Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-dxfhg Total loading time: 1.614 Render date: 2021-02-28T23:15:53.555Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

A mid-Cretaceous angiosperm-dominated macroflora from the Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah, USA

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 July 2016

Elisha B. Harris
Affiliation:
Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA 〈ebh4145@u.washington.edu〉 Department of Geoscience, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY 14456, USA 〈arens@hws.edu〉
Nan Crystal Arens
Affiliation:
Department of Geoscience, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY 14456, USA 〈arens@hws.edu〉
Corresponding

Abstract

Angiosperms first appeared in the fossil record as pollen during the Valanginian–Hauterivian; they spread out of the tropics in the Aptian and Albian, and radiated in the Late Cretaceous. Despite these general patterns, details of the taxonomic, geographic, and ecological evolution of Cretaceous angiosperms are relatively poorly known because only a handful of Early and mid-Cretaceous macrofloras have been reported. This is the first detailed report of a fossil leaf flora from the Cedar Mountain Formation from the mid-Cretaceous of the Western Interior. We describe a flora that is overwhelmingly dominated by angiosperms (152 of 153 identified specimens are angiosperms) from the Albian–Cenomanian transition that is preserved in a clay- and carbonate-rich, lacustrine mudstone from the uppermost Cedar Mountain Formation of Emery County, Utah. We recognize 18 leaf morphotypes, all of which are dicotyledonous angiosperms. The majority of the Cedar Mountain morphotypes have taxonomic affinities with forms of similar age described from the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains and other localities from the Western Interior. From this, we infer that a relatively diverse angiosperm flora grew along the margins of a small pond on the coastal plain. Palynological preparations of the fossil matrix were barren; however, previous studies of other facies within the formation showed that both conifers and ferns were important components of the regional vegetation during Cedar Mountain time. The effective absence of conifers and ferns in this macroflora and low leaf mass per area values among the angiosperms measured suggests that even at the Early–Late Cretaceous transition, angiosperms had come to dominate some sites, particularly those that were disturbed or seasonally ephemeral, where fast-growth or seasonal deciduousness would have been favored.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © 2016, The Paleontological Society 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 2009, An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III: Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, v. 161, p. 105121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arens, N.C., and Allen, S.E., 2014, A florule from the base of the Hell Creek Formation in the type area of eastern Montana: implications for vegetation and climate, in Wilson, G.P., Clemens, W.A., Horner, J., and Hartman, J.H., eds., Through the End of the Cretaceous in the Type Locality of the Hell Creek Formation in Montana and Adjacent Areas: Geological Society of America Special Paper, 503, p. 173–207.Google Scholar
Arens, N.C., and Harris, E.B., 2015, Paleoclimatic reconstruction for the Albian–Cenomanian transition based on a dominantly angiosperm flora from the Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, USA: Cretaceous Research, v. 53, p. 140152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Batten, D.J., 1980, Use of transmitted light microscopy of sedimentary organic matter for evaluation of hydrocarbon source potential: IV International Palynological Conference Proceedings, v. 2, p. 589594.Google Scholar
Bell, W.A., 1956, Lower Cretaceous floras of Western Canada: Geological Survey of Canada Memoir, v. 285, p. 1153.Google Scholar
Berry, E.W., 1907, Contributions to the Mesozoic flora of the Atlantic Coastal Plain II. North Carolina: Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, v. 34, p. 185206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berry, E.W., 1909, Contributions to the Mesozoic flora of the Atlantic Coastal Plain–III. New Jersey: Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, v. 36, p. 245264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berry, E.W., 1910a, A new species of Dewalquea from the American Cretaceous: Torreya, v. 10, p. 3438.Google Scholar
Berry, E.W., 1910b, A revision of the fossil plants of the genera Acrosichopteris, Taeniopteris, Nilsonia, and Sapindopsis from the Potomac group: U.S. National Museum Proceedings, v. 38, p. 625644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berry, E.W., 1911a, Contributions to the Mesozoic flora of the Atlantic Coastal Plain-VII: Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, v. 38, p. 399424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berry, E.W., 1911b, The flora of the Raritan Formation: New Jersey Geological Survey Bulletin, v. 3, p. 1233.Google Scholar
Berry, E.W., 1912, Contributions to the Mesozoic flora of the Atlantic Coastal Plain-Texas: Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, v. 39, p. 387406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berry, E.W., 1914a, Notes on the geologic history of Platanus : The Plant World, v. 17, p. 18.Google Scholar
Berry, E.W., 1914b, The Upper Cretaceous and Eocene floras of South Carolina and Georgia: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, v. 84, p. 1200.Google Scholar
Berry, E.W., 1919, Upper Cretaceous floras of the Eastern Gulf Region in Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, v. 112, p. 1177.Google Scholar
Berry, E.W., 1922, The flora of the Woodbine Sand at Arthurs Bluff, Texas: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, v. 129–G, p. 153181.Google Scholar
Berry, E.W., 1925, The flora of the Ripley Formation: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, v. 136, p. 194.Google Scholar
Bowerbank, J.S., 1840, A History of the Fossil Fruits and Seeds of the London Clay, London, John Van Voorst, 144 p.Google Scholar
Brenner, G.J., 1996, Evidence for the earliest stage of angiosperm pollen evolution: a paleoequatorial section from Israel, in Taylor D.W., and Hickey, L.J., eds., Flowering Plant Origin, Evolution and Phylogeny: Chapman and Hall New York, p. 91115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Britt, B.B., Scheetz, R.D., Brinkman, D.B., and Eberth, D.A., 2006, A Barremian Neochoristodere from the Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, U.S.A.: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 26, p. 10051008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, R.W., 1933, Fossil plants from the Aspen Shale of southwestern Wyoming: Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum, v. 82, p. 110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burnham, R.J., 1994, Patterns in tropical leaf litter and implications for angiosperm paleobotany: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 81, p. 99113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cantino, P.D., Doyle, J.A., Graham, S.W., Judd, W.S., Olmstead, R.G., Soltis, D.E., Soltis, P.S., and Donoghue, M.J., 2007, Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta : Taxon, v. 56, p. E1E44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Capellini, G., and Heer, O., 1866, Les Phylites Crétacées du Nebraska: Zurcher and Furrer, Zurich, 22 p.Google Scholar
Carpenter, K., Kirkland, J.I., Burge, D.L., and Bird, J., 1999, Ankylosaurs (Sinosauria; Ornithischia) of the Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah and their stratigraphic distribution, in Gillette, D.D., ed., Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, Miscellaneous Publication of the Utah Geological Survey, v. 99–1, p. 243251.Google Scholar
Cifelli, R.L., Kirkland, J.I., Weil, A., Deino, A.L., and Kowallis, B.J., 1997, High-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and the advent of North America’s Late Cretaceous terrestrial fauna: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, v. 94, p. 1116311167.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cifelli, R.L., Nydam, R.L., Gardner, J.D., Weil, A., Eaton, J.G., Kirkland, J.I., and Madsen, S.K., 1999, Medial Cretaceous vertebrates from the Cedar Mountain Formation, Emery County, Utah: the Mussentuchit local fauna, in Gillette, D.D., ed., Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, Miscellaneous Publication of the Utah Geological Survey, v. 99–1, p. 219242.Google Scholar
Crabtree, D.R., 1987, Angiosperms of the northern Rocky Mountains: Albian to Campanian (Cretaceous) megafossil floras: Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, v. 74, p. 707747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crane, P.R., and Lidgard, S., 1989, Angiosperm diversification and paleolatitudinal gradients in Cretaceous floristic diversity: Science, v. 246, p. 675678.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crane, P.R., and Lidgard, S., 1990, Angiosperm radiation and patterns of Cretaceous palynological diversity, in Taylor, P.D., and Larwood, G.P., eds., Major Evolutionary Radiations, Oxford, United Kingdom, Clarendon Press, p. 377407.Google Scholar
Crane, P.R., Friis, E.M., and Pedersen, K.R., 1986, Lower Cretaceous angiosperm flowers: fossil evidence on early radiation of dicotyledons: Science, v. 232, p. 852854.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crane, P.R., Manchester, S.R., and Dilcher, D.L., 1991, Reproductive and vegetative structure of Nordenskioldia (Trochodendraceae), a vesselless dicotyledon from the Early Tertiary of the Northern Hemisphere: American Journal of Botany, v. 78, p. 13111334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crepet, W.L., Nixon, K.C., and Gandolfo, M.A., 2004, Fossil evidence and phylogeny: the age of major angiosperm clades based on mesofossil and macrofossil evidence from Cretaceous deposits: American Journal of Botany, v. 91, p. 16661682.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Currie, B.S., 1997, Sequence stratigraphy of nonmarine Jurassic-Cretaceous rocks, central Cordilleran foreland-basin system: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 109, p. 12061222.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Currie, B.S., 1998, Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Morrison and Cedar Mountain Formations, northeastern Utah-northwestern Colorado: relationships between nonmarine deposition and early cordilleran foreland–basin development: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 68, p. 632652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dawson, J.W., 1882 [1883], On the Cretaceous and Tertiary floras of British Columbia and the North-West Territory: Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada for 1882, v. 1, p. 1534.Google Scholar
Dawson, J.W., 1885 [1886], On the Mesozoic floras of the Rocky Mountain region of Canada: Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada for 1885, v. 3, p. 122.Google Scholar
Díaz, S., et al, 2004, The plant traits that drive ecosystems: evidence from three continents: Journal of Vegetation Science, v. 15, p. 295304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dilcher, D.L., and Crane, P.R., 1984, Archaeanthus: an early angiosperm from the Cenomanian of the Western Interior of North America: Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, v. 71, p. 351383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dilcher, D.L., Sun, G., Ji, Q., and Li, H., 2007, An early infructescence Hyrcantha decussata (comb. nov.) from the Yixian Formation in northeastern China: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, v. 104, p. 93709374.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Doyle, J.A., 1992, Molecules, morphology, fossils, and the relationship of angiosperms and gnetales: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, v. 9, p. 448462.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Doyle, J.A., and Hickey, L.J., 1976, Pollen and leaves from the mid–Cretaceous Potomac group and their bearing on early angiosperm evolution, in Beck, C.B., ed., Origin and Early Evolution of Angiosperms, New York, Columbia University Press, p. 139206.Google Scholar
Elder, W.P., and Kirkland, J.I., 1994, Cretaceous paleogeography of the southern western interior region, in Caputo, M.V., Peterson, J.A., and Franczyk, K.J., eds., Mesozoic Systems of the Rocky Mountain Region USA, Denver, Colorado, The Rocky Mountain Section SEPM, p. 415440.Google Scholar
Ellis, B., Daly, D.C., Hickey, L.J., Johnson, K., Mitchell, J.D., Wilf, P., and Wing, S., 2009, Manual of Leaf Architecture, Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press, 190 p.Google Scholar
Fiorillo, A.R., 1999, Non-mammalian macrovertebrate remains from the Robinson Eggshell Site, Cedar Mountain Formation (Lower Cretaceous), Emery County, Utah, in Gillette, D.D., ed., Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, Miscellaneous Publication of the Utah Geological Survey, v. 99–1, p. 259268.Google Scholar
Fontaine, W.M., 1889, The Potomac or younger Mesozoic flora: U.S. Geological Survey Monograph, v. 15, p. 1377.Google Scholar
Friis, E.M., Crane, P.R., and Pedersen, K.R., 2011, Early Flowers and Angiosperm Evolution, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press, 596 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Friis, E.M., Pedersen, K.R., and Crane, P.R., 1999, Early angiosperm diversification: the diversity of pollen associated with angiosperm reproductive structures in Early Cretaceous floras from Portugal: Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, v. 86, p. 259296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Friis, E.M., Pedersen, K.R., and Crane, P.R., 2000, Reproductive structure and organization of basal angiosperms from the Early Cretaceous (Barremian or Aptian) of western Portugal: International Journal of Plant Science, v. 161, p. 169182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Furniss, B., and Tidwell, W.D., 1972, Cycadeoidales from the Cedar Mountain Formation near Moab, Utah: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Program, v. 4, p. 377 [abstract].Google Scholar
Garrison, J.R. Jr., Brinkman, D., Nichols, D.J., Layer, P., Burge, D., and Thayn, D., 2007, A multidisciplinary study of the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation, Mussentuchit Wash, Utah: a determination of paleoenvironment and paleoecology of the Eolambia caroljonesa dinosaur quarry: Cretaceous Research, v. 28, p. 461494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Golovneva, L.B., 2007, Ocurrence of Sapindopsis (Platanaceae) in the Cretaceous of Eurasia: Paleontological Journal, v. 41, p. 10771090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Göppert, H.R., 1853, Ueber die Tertiär-Flora Java’s, in von Leonhard, K.C., and Bronn, H.G., eds., Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie, Geognosie und Petrefakten-Kunde, Stuttgart, Germany, E. Schweizerbartsche Verlagshandlung und Druckeret, p. 433436.Google Scholar
Göppert, H.R., 1854, Die Tertiärflora anf der Insel Java, Elberfeld, Germany, A. Martini and Grüttefien, 162 p.Google Scholar
Gradstein, F.M., et al, 2004, The Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press, 610 p.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heer, O., 1856, Flora Tertiara Helvetica vol. II, Winterthur, Switzerland, Wurster and Co., 110 p.Google Scholar
Heer, O., 1874, Flora Fossilis Arctica, vol. III: Die Kreide–flora der Archischen Zone, Zurich, Switzerland, Verlag von J. Wurster and Co., 138 p.Google Scholar
Heer, O., 1882, Flora Fossilis Arctica, vol. VI: Die Flora der Komeschichten and die Flora der Ateneschichten, Zurich, Switzerland, Verlag von J. Wurster and Co., 112 p.Google Scholar
Heller, P.L., and Paola, C., 1989, The paradox of Lower Cretaceous gravels and the initiation of thrusting in the Sevier orogenic belt, United States Western Interior: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 101, p. 864875.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hickey, L.J., 1978, Origin of the major features of angiospermous leaf architecture in the fossil record: Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, v. 30, p. 2734.Google Scholar
Hickey, L.J., and Doyle, J.A., 1977, Early Cretaceous evidence for angiosperm evolution: Botanical Review, v. 43, p. 2104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hickey, L.J., and Wolfe, J.A., 1975, The bases of angiosperm phylogeny: vegetative morphology: Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, v. 62, p. 538589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hochuli, P.A., Heimhofer, U., and Weissert, H., 2006, Timing of early angiosperm radiation, p. Recalibrating the classical succession: Journal of the Geological Society, v. 163, p. 587594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, N.F., McDougall, A.B., and Chapman, J.L., 1991, Exceptional new record of Cretaceous Hauterivian angiospermid pollen from southern England: Journal of Micropalaeontology, v. 10, p. 7582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ji, Q., Li, H., Bowe, L.M., Lui, Y., and Taylor, D.W., 2004, Early Cretaceous Archaefructus eoflora sp. nov. with bisexual flowers from Beipiao, western Liaoning, China: Acta Geologica Sinica, v. 78, p. 883892.Google Scholar
Johnson, K.R., 1996, Description of seven common fossil leaf species from the Hell Creek Formation (Upper Cretaceous: Upper Maastrichtian), North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana: Proceedings of the Denver Museum of Natural History, v. 3, p. 147.Google Scholar
Johnson, K.R., 2002, Megaflora of the Hell Creek and lower Fort Union Formations in the western Dakotas: vegetational response to climate change, the Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary event, and rapid marine transgression, in Hartman, J.H., Johnson, K.R., and Nichols, D.J., eds., The Hell Creek Formation and the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the Northern Great Plains: An Integrated Continental Record of the End of the Cretaceous: Geological Society of America Special Paper, v. 361, p. 329–391.Google Scholar
Johnson, K.R., and Ellis, B., 2002, A tropical rainforest in Colorado 1.4 million years after the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary: Science, v. 296, p. 23792383.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jud, N.A., and Hickey, L.J., 2013, Potomacapnos apeleutheron gen. et sp. nov., a new Early Cretaceous angiosperm from the Potomac Group and its implications for the evolution of eudicot leaf architecture: American Journal of Botany, v. 100, p. 24372449.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jussieu, M.A.I., 1810, Suite des observations sur quelques genres de plantes de Loureiro: Annales du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, v. 16, p. 338340.Google Scholar
Katich, P.J., 1952, Occurrence of Tempskya in the Lower Cretaceous of the western interior: Journal of Paleontology, v. 26, p. 677.Google Scholar
Kirkland, J.I., 1998, A new hadrosaurid from the Upper Cedar Mountain Formation (Albian-Cenomanian: Cretaceous) of Eastern Utah: The oldest known hadrosaurid (lambeosaurine?), in Kirkland, J.I., and Estep, J.W., eds., Lower and Middle Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems: Bulletin of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, v. 14, p. 283–295.Google Scholar
Kirkland, J.I., Britt, B., Burge, D., Carpenter, K., Cifelli, R., Decourten, F.L., Eaton, J., Hasiotis, S., and Lawton, T., 1997, Lower to Middle Cretaceous dinosaur faunas of the central Colorado Plateau: a key to understanding 35 million years of tectonics, sedimentology, evolution and biogeography, in Link, P.K., and Kowallis, B.J., eds., Mesozoic to Recent Geology of Utah, Provo, Utah, Brigham Young University Geology Studies, v. 42, p. 69103.Google Scholar
Kirkland, J.I., Cifelli, R.L., Britt, B.B., Burge, D.L., Decourten, F.L., Eaton, J.G., and Parrish, J.M., 1999, Distribution of vertebrate faunas in the Cedar Mountain Formation, east–central Utah, in Gillette, D.D., ed., Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, Miscellaneous Publication of the Utah Geological Survey, v. 99–1, p. 201217.Google Scholar
Kirkland, J.I., Scheetz, R.D., and Foster, J.R., 2005, Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous dinosaur quarries of western Colorado and eastern Utah, in Gigi, R., ed., Rocky Mountain Section Geological Society of America Field Trip Guidebook: Grand Junction Geological Society Field Trip, v. 402, p. 1–26.Google Scholar
Kirkland, J.I., and Madsen, S.K., 2007, The Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation, Eastern Utah: The view up an always interesting learning curve: Utah Geological Association Publication, v. 35, p. 1–108.Google Scholar
Kirschbaum, M.A., and Schenk, C.J., 2011, Sedimentology and reservoir heterogeneity of the Valley-fill deposit—A field guide to the Dakota Sandstone of the San Rafael Swell, Utah: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report, v. 2010–5222, p. 1–36.Google Scholar
Knowlton, F.H., 1899, Fossil flora of the Yellowstone National Park: U.S. Geological Survey Monograph, v. 32, p. 651882.Google Scholar
Knowlton, F.H., 1919, A Catalogue of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic plants of North America: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, v. 696, p. 1815.Google Scholar
Leng, Q., and Friis, E.M., 2006, Angiosperm leaves associated with Sinocarpus infructenscences from the Yixian Formation (mid-Early Cretaceous) of NE China: Plant Systematics and Evolution, v. 262, p. 173187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lesquereux, L., 1874, Contributions to the fossil flora of the Western Territories, I, the Cretaceous flora: U.S. Geological Survey Territory Report, v. 6, p. 1136.Google Scholar
Lesquereux, L., 1878, Contributions to the fossil flora of the Western Territories Part II, the Tertiary flora: Report of the U.S. Geological Survey of the Territories, v. 7, p. 1366.Google Scholar
Lesquereux, L., 1891 [1892], The Flora of the Dakota Group: U.S. Geological Survey Monograph, v. 17, 400 p.Google Scholar
Lidgard, S., and Crane, P.R., 1988, Quantitative analyses of the early angiosperm radiation: Nature, v. 331, p. 344346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lidgard, S., and Crane, P.R., 1990, Angiosperm diversification and Cretaceous floristic trends: a comparison of palynofloras and leaf macrofloras: Paleobiology, v. 16, p. 7793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lupia, R., Lidgard, S., and Crane, P.R., 1999, Comparing palynological abundance and diversity: implications for biotic replacement during the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation: Paleobiology, v. 25, p. 305340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacNeal, D., 1958, Flora of the Upper Cretaceous Woodbine Sand in Denton County, Texas: Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia Monograph, v. 10, p. 1152.Google Scholar
Miller, I.M., 2007, The Taxonomy, Paleoecology and Paleolatitude of the Early Cretaceous (Albian) Winthrop Formation Flora, Washington State, USA [Ph.D. thesis]: New Haven, Connecticutt, Yale University, 1157 p.Google Scholar
Miller, I.M., and Hickey, L.J., 2008, The fossil flora of the Winthrop Formation (Albian-Early Cretaceous) of Washington State, USA, part I: Bryophyta and Pteridophytina: Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, v. 49, p. 135180.Google Scholar
Miller, I.M., and Hickey, L.J., 2010, The fossil flora of the Winthrop Formation (Albian–Early Cretaceous) of Washington State, USA, part II: Pinophytina: Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, v. 51, p. 396.Google Scholar
Miller, I.M., Johnson, K.R., and Ellis, B., 2005, Paleobotany Project: Denver Museum of Nature and Science: http://www.paleobotanyproject.org/default.aspx.Google Scholar
Miller, I.M., Brandon, M.T., and Hickey, L.J., 2006, Using leaf margin analysis to estimate the mid–Cretaceous (Albian) paleolatitude of the Baja BC block: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 245, p. 95114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nelson, M.E., and Crooks, D.M., 1987, Stratigraphy and paleontology of the Cedar Mountain Formation (lower Cretaceous), eastern Emery County, Utah, in Averett, W.R., ed., Paleontology and Geology of the Dinosaur Triangle, Grand Junction, Colorado, Museum of Western Colorado, p. 5563.Google Scholar
Newberry, J.S., 1868, Notes on the later extinct floras of North America: Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York, v. 9, p. 176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newberry, J.S., 1878, Illustrations of Cretaceous and Tertiary plants of the Western Territories, Washington D.C., Government Printing Office, XXVI plates.Google Scholar
Newberry, J.S., 1887, The ancestors of the tulip-tree: Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, v. 14, p. 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Newberry, J.S., 1895, The flora of the Amboy clays: U.S. Geological Survey Monograph, v. 26, 260 p.Google Scholar
Nichols, D.J., and Sweet, A.R., 1993, Biostratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous non-marine palynofloras in a north-south transect of the Western Interior Basin, in Caldwell, W.G.E., and Kauffman, E.D., eds., Evolution of the Western Interior Basin: Geological Association of Canada Special Paper, v. 39, p. 539–584.Google Scholar
Passalia, M.G., 2007, A mid-Cretaceous flora from the Kachaike Formation, Patagonia, Argentina: Cretaceous Research, v. 28, p. 830840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peppe, D.J., Hickey, L.J., Miller, I.M., and Green, W.A., 2008, A morphotype catalogue, floristic analysis and stratigraphic description of the Aspen Shale flora (Cretaceous-Albian) of southwestern Wyoming: Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, v. 49, p. 181208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reich, P.B., Walters, M.B., and Ellsworth, D.S., 1997, From tropics to tundra: global convergence in plant function: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, v. 94, p. 1373013734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Retallack, G.J., and Dilcher, D.L., 1986, Cretaceous angiosperm invasion of North America: Cretaceous Research, v. 7, p. 227252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Royer, D.L., Miller, I.M., Peppe, D.J., and Hickey, L.J., 2010, Leaf economic traits from fossils support a weedy habit for early angiosperms: American Journal of Botany, v. 97, p. 438445.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Royer, D. L., et al, 2007, Fossil leaf economics quantified: calibration, Eocene case study, and implications: Paleobiology, v. 33, p. 574589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schäffer, J.C., 1762, Botanica Expeditor: Genera Plantarum, Ratisbonae, Germany, E.A. Weissii, 338 p.Google Scholar
Segev, A., 2009, 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar geochronology of Berriasian-Hauterivian and Cenomanian tectonomagmatic events in northern Israel: implications for regional stratigraphy: Cretaceous Research, v. 30, p. 810828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seward, A.C., 1925, Notes sur la flore crétacique du Groenland: Étude critique, 50me Anniversaire Livre Jubilaire, Société Géologique de Belgique, Liège, Belgium, H. Vailant-Carmanne, p. 229262.Google Scholar
Seward, A.C., 1926, The Cretaceous plant-bearing rocks of western Greenland: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, v. 215, p. 57175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spicer, R.A., and Herman, A.B., 2001, The Albian-Cenomanian flora of the Kukpowruk River, western North Slope, Alaska: stratigraphy, palaeofloristics, and plant communities: Cretaceous Research, v. 22, p. 140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sprague, T.A., 1929, The correct spelling of certain generic names: IV: Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew), v. 1929, p. 3852.Google Scholar
Sprinkel, D.A., Madsen, S.K., Kirkland, J.I., Waanders, G.L., and Hunt, G.I., 2012, Cedar Mountain and Dakota formations around Dinosaur National Monument: Evidence of the incursion of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway into Utah: Utah Geological Survey Special Study, v. 143, p. 120.Google Scholar
Stokes, W.L., 1944, Morrison Formation and related deposits in and adjacent to the Colorado Plateau: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 55, p. 952992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stokes, W.L., 1952, Lower Cretaceous in Colorado Plateau: Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 36, p. 17741796.Google Scholar
Sun, G., and Dilcher, D.L., 2002, Early angiosperms from the Lower Cretaceous of Jixi, eastern Heilongjiang, China: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 121, p. 91112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sun, G., Dilcher, D. L., Zheng, S., and Zhou, Z., 1998, In search of the first flower: a Jurassic angiosperm, Archaefructus, from northeastern China: Science, v. 282, p. 16921695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sun, G., Dilcher, D.L., Wang, H., and Chen, Z., 2011, A eudicot from the Early Cretaceous of China: Nature, v. 471, p. 625628.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Swisher, C.C., Wang, Y., Wang, X., Xu, X., and Wang, Y., 1999, Cretaceous age for the feathered dinosaurs of Liaoning, China: Nature, v. 400, p. 5861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thayn, G.F., and Tidwell, W.D., 1984, Flora of the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah and Colorado, part II, Mesembrioxylon stokesi : Western North American Naturalist, v. 44, p. 257262.Google Scholar
Thayn, G.F., Tidwell, W.D., and Stokes, W.L., 1985, Flora of the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah and Colorado, part III: Icacinoxylon pittiense n. sp.: American Journal of Botany, v. 72, p. 175180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thayne [sic], G.F., Tidwell, W.D., and Stokes, W.L., 1983, Flora of the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah and Colorado, part I: Paraphyllanthoxylon utahense : Western North American Naturalist, v. 43, p. 394402.Google Scholar
Tidwell, W.D., and Thayn, G.F., 1985, Flora of the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah and Colorado, Part IV: Palaeopiceoxylon thinosus (Protopinaceae): The Southwestern Naturalist, v. 30, p. 525532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tidwell, W.D., Thayn, G.F., and Roth, J.L., 1976, Cretaceous and early Tertiary floras of the intermontain area: a summary: Brigham Young University Geology Studies, v. 22, p. 7798.Google Scholar
Tidwell, W.D., Ash, S.R., and Britt, B.B., 2010, Oldest known dicotyledonous lianas from the early Late Cretaceous of Utah and New Mexico, U.S.A., in Gee, C.T., ed., Plants in Mesozoic Time: Morphological Innovations, Phylogeny, Ecosystems, Bloomington, Indiana, Indiana University Press, p. 271291.Google Scholar
Traverse, A., 2004, Proposal to conserve the fossil pollen morphogeneric name Classopollis against Corollina and Circulina : Taxon, v. 53, p. 847848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tschan, G.F., Denk, T., and Von Balthazar, M., 2008, Credneria and Platanus (Platanaceae) from the Late Cretaceous (Santonian) of Quedlinburg, Germany: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, v. 152, p. 211236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tschudy, R.H., Tschudy, B.D., and Craig, L.C., 1984, Palynological evaluation of Cedar Mountain and Burro Canyon formations, Colorado Plateau: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, v. 1281, 124. p.Google Scholar
Upchurch, G.R. Jr., and Wolfe, J.A., 1987, Mid-Cretaceous to Early Tertiary vegetation and climate, p. Evidence from fossil leaves and woods, in Friis, E.M., Chaloner, W.G., and Crane, P.R., eds., The Origins of Angiosperms and Their Biological Consequences, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press, p. 75106.Google Scholar
Upchurch, G.R. Jr., and Dilcher, D.L., 1990, Cenomanian angiosperm leaf megafossils, Dakota Formation, Rose Creek Locality, Jefferson County, southeastern Nebraska: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, v. 1915, p. 155.Google Scholar
Upchurch, G.R. Jr., Crane, P.R., and Drinnan, A.N., 1994, The megaflora from the Quantico Locality (Upper Albian), Lower Cretaceous Potomac Group of Virginia: Virginia Museum of Natural History Memoir, v. 4, p. 157.Google Scholar
Wang, H., 2002, Diversity of angiosperm leaf megafossils from the Dakota Formation (Cenomanian, Cretaceous), North Western Interior, USA [Ph.D. thesis]: Miami, Florida, The University of Florida, 403 p.Google Scholar
Wang, H., and Dilcher, D.L., 2006, Early Cretaceous angiosperm leaves from the Dakota Formation, Braun Ranch locality, Kansas, USA: Paleontographica Abteilung B, v. 273, p. 101137.Google Scholar
Ward, L.F., 1905, Status of the Mesozoic floras of the United States: U.S. Geological Survey Monograph, v. 48, p. 13616.Google Scholar
Westoby, M., Falster, D.S., Moles, A.T., Vesk, P.A., and Wright, L.J., 2002, Plant ecological strategies: some leading dimensions of variation between species: Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, v. 33, p. 125159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilf, P., Labandeira, C.C., Johnson, K.R., and Ellis, B., 2006, Decoupled plant and insect diversity after the end-Cretaceous extinction: Science, v. 313, p. 11121115.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wing, S.L., and Boucher, L.D., 1998, Ecological aspects of the Cretaceous flowering plant radiation: Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, v. 26, p. 379421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wing, S.L., Hickey, L.J., and Swisher, C.C., 1993, Implications of an exceptional fossil flora for Late Cretaceous vegetation: Nature, v. 363, p. 342344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wing, S.L., Strömberg, C.A.E., Hickey, L.J., Tiver, F., Willis, B., Burnham, R.J., and Behrensmeyer, A.K., 2012, Flora and environmental gradients on a Late Cretaceous landscape: Ecological Monographs, v. 82, p. 2347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wright, I.J., et al, 2004, The worldwide leaf economics spectrum: Nature, v. 428, p. 821827.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wright, I.J., et al, 2005, Modulation of leaf economic traits and trait relationships by climate: Global Ecology and Biogeography, v. 14, p. 411421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, R.G., 1987, Remains of ancient life in Cretaceous rocks of the dinosaur triangle, in Averett, W.R., ed., Paleontology and Geology of the Dinosaur Triangle, Grand Junction, Colorado, Museum of Western Colorado, p. 4554.Google Scholar
Zenker, J.C., 1833, Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte der Urwelt: Druck und Verlag von Friedrich Mauke, Jena, 67 p.Google Scholar

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 13
Total number of PDF views: 83 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 28th February 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

A mid-Cretaceous angiosperm-dominated macroflora from the Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah, USA
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

A mid-Cretaceous angiosperm-dominated macroflora from the Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah, USA
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

A mid-Cretaceous angiosperm-dominated macroflora from the Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah, USA
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *