Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Low levels of very-long-chain n-3 PUFA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) diet reduce fish robustness under challenging conditions in sea cages

  • Marta Bou (a1) (a2), Gerd M. Berge (a3), Grete Baeverfjord (a3), Trygve Sigholt (a4), Tone-Kari Østbye (a1) and Bente Ruyter (a1) (a2)...

Abstract

The present study aimed to determine the minimum requirements of the essential n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that can secure their health under challenging conditions in sea cages. Individually tagged Atlantic salmon were fed 2, 10 and 17 g/kg of EPA + DHA from 400 g until slaughter size (about 3·5 kg). The experimental fish reared in sea cages were subjected to the challenging conditions typically experienced under commercial production. Salmon receiving the lowest EPA + DHA levels showed lower growth rates in the earlier life stages, but no significant difference in final weights at slaughter. The fatty acid composition of various tissues and organs had remarkably changed. The decreased EPA + DHA in the different tissue membrane phospholipids were typically replaced by pro-inflammatory n-6 fatty acids, most markedly in the skin. The EPA + DHA levels were maintained at a higher level in the liver and erythrocytes than in the muscle, intestine and skin. After delousing at high water temperatures, the mortality rates were 63, 52 and 16 % in the salmon fed 2, 10 and 17 g/kg EPA + DHA. Low EPA + DHA levels also increased the liver, intestinal and visceral fat amount, reduced intervertebral space and caused mid-intestinal hyper-vacuolisation. Thus, 10 g/kg EPA + DHA in the Atlantic salmon diet, a level previously regarded as sufficient, was found to be too low to maintain fish health under demanding environmental conditions in sea cages.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Low levels of very-long-chain n-3 PUFA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) diet reduce fish robustness under challenging conditions in sea cages
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Low levels of very-long-chain n-3 PUFA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) diet reduce fish robustness under challenging conditions in sea cages
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Low levels of very-long-chain n-3 PUFA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) diet reduce fish robustness under challenging conditions in sea cages
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: M. Bou, email marta.bou@nofima.no

References

Hide All
1. Ytrestøyl, T, Aas, TS & Åsgård, T (2015) Utilisation of feed resources in production of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Norway. Aquaculture 448, 365374.
2. Glencross, BD (2009) Exploring the nutritional demand for essential fatty acids by aquaculture species. Rev Aquacult 1, 71124.
3. Bou, M, Berge, GM, Baeverfjord, G, et al. (2017) Requirements of n-3 very long-chain PUFA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L): effects of different dietary levels of EPA and DHA on fish performance and tissue composition and integrity. Br J Nutr 117, 3047.
4. Grisdale-Helland, B, Ruyter, B, Rosenlund, G, et al. (2002) Influence of high contents of dietary soybean oil on growth, feed utilization, tissue fatty acid composition, heart histology and standard oxygen consumption of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) raised at two temperatures. Aquaculture 207, 311329.
5. Sissener, N, Sanden, M, Torstensen, B, et al. (2016) High dietary 18:2n-6/18:3n-3 ratio does not inhibit elongation and desaturation of 18:3n-3 to EPA and DHA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquacult Nutr (epublication ahead of print version 16 July 2016).
6. Kiron, V, Fukuda, H, Takeuchi, T, et al. (1995) Essential fatty acid nutrition and defence mechanisms in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss . Comp Biochem Physiol A 111, 361367.
7. Petropoulos, IK, Thompson, KD, Morgan, A, et al. (2009) Effects of substitution of dietary fish oil with a blend of vegetable oils on liver and peripheral blood leucocyte fatty acid composition, plasma prostaglandin E2 and immune parameters in three strains of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquacult Nutr 15, 596607.
8. Thompson, K, Tatner, M & Henderson, R (1996) Effects of dietary (n-3) and (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio on the immune response of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Aquacult Nutr 2, 2131.
9. Tocher, DR (2010) Fatty acid requirements in ontogeny of marine and freshwater fish. Aquacult Res 41, 717732.
10. Molendi-Coste, O, Legry, V & Leclercq, IA (2011) Why and how meet n-3 PUFA dietary recommendations? Gastroenterol Res Pract 2011, 364040.
11. Patterson, E, Wall, R, Fitzgerald, GF, et al. (2012) Health implications of high dietary omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Nutr Metab 2012, 539426.
12. Carrera-Bastos, P, Fontes-Villalba, M, O'Keefe, JH, et al. (2011) The Western diet and lifestyle and diseases of civilization. Res Rep Clin Cardiol 2, 1535.
13. Rosenlund, G, Torstensen, BE, Stubhaug, I, et al. (2016) Atlantic salmon require long-chain n-3 fatty acids for optimal growth throughout the seawater period. J Nutr Sci 5, e19.
14. Bleie, H & Skrudland, A (2014) Tap av laksefisk i sjø. Rapport fra Mattilsynet (Loss of salmon fish in the sea. Report from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority). https://www.mattilsynet.no/fisk_og_akvakultur/fiskevelferd/tap_av_laksefisk_i_sjo_rapport.15430/binary/Tap%20av%20laksefisk%20i%20sj%C3%B8%20rapport (accessed June 2017).
15. Sissener, NH, Waagbø, R, Rosenlund, G, et al. (2016) Reduced n-3 long chain fatty acid levels in feed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) do not reduce growth, robustness or product quality through an entire full scale commercial production cycle in seawater. Aquaculture 464, 236245.
16. Berge, GM, Witten, PE, Baeverfjord, G, et al. (2009) Diets with different n − 6/n − 3 fatty acid ratio in diets for juvenile Atlantic salmon, effects on growth, body composition, bone development and eicosanoid production. Aquaculture 296, 299308.
17. Folch, J, Lees, M & Sloane Stanley, GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497509.
18. Mason, ME & Waller, GR (1964) Dimethoxypropane induced transesterification of fats and oils in preparation of methyl esters for gas chromatographic analysis. Anal Chem 36, 583586.
19. Arvidson, GA (1968) Structural and metabolic heterogeneity of rat liver glycerophosphatides. Eur J Biochem 4, 478486.
20. Witten, PE, Obach, A, Huysseune, A, et al. (2006) Vertebrae fusion in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): development, aggravation and pathways of containment. Aquaculture 258, 164172.
21. Kvellestad, A, Høie, S, Thorud, K, et al. (2000) Platyspondyly and shortness of vertebral column in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Norway – description and interpretation of pathologic changes. Dis Aquat Organ 39, 97108.
22. Witten, PE, Gil-Martens, L, Huysseune, A, et al. (2009) Towards a classification and an understanding of developmental relationships of vertebral body malformations in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture 295, 614.
23. Ruyter, B, Rosjo, C, Einen, O, et al. (2000) Essential fatty acids in Atlantic salmon: effects of increasing dietary doses of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids on growth, survival and fatty acid composition of liver, blood and carcass. Aquacult Nutr 6, 119128.
24. Bell, JG, McVicar, AH, Park, MT, et al. (1991) High dietary linoleic acid affects the fatty acid compositions of individual phospholipids from tissues of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): association with stress susceptibility and cardiac lesion. J Nutr 121, 11631172.
25. Ruyter, B & Thomassen, M (1999) Metabolism of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in Atlantic salmon liver: stimulation by essential fatty acid deficiency. Lipids 34, 11671176.
26. Girousse, A & Langin, D (2012) Adipocyte lipases and lipid droplet-associated proteins: insight from transgenic mouse models. Int J Obes 36, 581594.
27. Byrne, CD, Olufadi, R, Bruce, KD, et al. (2009) Metabolic disturbances in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Sci 116, 539564.
28. Castell, J, Lee, D & Sinnhuber, R (1972) Essential fatty acids in the diet of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri): lipid metabolism and fatty acid composition. J Nutr 102, 9399.
29. Jordal, AEO, Lie, Ø & Torstensen, BE (2007) Complete replacement of dietary fish oil with a vegetable oil blend affect liver lipid and plasma lipoprotein levels in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquacult Nutr 13, 114130.
30. Ruyter, B, Moya-Falcón, C, Rosenlund, G, et al. (2006) Fat content and morphology of liver and intestine of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): effects of temperature and dietary soybean oil. Aquaculture 252, 441452.
31. Alvheim, AR, Torstensen, BE, Lin, YH, et al. (2013) Dietary linoleic acid elevates endogenous 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and mice, and induces weight gain and inflammation in mice. Br J Nutr 109, 15081517.
32. Sanden, M, Liland, NS, Saele, O, et al. (2016) Minor lipid metabolic perturbations in the liver of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) caused by suboptimal dietary content of nutrients from fish oil. Fish Physiol Biochem 42, 14631480.
33. Sissener, NH, Torstensen, BE, Owen, MAG, et al. (2016) Temperature modulates liver lipid accumulation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fed low dietary levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. Aquacult Nutr (epublication ahead of print version 20 September 2016).
34. von Schacky, C (2014) Omega-3 index and cardiovascular health. Nutrients 6, 799814.
35. Tocher, DR & Glencross, BD (2015) Lipids and fatty acids. In Dietary Nutrients, Additives, and Fish Health, pp. 4794 [Lee, C-S, Lim, C, Gatlin, D.M. III and Webster, CD, editors]. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
36. Sargent, JR, Tocher, DR & Bell, JG (2003) The lipids. In Fish Nutrition, 3rd ed., pp. 181257 [Hardy, RW, editor]. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
37. Tocher, DR, Bendiksen, , Campbell, PJ, et al. (2008) The role of phospholipids in nutrition and metabolism of teleost fish. Aquaculture 280, 2134.
38. Ruiz-Lopez, N, Stubhaug, I, Ipharraguerre, I, et al. (2015) Positional distribution of fatty acids in triacylglycerols and phospholipids from fillets of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed vegetable and fish oil blends. Mar Drugs 13, 42554269.
39. Bell, JG, Dick, JR, McVicar, AH, et al. (1993) Dietary sunflower, linseed and fish oils affect phospholipid fatty acid composition, development of cardiac lesions, phospholipase activity and eicosanoid production in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 49, 665673.
40. Calder, PC (2014) Very long chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and human health. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 116, 12801300.
41. Baeverfjord, G & Krogdahl, Å (1996) Development and regression of soybean meal induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., distal intestine: a comparison with the intestines of fasted fish. J Fish Dis 19, 375387.
42. Peretti, N, Sassolas, A, Roy, CC, et al. (2010) Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of chylomicron retention disease based on a review of the literature and the experience of two centers. Orphanet J Rare Dis 5, 24.
43. Watkins, BA, Li, Y, Allen, KG, et al. (2000) Dietary ratio of (n-6)/(n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids alters the fatty acid composition of bone compartments and biomarkers of bone formation in rats. J Nutr 130, 22742284.
44. Gil Martens, L, Lock, E, Fjelldal, P, et al. (2010) Dietary fatty acids and inflammation in the vertebral column of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts: a possible link to spinal deformities. J Fish Dis 33, 957972.
45. Buddhachat, K, Siengdee, P, Chomdej, S, et al. (2017) Effects of different omega-3 sources, fish oil, krill oil, and green-lipped mussel against cytokine-mediated canine cartilage degradation. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim (epublication ahead of print version 11 January 2017).
46. Wann, AK, Mistry, J, Blain, EJ, et al. (2010) Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid reduce interleukin-1β-mediated cartilage degradation. Arthritis Res Ther 12, R207.
47. Wang, Z, Guo, AI, Ma, L, et al. (2016) Docosahexenoic acid treatment ameliorates cartilage degeneration via a p38 MAPK-dependent mechanism. Int J Mol Med 37, 15421550.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Bou supplementary material
Table S1

 Word (37 KB)
37 KB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Bou supplementary material
Table S2

 Word (57 KB)
57 KB

Low levels of very-long-chain n-3 PUFA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) diet reduce fish robustness under challenging conditions in sea cages

  • Marta Bou (a1) (a2), Gerd M. Berge (a3), Grete Baeverfjord (a3), Trygve Sigholt (a4), Tone-Kari Østbye (a1) and Bente Ruyter (a1) (a2)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.