Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Cretaceous gastropods: contrasts between Tethys and the temperate provinces

  • Norman F. Sohl (a1)

Abstract

During the Cretaceous Period, gastropod faunas show considerable differences in their evolution between the Tethyan Realm (tropical) and the Temperate Realms to the north and south. Like Holocene faunas, prosobranch gastropods constitute the dominant part of Cretaceous marine snail faunas. Entomotaeneata and opisthobranchs usually form all of the remainder. In Tethyan faunas the Archaeogastropoda form a consistent high proportion of total taxa but less than the Mesogastropoda throughout the period. In contrast, the Temperate faunas beginning in Albian times show a decline in percentages of archaeogastropod taxa and a significant increase in the Neogastropoda, until they constitute over 50 percent of the taxa in some faunas. The neogastropods never attain high diversity in the Cretaceous of the Tethyan Realm and are judged to be of Temperate Realm origin.

Cretaceous Tethyan gastropod faunas are closely allied to those of the “corallien fades” of the Jurassic and begin the period evolutionarily mature and well diversified. Greatest diversity in Tethys occurs in the lagoonal shales associated with the rudist or coral framework environments of the Cretaceous carbonate platforms. Their distribution was pan-tropical, extending in instances across the vast reaches of the Pacific. Three categories of Tethyan gastropods are analyzed. The first group consists of those of Jurassic ancestry. Except for the Nerineacea, these taxa are long ranging but evolutionarily conservative, showing only moderate diversification during the Cretaceous, and becoming extinct with the close of the era. The second group originates mainly during the Barremian and Aptian, reaches a climax in diversification during middle Cretaceous time, and usually declines during the latest Cretaceous, with most not lasting through the terminal event. The third group originates late in the Cretaceous and consists of taxa that manage to either survive the Cretaceous-Tertiary crisis or give rise to forms of prominence among Tertiary warm water faunas.

There is a trend among the Tethyan gastropod assemblages for increased provincialism with time. Early and middle Cretaceous taxa are especially widely distributed, but the latest Cretaceous is a time of restricted occurrence for many forms.

Temperate Realm gastropod faunas are less diverse than those of Tethys during the Early Cretaceous. Their source is among long lived, extra-Tethys groups, but is increased, especially during major phases of transgression, by immigrants from Tethys. They show a steady increase in diversity, primarily among the Mesogastropoda and Neogastropoda. This trend culminates in latest Cretaceous times when the gastropod assemblages of the clastic provinces of the inner shelf contain an abundance of taxa outstripping that of any other part of the Cretaceous of either realm.

Extinction at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary is much less pronounced in the Temperate Realm than in the Tethys. Among the Temperate Realm assemblages loss is of generic and species level taxa, unlike the extinction of the family Actaeonellidae or the superfamily Nerineacea and a host of less prominent groups in Tethys. In essence, by the late Maastrichtian, gastropod faunas of the Temperate Realm had attained a modern faunal aspect.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Abdel-Gawad, G. I. 1986. Maastrichtian non-cephalopod mollusks (Scaphopoda, Gastropoda, and Bivalvia) of the Middle Vistula Valley, Central Poland. Acta Geologica Polonica, 36(1–3), 211 p.
Alencaster, G. A. de. 1956. Pelecipodos y gasteropódos de Cretácico Inferior de la region de San Juan Raya–Zapotitlán, Estado de Puebla. México Universidad National Autonoma, Institute de Geología Paleontología Méxicana 2, 47 p.
Allison, E. C. 1955. Middle Cretaceous Gastropoda from Punta China, Baja California, Mexico. Journal of Paleontology, 29:400432.
Anderson, F. M. 1902. Cretaceous deposits of the Pacific Coast. California Academy of Sciences Proceedings, 2:154.
Andert, H. 1934. Die Kreideablagerungen zwischen Elbe und Jeschken. Teil 3. Die Fauna der obersten Kreide in Sachsen, Böhmen und Schlesien. Preussischen Geologischen Landesanstalt Abhandlungen, Neue Folge, 159, 477 p.
Batten, R. L. 1975. The Scissurellidae—are they neotenously derived fissurellids? (Archaeogastropoda). Novitates of the American Museum of Natural History, 2567, 29 p.
Bein, A. 1976. Rudist fringing reefs of Cretaceous shallow carbonate platform of Israel. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 60:258272.
Binckhorst, J. T. 1873. Monographic des Gastéropodes et des Céphalopodes de la Craie Supérieure du Limbourg. C. Muquart, Brussels-Leipzig, 83 p.
Blank, M. A. 1974. Class Gastropoda, p. 118157. In Blank, M. A., Krymgol'ts, G., and Sarchinskaya, O. V. (eds.), Atlas of the Upper Cretaceous Fauna of Donbass. Izdatel'stvo, Nedra, Moscow.
Chavan, A. 1946. L'evolution des faunes marine de Molusques dans le nord-ouest de l'Europe de la fin du Crétacé a celle de l'Eocenè. Société Géologique de France Bulletin, 16(4–6):193212.
Choffat, P. 1886–1902. Espèces nouvelles ou peu connues, de la fauna crétacique du Portugal. Portugal Commissao do Servio Geologico, Recueil d'Études Paleontologiques sur la Fauna Crétacique du Portugal, 1, 171 p.
Choffat, P. 1900. Le Crétacique Supérieur au nord du Tage. Portugal Commissao do Servio Geologico, Recueil de Monographes Stratigraphiques sur le Systeme Crétacique du Portugal, 2, 287 p.
Collignon, M. 1949. Le Crétacé Supérieur d'Antonibe, Couches de passage du Crétace au Tertiaire. Annales Géologiques du Service des Mines, 29:73148.
Coquand, H. 1865. Monographic paléontologique de l'etage l'Espagne. Société d'Emulation de la Provence Memoires, 3:191433.
Cossmann, M. 1907. Description des gastropodes et pélécypodes, p. 642. In Pellat, E. and Cossmann, M., Le Barremian supérieur a faciès Urgonian de Brouzet-les-Alais (Gard). Paláeontologie. Société Géologique de France Mémoire 37.
Cossmann, M. 1916. Compliment de l'étude de paléontologique des gisements de Brouzet. Mollusques (Gastropodes et pélécypodes), p. 1035. In de Brun, P., Chatelet, C., and Cossmann, M., Le Barrémian supérieur à faciès Urgonian de Brouzet-les-Alais (Gard) (Partie II). Société Géologique de France Mémoire 51.
Cox, L. R., and Arkell, W. J. 1948–1950. A survey of the Mollusca of the British Oolite series Pt. 2. Palaeontographical Society, London, p. 49105.
Dailey, D. H., and Popenoe, W. P. 1966. Mollusca from the Upper Cretaceous Jalamia Formation, Santa Barbara County, California. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, 65, 41 p.
Darteville, E., and Brebion, P. 1956. Mollusques fossiles du Crétacé de la cote occidentale d'Afrique du Cameroun à Angola; 1, Gastéropodes. Musée Royal Congo Beige Annales, Sciences Géologiques 15, 128 p.
Delpey, G. 1940. Les gastéropodes mésozoiques de la région Libanaise. France, Haut-Commisariat de la République France en Syrie et au Liban, Section d'Études Géologiques, Notes et Mémoires, 326 p.
Delpey, G. 1948. Gastéropodes Mésozoiques de l'ouest de Madagascar. Annales géologique du Madagascar, Service des Mines 15, 35 p.
Deninger, K. 1905. Die Gastropoden der Sächsischen Kreideformation. Beiträge zur Paläontologie und Geologie Österreich-Ungarns und des Orients 18, 35 p.
Dercourt, J., et al. 1985. Présentation de 9 cartes paléogeographiques au 1/20,000,000 s'étendant de l'Atlantique au Pamir pour la Période du Lias à l'Actuel. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, 8 ser., 1:623790.
Destombes, P., and Mongin, D. 1976. L'Albien moyen de Courcelles (Aube). Bulletin d'Information des Géologues du Bassin de Paris, 13:3340.
Dilley, F. C. 1973. Cretaceous larger foraminifera, p. 403419. In Hallam, A. (ed.), Atlas of Paleobiogeography. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Dubar, G. 1948. La Faune Domérienne du Jebel Bou-Dahar. Notes et Mémoires du Service Géologique Maroc 68, 248 p.
Duboul, C. 1947. La faune Saumatre du Campanien inférieur de la Basse Provence Occidentale. Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Marseille Bulletin, 7(1):4563, 7(2): 115–163, 7(4): 196–252.
Dzhalilov, M. R. 1977. Cretaceous gastropods from the southeastern part of Central Asia. Dushambe, Akademiya Nauk Tadzhikskoy S.S.R., 202 p. (in Russian).
Erickson, J. M. 1974. Revision of the Gastropoda of the Fox Hills Formation, Upper Cretaceous (Maestrichtian) of North Dakota. Bulletins of American Paleontology, 66(284), 253 p.
Fischer, J. C. 1969. Géologie, paléontologie, et paléoécologie du Bathonian au sud-ouest du massif Ardennais. Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (C), 20, 319 p.
Fritsche, C. H. 1924. Neue Kreide fauna aus Sudamerika (Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, 50:156.
Fursich, F. T., and Sykes, R. M. 1977. Paleobiogeography of the European Boreal Realm during Oxfordian (Upper Jurassic) times: a quantitative approach. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen, 155:137161.
Govani, D. L. 1983. Gastropod mollusks from the Brightseat Formation (Paleocene: Danian) of Maryland. Unpubl. Ph.D. dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, D.C., 270 p.
Hacobjan, V. T. 1976. Late Cretaceous gastropods from the Armenian SSR. Erevan, Izd-vo. Akademiya Nauk Armyanskoy S.S.R., 339 p. (in Russian).
Hallam, A. 1976. Stratigraphic distribution and ecology of European Jurassic bivalves. Lethaia, 9:245259.
Hamilton, E. L. 1956. Sunken islands of the mid-Pacific mountains. Geologic Society of America Memoir 64, 97 p.
Hayami, I., and Kase, T. 1977. A systematic survey of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic Gastropoda and Cenozoic Bivalvia from Japan. University Museum of the University of Tokyo Bulletin 13, 154 p.
Herm, D. 1977. Zyklische regressions—sedimentation und fossil—vergellschaftungen in der Gosau (Santonium) von Brandenburg/Tirol. Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und historische Geologie Mitteilungen, 17:257277.
Hill, R. T. 1893. Paleontology of the Cretaceous formations of Texas, the invertebrate paleontology of the Trinity Division. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 8:940.
Holzapfel, E. 1888. Die Mollusken der Aachener Kreide. Palaeontographica, 34:29180.
Jablonski, D., and Bottjer, D. J. 1983. Soft-substratum epifaunal suspension-feeding assemblages in the Late Cretaceous: implications for the evolution of benthic communities, p. 747812. In Tevesz, M. J. S. and McCall, P. L. (eds.), Biotic Interactions in Recent and Fossil Benthic Communities. Plenum, New York.
Joly, H. 1907. Les Fossiles du Jurassique de la Belgique avec description stratigraphique de chaque etage, Première Partie: Infra-Lias. Mémoires du Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique, 5, 156 p.
Karczewski, L. 1980. Class Gastropoda, p. 414434. In Malinowska, L. (ed.), Atlas of Important and Characteristic Fossils, Geologic Structure of Poland, 3(2b), Mesozoic, Jurassic (in Polish).
Kase, T. 1984. Early Cretaceous marine brackish-water Gastropoda from Japan. National Science Museum, Tokyo, 199 p.
Kauffman, E. G. 1973. Cretaceous Bivalvia, p. 353383. In Hallam, A. (ed.), Atlas of Paleobiogeography. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, London, New York.
Kauffman, E. G. 1984. Paleobiogeography and evolutionary response dynamics in the Cretaceous Western Interior seaway of North America, p. 272306. In Westermann, G. E. G. (ed.), Jurassic-Cretaceous Biochronology and Paleogeography of North America. Geologic Association of Canada Special Paper 27.
Kauffman, E. G., and Sohl, N. F. 1974. Structure and evolution of Antillean Cretaceous rudist frameworks. Naturforschende Gesellschaft Basel Verhandlungen, 84:399467.
Kaunhowen, F. 1898. Die gastropoden der Maestrichter Kreide. Paleontologische Abhandlung 8, 132 p.
Knechtel, M. M., Richards, E. F., and Rathbun, M. V. 1947. Mesozoic Fossils of the Peruvian Andes. The Johns Hopkins University Studies in Geology, 15, 150 p.
Kollmann, H. A. 1976. Gastropoden aus den Losensteiner Schichten der Umgebung von Losenstein (Oberösterreich). 1 Teil: Euthyneura und Prosobranchia (Neogastropoda). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum Wien, 80:163206.
Kollmann, H. A. 1978a. Les Gastropodes Cénomaniens de France et des régions voisines. Géologie Méditerranéene, 5:101108.
Kollmann, H. A. 1978b. Gastropoden aus den Losensteiner Schichten der Umgebung von Losenstein (Oberösterreich). 2 Teil: Naticidae, Columbellinidae, Aporrhaidae, Ceritellidae, Epitoniidae (Mesogastropoda). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum Wien, 81:173201.
Kollmann, H. A. 1979a. Gastropoden aus den Losensteiner Schichten der Umgebung von Losenstein (Oberösterreich). 3 Teil: Cerithiacea (Mesogastropoda). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum Wien, 82:1151.
Kollmann, H. A. 1979b. Distribution patterns and evolution of gastropods around the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, p. 8387. In Christensen, W. K. and Birkelund, T. (eds.), Symposium on Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Events; II. Proceedings, Addendum. University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Kollmann, H. A. 1982a. Gastropoden aus den Losensteiner Schichten der Umgebung von Losenstein (Oberösterreich). 4 Teil: Archaeogastropoda und allgemeine Bemerkungen zur fauna. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum Wien, 84A:1356.
Kollmann, H. A. 1982b. Gastropoden-faunen aus der höheren Unterkreide Nordwest deutschlands. Geologisches Jahrbuch, A65:517551.
Kollmann, H. A., and Peel, J. S. 1983. Paleocene gastropods from Nugssuaq, West Greenland. Gr⊘nlands Geologiske Unders⊘gelse Bulletin 146, 115 p.
Kuhn, O. 1949. Stratigraphie und Paläogeographie der Rudisten; V, die borealen Rudisten faunen. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen, 90:267315.
Ladd, H. S., Newman, W. A., and Sohl, N. F. 1974. Darwin Guyot, the Pacific's oldest atoll. Proceedings Second International Coral Reef Symposium 2. Great Barrier Reef Committee, Brisbane, p. 513522.
Liebau, A. 1978. Palaeobathymetrische und palaeoklimatische Veraender ungen im Mikrofaunenbild der Maastrichter Tuffkreide. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen, 157:233237.
Loriol, P. de. 1861. Description des Animaux invertébrés fossiles contenus dans l'etage Néocomien moyen du Mont Salève. H. Georg, Genéve, 214 p.
Loriol, P. de. 1882. Études sur la Faune des couches du gault de Cosne (Nièvre). Mémoires Société Paléontologique Suisse, 9, 118 p.
Loriol, P. de. 1886–1888. Études sur les Mollusques des couches Coralligènes de Valfin (Jura). Mémoires de la Société Paléontologique Suisse, 13–15, 369 p.
Loriol, P. de, Royer, E., and Tombeck, H. 1872. Description géologique et paléontologique des étage Jurassiques supérieurs de la Haute-Marne. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Normandie, 16, 542 p.
Masse, J. P., and Philip, J. 1981. Cretaceous coral-rudist buildups in France. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication, 30:399426.
Mertin, H. 1939. Über Brachwasserbildungen in der Ober Kreide des nördlichen Harzvorlandes. Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich Leopoldisch-Carolinisch Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher, Nova Acta Leopoldina, neue folge, 7:141263.
Mongin, D. 1979. Mollusques du Cretace inferieur de Tunisie (Gastéropodes et Lamellibranches). Notes du Service Géologique de Tunisie, 45:107153.
Mongin, D. 1985. Les mollusques de l'Albian des Corbieres (Sud de la France) modes de vie et paléoécologie. Launay, Paris, 129 p.
Mongin, D., Peybernes, B., Souquet, P., and Thomel, G. 1983. Le gisements Vraconnien (Albien superieur) de la selva de Bonansa (Pyrenees Espagnoles): interet stratigraphique, paleoecologique et paleobiogeographique. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 41:4563.
Murphy, M. A., and Rodda, P. V. 1960. Molluscs of the Cretaceous Bald Hills Formation of California. Journal of Paleontology, 34:835858.
Noetling, F. 1885. Die Fauna der baltischen Cenoman-Geschiebe. Paleontologische Abhandlungen, 2:199247.
Noetling, F. 1897. Fauna of the Upper Cretaceous beds of the Mari Hills. Geological Survey of India, Paleontologia India, ser. 16, Fauna of Baluchistan, 1(3):79.
Olsson, A. A. 1944. Contributions to the paleontology of northern Peru. Part 7, The Cretaceous of the Amotape region. Bulletins of American Paleontology, 20(69), 104 p.
Parona, C. F. 1909. La Fauna Coralligena de Cretacio dei Monti d'Ocre Nell'Abruzzo Aquilano. Memorie per servire alla descrizione della carta geologica d'Italia publicate a cura del comitato geologico del reguo Roma, 242 p.
Pchelintsev, V. F. 1965. Mesozoic Murchisoniata of the Crimean Highlands. A. P. Karpinsky Memorial Museum Geology, Akademie Nauk S.S.R., Monograph 8, 216 p.
Perkins, B. F. 1974. Paleoecology of a rudist reef complex in the Comanche Cretaceous Glen Rose Limestone of central Texas, p. 131174. In Geoscience and Man, 8. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge.
Peron, M. 1899. Études paléontologiques sur les terrains du Départment de L'Yonne, Cephalopodes et Gastéropodes de l'Étage Neocomian. Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Historiques et Naturelles de l'Yonne, 53, 153 p.
Pervinquière, L. 1912. Études de paléontologie tunisienne, II. Gastéropodes et lamellibranches des terrains crétacés. F. R. de Rudeval, Paris, 352 p.
Petho, J. 1906. Die Kreide-(Hypersenonen) Fauna des Peterwardiener Gebirges (Fruska Gora). Palaeontographica, 52(2–6):57331.
Philip, J. 1985. Sur les relations des marges Téthysiennes au Campanian et au Maastrichtian déduites de la distribution des rudistes. Bulletin Société Géologique de France, 8:723731.
Pictet, F. J., and Roux, W. 1847–1853. Description des mollusques fossiles qui se trouvent dans les gres verts des environs de Geneves. Jules Fick, Genève, 558 p.
Popenoe, W. P. 1942. Upper Cretaceous formations and faunas of southern California. American Association Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 26:162187.
Popenoe, W. P. 1983. The Cretaceous Aporrhaidae from California: Aporrhainae and Arrhoginae. Journal of Paleontology, 57:742765.
Poyarkova, Z. N., and Dzhalilov, M. R. 1985. Cretaceous marine gastropods from the remote areas in Asia. Akademia Nauk Tadzhiskoy S.S.R., 168 p. (in Russian).
Rahman, A. 1967. Die Gastropoden der Oberkreide (Ober-Cenoman) von Hölzelsau bei Niederndorf im Tirol. Bayerische Staatsammlung für Paläontologie und Historische Geologie Mitteilungen, 7:23134.
Rat, P., and Pascal, A. 1979. De L'Étage aux systèmes bio-sédimentaires Urgoniens. Geobios, Mémoire Spécial, 3:385399.
Reiner, W. 1968. Callovian gastropods from Hamakhtesh. Hagadol (Southern Israel). Israel Journal Earth Science, 17:171198.
Rennie, J. V. L. 1930. New Lamellibranchia and Gastropoda from the Upper Cretaceous of Pondoland. South African Museum Annals, 28:159260.
Roman, F., and Mazeran, P. 1920. Monographic paléontologique de la faune du Turonien du Bassin d'Uchaux et des ses dependances. Lyons Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Archives, 12 (Mémoire 2), 137 p.
Rosell, J. 1967. Estudio geológico del sector del Prepirineo comprendido eutre los rios Seqre y Noguera Ribaqoranza (Provincia de Lérida). Pireneos, 21(75–78):9214.
Rosenkrantz, A. 1960. Danian mollusca from Denmark, p. 193198. In Rosenkrantz, A. and Brotzen, F. (eds.), Pt. 5, The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Report of the Twenty-first International Geologic Congress, Norway.
Rosenkrantz, A. 1970. Marine Upper Cretaceous and lowermost Tertiary deposits in west Greenland. Meddelelser fra Dansk Geologisk Forening, 19:406453.
Saks, V. N. 1975. The Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary and the Berriasian Stage in the boreal realm. Izdatelstvo “Nauka” sibirskoe Otdelenie Novosibirsk, 391 p. (in Russian).
Saul, L. R., and Alderson, J. M. 1981. Late Cretaceous Mollusca of the Simi Hills: an introduction, p. 2942. In Link, M. H., Squires, R. L., and Colburn, I. P. (eds.), Simi Hills Cretaceous turbidites, Southern California. Pacific Section, Society Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Fall Field Trip Guidebook.
Sayn, G. 1932. Description de la faune de l'Urgonien de Barcelonne (Drome). Lyon Université Faculté des Sciences, Laboratoire de Géologie Travaux, Pt. 18 (Mémoire 15), 70 p.
Schlosser, M. 1881. Die Fauna des Kelheimer Discerkalks. Palaeontographica, 28:7086.
Scott, R. W. 1970. Paleoecology and Paleontology of the Lower Cretaceous Kiowa Formation, Kansas. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, Article 52 (Cretaceous), 94 p.
Scott, R. W. 1979. Depositional model of Early Cretaceous coral-algal-rudist reefs, Arizona. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 63:11081127.
Scott, R. W. 1986. Biogeographic influences on Early Cretaceous paleocommunities, Western Interior. Journal of Paleontology, 60:197207.
Sepkoski, J. J. Jr. 1982. A compendium of fossil marine families. Milwaukee Public Museum Contributions in Biology and Geology, 51:1125.
Smith, A. G., and Briden, J. C. 1977. Mesozoic and Cenozoic Paleocontinental Maps. Cambridge University Press, Massachusetts, 63 p.
Sohl, N. F. 1960. Archaeogastropods, mesogastropods and stratigraphy of the Ripley, Owl Creek and Prairie Bluff Formations. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 331 A, 151 p.
Smith, A. G., and Briden, J. C. 1964a. Neogastropoda, Opisthobranchia, and Basommatophora from the Ripley, Owl Creek, and Prairie Bluff Formations. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 331B:153344.
Smith, A. G., and Briden, J. C. 1964b. Gastropods from the Coffee Sand (Upper Cretaceous) of Mississippi. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 331C:345394.
Smith, A. G., and Briden, J. C. 1965. Marine Jurassic gastropods, central and southern Utah. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 503D:D1–D29.
Smith, A. G., and Briden, J. C. 1967. Upper Cretaceous gastropods from the Pierre Shale at Red Bird, Wyoming. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 393B:B1–B46.
Smith, A. G., and Briden, J. C. 1971. North American Cretaceous biotic provinces delineated by gastropods, p. 16101638. In Yochelson, E. L. (ed.), Cretaceous Biogeography. North American Paleontological Convention, Chicago, 1969, Proceedings, Pt. L.
Smith, A. G., and Briden, J. C. 1979. Gastropoda, p. 337346. In Fairbridge, R. W. and Jablonski, D. (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Paleontology. Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross, Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania.
Smith, A. G., and Briden, J. C., and Koch, C. F. 1983. Upper Cretaceous (Maestrichtian) Mollusca from the Haustator bilira Assemblage Zone in the East Gulf Coastal Plain. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 83–451, 237 p.
Smith, A. G., and Briden, J. C. 1987. Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) larger invertebrates from the Haustator bilira Assemblage Zone in the Atlantic Coastal Plain with further data for the East Gulf. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 87–194, 172 p.
Smith, A. G., and Briden, J. C., and Kollmann, H. A. 1985. Cretaceous actaeonellid gastropods from the Western Hemisphere. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1304, 104 p.
Smith, A. G., and Briden, J. C., and Mello, J. F. 1970. Biostratigraphic analysis, p. 2855. In Owens, J. P., Minard, J. P., Sohl, N. F., and Mello, J. F., Stratigraphy of the outcropping post-Magothy Upper Cretaceous formations in southern New Jersey and northern Delmarva Peninsula, Delaware and Maryland. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 674.
Stephenson, L. W. 1952. The larger invertebrate fossils of the Woodbine Formation (Cenomanian) of Texas. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 242, 226 p.
Stevens, G. R. 1973. Cretaceous belemnites, p. 385401. In Hallam, A. (ed.), Atlas of Paleobiogeography. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Stoliczka, F. 1867–1868. The Gastropoda. Cretaceous fauna of southern India, 2. India Geological Survey Memoirs Paleontologia Indica, Pt. 1–10, 497 p.
Taylor, J. D., Cleevely, R. J., and Morris, N. J. 1983. Predatory gastropods and their activities in the Blackdown Greensand (Albian) of England. Palaeontology, 26:521533.
Taylor, J. D., Cleevely, R. J., and Morris, N. J., Morris, N. J., and Taylor, C. N. 1980. Food specialization and the evolution of predatory prosobranch gastropods. Palaeontology, 23:375409.
Traub, F. 1980. Weitere Paleozan-Gastropoden aus dem Helvetikum des Haunsberges nördlich von Salzburg. Mitteilungen der Bayerischen Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und historische Geologie, 20:2949.
Umbgrove, J. H. F. 1925. Die Anthozoa uit het Maastrichtsche Tufkrijt. Overdruk uit Leidsche geologische Mededeelingen, 11:83126.
Vermeij, G. J. 1977. The Mesozoic marine revolution: evidence from snails, predators and grazers. Paleobiology, 3:245258.
Von der Osten, E. 1957. A fauna from the Lower Cretaceous Barranquin Formation of Venezuela. Journal of Paleontology, 31:571590.
Wade, B. 1926. The fauna of the Ripley Formation on Coon Creek, Tennessee. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 137, 272 p.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed