasyatis centroura (Mitchill) in Indian waters: Indian Journal of Fisheries, v. 32, p. 248255.
Smith, C.L., 1997, National Audubon Society Field Guide to Tropical Marine Fishes of the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, the Bahamas, and Bermuda: New York, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 720 p.
Smith, S.E., Rasmussen, R.C., Ramon, D.A., and Cailliet, G.M., 2008, The biology and ecology of thresher sharks (Alopiidae), in Camhi, M.D., Pikitch, E.K., and Babcock, E.A., eds., Sharks of the Open Ocean: Biology, Fisheries and Conservation: Oxford, UK, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, p. 6068. DOI: 10.1002/9781444302516.ch4.
Sommer, C.W., Schneider, W., and Poutiers, J.-M., 1996, FAO Species Identification Field Guide for Fishery Purposes. The living marine resources of Somalia: Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 376 p.
Springer, V.G., 1964, A revision of the carcharhinid shark genera Scoliodon, Loxodon, and Rhizoprionodon: Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum, v. 115, p. 559–632.
Springer, V.G., and Gold, J.P., 1989, Sharks in Question: Washington, DC, Smithsonian Institution Press, 176 p.
Stewart, R.H., 1966, The Rio Bayano Basin, A geologic report: Unpublished report of the Inter Oceanic Canal Studies, Panama Canal Company, Memorandum PCC-4, 18 p.
Storm, R., 1894, Troisieme note sur les poisons du terrain rupelien: Bulletin de la Société Belge de Géologie, de Paléontologie et d’Hydrologie, v. 8, p. 6782.
Terry, R.A., 1956, A geological reconnaissance of Panama: Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences, v. 23, p. 191.
Tessman, N., 1966, Cenozoic Sharks of Florida [M.S. thesis]: Gainesville, FL, University of Florida, Florida State Museum, 132 p.
Uhen, M. D., Coates, A. G., Jaramillo, C. A., Montes, C., Pimiento, C., Rincon, A., Strong, N., and Velez-Juarbe, J., 2010, Marine mammals from the Miocene of Panama: Journal of South American Earth Sciences, v. 30, p. 167175.
Valerio, A.L., and Laurito, C.A., 2008, Dental remains of immature individuals of Rhynchotherium blicki (Frick 1933) of San Gerardo de Limoncito, Coto Brus, Costa Rica: Revista Geológica de América Central, v. 39, p. 8791.
Vasquez, S., and Pimiento, C., 2014, Sharks and Rays from the Tonosi Formation (Eocene of Panamá): Revista Geológica de América Central, v. 51, p. 165169.
Velez-Juarbe, J., Wood, A.R., De Gracia, C., and Hendy, A.J., 2015, Evolutionary patterns among living and fossil kogiid sperm whales: evidence from the Neogene of Central America: PLoS ONE, 10(5), e0129186.
Ward, D., and Bonavia, C., 2001, Additions to, and a review of, the Miocene shark and ray fauna of Malta: The Central Mediterranean Naturalist, v. 3, p. 131146.
White, W.T., Ebert, D.A., Naylor, G.J.P., Ho, H.-H., Clerkin, P., Veríssimo, A., and Cotton, C.F., 2013, Revision of the genus Centrophorus (Squaliformes: Centrophoridae): Part 1 Redescription of Centrophorus granulosus (Bloch & Schneider), a senior synonym of C. acus and C. niaukang Teng: Zootaxa, v. 3752(1), p. 035072.
Whitley, G.P., 1929, Studies in ichthyology: Records of the Australian Museum, v. 17, p. 101143.
Whitley, G.P., 1939, Taxonomic notes on sharks and rays: Australian Zoologist, v. 9, p. 227262.
Whitley, G.P., 1940, The fishes of Australia, Pt. I: The sharks, rays, devilfish, and other primitive fishes of Australia and New Zealand: Sydney, Australia, Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, 280 p.
Winkler, T.C., 1876, Deuxième mémoires sur des dents de poissons fossiles du terrain bruxellien: Archives du Musée Teyler, v. 4, p. 1648.
Yamada, U., Shirai, S., Irie, T., Tokimura, M., Deng, S., Zheng, Y., Li, C., Kim, Y.U., and Kim, Y.S., 1995, Names and illustrations of fishes from the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea: Tokyo, Japan, Overseas Fishery Cooperation Foundation, 288 p.
Zhou, S., and Griffiths, S.P., 2008, Sustainability Assessment for Fishing Effects (SAFE): A new quantitative ecological risk assessment method and its application to elasmobranch bycatch in an Australian trawl fishery: Fisheries Research, v. 91, p. 5668.

Late Miocene chondrichthyans from Lago Bayano, Panama: Functional diversity, environment and biogeography

  • Victor J. Perez (a1) (a2), Catalina Pimiento (a3) (a4), Austin Hendy (a4) (a5), Gerardo González-Barba (a6), Gordon Hubbell (a7) and Bruce J. MacFadden (a1) (a2)...


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed