Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

What do Danish children eat, and does the diet meet the recommendations? Baseline data from the OPUS School Meal Study

  • Rikke Andersen (a1), Anja Biltoft-Jensen (a1), Tue Christensen (a1), Elisabeth W. Andersen (a2), Majken Ege (a1), Anne V. Thorsen (a1), Vibeke K. Knudsen (a1), Camilla T. Damsgaard (a3), Louise B. Sørensen (a3), Rikke A. Petersen (a3), Kim F. Michaelsen (a3) and Inge Tetens (a1)...

Abstract

A child's diet is an important determinant for later health, growth and development. In Denmark, most children in primary school bring their own packed lunch from home and attend an after-school care institution. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the food, energy and nutrient intake of Danish school children in relation to dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations, and to assess the food intake during and outside school hours. In total, 834 children from nine public schools located in the eastern part of Denmark were included in this cross-sectional study and 798 children (95·7 %) completed the dietary assessment sufficiently (August–November 2011). The whole diet was recorded during seven consecutive days using the Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC). Compared with the food-based dietary guidelines and nutrient recommendations, 85 % of the children consumed excess amounts of red meat, 89 % consumed too much saturated fat, and 56 % consumed too much added sugar. Additionally 35 or 91 % of the children (depending on age group) consumed insufficient amounts of fruits and vegetables, 85 % consumed insufficient amounts of fish, 86 % consumed insufficient amounts of dietary fibre, 60 or 84 % had an insufficient Fe intake (depending on age group), and 96 % had an insufficient vitamin D intake. The study also showed that there is a higher intake of fruits and bread during school hours than outside school hours; this is not the case with, for example, fish and vegetables, and future studies should investigate strategies to increase fish and vegetable intake during school hours.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      What do Danish children eat, and does the diet meet the recommendations? Baseline data from the OPUS School Meal Study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      What do Danish children eat, and does the diet meet the recommendations? Baseline data from the OPUS School Meal Study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      What do Danish children eat, and does the diet meet the recommendations? Baseline data from the OPUS School Meal Study
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: R. Andersen, fax +45 35 88 71 19, email rian@food.dtu.dk

References

Hide All
1. Matthiessen, J, Velsing, GM, Fagt, S, et al. (2008) Prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Denmark. Scand J Public Health 36, 153160.
2. Krue, S & Coolidge, J (2010) The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Danish school children. Obes Rev 11, 489491.
3. Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (Fødevarestyrelsen) (2013) Kostrådene 2013 (Dietary Guidelines 2013). Copenhagen, Denmark: Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries.
4. Baker, JL, Olsen, LW & Sorensen, TI (2007) Childhood body-mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood. N Engl J Med 357, 23292337.
5. Wedderkopp, N, Froberg, K, Hansen, HS, et al. (2004) Secular trends in physical fitness and obesity in Danish 9-year-old girls and boys: Odense School Child Study and Danish substudy of the European Youth Heart Study. Scand J Med Sci Sports 14, 150155.
6. Christensen, LM, Kørup, K, Trolle, E, et al. (2012) Dietary Habits of Children and Adolescent 2005–2008 (in Danish). Søborg, Denmark: Division of Nutrition, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark.
7. Eriksen, K, Haraldsdottir, J, Pederson, R, et al. (2003) Effect of a fruit and vegetable subscription in Danish schools. Public Health Nutr 6, 5763.
8. Sabinsky, MS, Toft, U, Andersen, KK, et al. (2012) Development and validation of a meal index of dietary quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches. Public Health Nutr 15, 20912099.
9. Lissau, I, Hesse, U, Juhl, M, et al. (2006) Food and Physical Activity in Preschools, Schools and After School Institutions (in Danish). Copenhagen, Denmark: Statens Institut for Folkesundhed.
10. He, C, Breiting, S & Perez-Cueto, FJ (2012) Effect of organic school meals to promote healthy diet in 11–13 year old children. A mixed methods study in four Danish public schools. Appetite 59, 866876.
11. Christensen, LM, Ege, M & Thorsen, AV (2013) Nutritional Quality of the Meals in After-School Care Institutions (in Danish). Søborg, Denmark: Division of Nutrition, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark.
12. Hoppe, C, Biltoft-Jensen, A, Trolle, E, et al. (2009) Dietary Habits of Danish 8- to 10-year old Children. Søborg, Denmark: Division of Nutrition, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark.
13. Gatenby, LA (2011) Children's nutritional intake as part of the Eat Well Do Well scheme in Kingston-upon-Hull – a pilot study. Nutr Bull 36, 8794.
14. Rogers, IS, Ness, AR, Hebditch, K, et al. (2007) Quality of food eaten in English primary schools: school dinners vs packed lunches. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 856864.
15. Gould, R, Russell, J & Barker, ME (2006) School lunch menus and 11 to 12 year old children's food choice in three secondary schools in England – are the nutritional standards being met? Appetite 46, 8692.
16. Evans, CE, Greenwood, DC, Thomas, JD, et al. (2010) A cross-sectional survey of children's packed lunches in the UK: food- and nutrient-based results. J Epidemiol Community Health 64, 977983.
17. Hoppu, U, Lehtisalo, J, Tapanainen, H, et al. (2010) Dietary habits and nutrient intake of Finnish adolescents. Public Health Nutr 13, 965972.
18. Glynn, L, Emmett, P & Rogers, I (2005) Food and nutrient intakes of a population sample of 7-year-old children in the south-west of England in 1999/2000 – what difference does gender make? J Hum Nutr Diet 18, 719.
19. Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (2012) Integrating Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5th ed. Nord 2014:002. Copenhagen, Denmark: Nordic Council of Ministers.
20. Biltoft-Jensen, A, Trolle, E, Christensen, T, et al. (2008) Development of a recommended food intake pattern for healthy Danish adolescents consistent with the Danish dietary guidelines, nutrient recommendations and national food preferences. J Hum Nutr Diet 21, 451463.
21. Damsgaard, CT, Dalskov, SM, Petersen, RA, et al. (2012) Design of the OPUS School Meal Study: a randomised controlled trial assessing the impact of serving school meals based on the New Nordic Diet. Scand J Public Health 40, 693703.
22. Biltoft-Jensen, A, Trolle, E, Christensen, T, et al. (2012) WebDASC: a web-based dietary assessment software for 8–11-year-old Danish children. J Hum Nutr Diet 27, Suppl. 1, 4353.
23. Biltoft-Jensen, A, Bysted, A, Trolle, E, et al. (2012) Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations. Br J Nutr 110, 186195.
24. Biltoft-Jensen, A, Matthiessen, J, Rasmussen, LB, et al. (2009) Validation of the Danish 7-day pre-coded food diary among adults: energy intake v. energy expenditure and recording length. Br J Nutr 102, 18381846.
25. Pedersen, AN, Fagt, S, Groth, MV, et al. (2010) Dietary Habits in Denmark 2003–2008 (in Danish). Søborg, Denmark: Division of Nutrition, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark.
26. Saxholt, E, Christensen, T, Møller, A, et al. (2008) Danish Food Composition Databank, Revision 7. Søborg, Denmark: Division of Nutrition, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark. http://www.foodcomp.dk/
27. Black, AE (2000) Critical evaluation of energy intake using the Goldberg cut-off for energy intake:basal metabolic rate. A practical guide to its calculation, use and limitations. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 11191130.
28. Henry, CJK (2005) Basal metabolic rate studies in humans: measurement and development of new equations. Public Health Nutr 8, 11331152.
29. Efron, B (1979) Bootstrap methods: another look at the jackknife. Ann Statist 7, 126.
30. Ren, S, Lai, H, Tong, W, et al. (2010) Nonparametric bootstrapping for hierarchical data. J Appl Statist 37, 14871498.
31. Beck, AM, Hoppe, C, Ygil, KH, et al. (2010) Vidensgrundlag for rådgivning om indtag af mælk, mælkeprodukter og ost i Danmark (Scientific Background for Danish Dietary Guidelines Regarding Intake of Milk, Milk Products and Cheese). Søborg, Denmark: National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark.
32. Bandini, LG, Must, A, Cyr, H, et al. (2003) Longitudinal changes in the accuracy of reported energy intake in girls 10–15 y of age. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 480484.
33. Rasmussen, LB, Matthiessen, J, Biltoft-Jensen, A, et al. (2007) Characteristics of misreporters of dietary intake and physical activity. Public Health Nutr 10, 230237.
34. European Commission (2008) School Fruit Scheme. http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/sfs/index_en.htm (accessed June 2013).
35. Krolner, R, Due, P, Rasmussen, M, et al. (2009) Does school environment affect 11-year-olds’ fruit and vegetable intake in Denmark? Soc Sci Med 68, 14161424.
36. Madsen, KH, Rasmussen, LB, Andersen, R, et al. (2013) Randomized controlled trial of the effects of vitamin D fortified milk and bread on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration among families in Denmark during winter: the VitmaD study. Am J Clin Nutr 98, 374382.
37. Cooke, LJ & Wardle, J (2005) Age and gender differences in children's food preferences. Br J Nutr 93, 741746.
38. Andersen, R, Biltoft-Jensen, A, Christensen, T, et al. (2014) Dietary effects of introducing school meals based on the New Nordic Diet – a randomised controlled trial in Danish children. The OPUS School Meal Study. Br J Nutr 111, 19671976.
39. Evans, CEL, Greenwood, DC, Thomas, JD, et al. (2010) SMART lunch box intervention to improve the food and nutrient content of children's packed lunches: UK wide cluster randomized controlled trial. J Epidemiol Community Health 64, 970976.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed