Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Uses and Forms of Violence among the Urban Poor

  • JAVIER AUYERO, AGUSTÍN BURBANO DE LARA and MARÍA FERNANDA BERTI

Abstract

Based on 30 months of collaborative fieldwork in a poor neighbourhood in Buenos Aires, Argentina, this paper scrutinises the multiple uses of violence among residents and the concatenations between private and public forms of physical aggression. Much of the violence reported here resembles that which has been dissected by students of street violence in the United States – that is, it is the product of interpersonal retaliation and remains encapsulated in dyadic exchanges. However, by casting a wider net to include other forms of aggression (not only criminal but also sexual, domestic and intimate) that take place inside and outside the home, and that intensely shape the course of poor people's daily lives, the paper argues that diverse forms of violence among the urban poor (a) serve more than just retaliatory purposes, and (b) link with one another beyond dyadic relationships.

Basado en 30 meses de trabajo de campo colaborativo en un barrio pobre de Buenos Aires, Argentina, este artículo estudia los múltiples usos de la violencia entre sus residentes y las concatenaciones entre formas públicas y privadas de agresión física. Mucha de la violencia reportada aquí recuerda a aquélla que ha sido analizada por estudiosos de la violencia callejera en los Estados Unidos, es decir como el producto de revanchas interpersonales y que queda encapsulada en intercambios binarios. Sin embargo, al desarrollar una red más amplia para incluir otras formas de agresión (no sólo criminal, sino también sexual, doméstica e íntima) que se da dentro y fuera del hogar, y que configura intensamente el devenir de las vidas diarias de los pobres, el material señala que las diversas formas de violencia entre los pobres urbanos (a) funciona más allá de las meras revanchas y (b) se vinculan entre sí en un marco mayor a las relaciones binarias.

Baseado em 30 meses de trabalho de campo colaborativo em um bairro pobre de Buenos Aires, Argentina, este artigo escrutina os múltiplos usos de violência entre moradores e as relações entre formas públicas e privadas de violência física. Grande parte da violência reportada pelo artigo assemelha-se àquela que já foi dissecada por estudantes de violência de rua nos Estados Unidos, ou seja, ela é o produto de retaliação interpessoal e permanece encapsulada em trocas bilaterais. No entanto, aplicando uma abordagem mais ampla e que inclui outras formas de agressão (não apenas criminal, mas também sexual, doméstica e íntima) que ocorrem dentro e fora do lar e moldam intensamente a dinâmica da vida diária de pessoas pobres, este artigo argumenta que as diversas formas de violência entre a população pobre urbana têm (a) propósitos que vão além da simples retaliação e (b) interconexões que vão além de relações dicotômicas.

Copyright

References

Hide All

1 See Koonings, Kees, ‘Armed Actors, Violence and Democracy in Latin America in the 1990s’, Bulletin of Latin American Research, 20: 4 (2001), pp. 401–8; Koonings, Kees and Kruijt, Dirk (eds.), Fractured Cities: Social Exclusion, Urban Violence and Contested Spaces in Latin America (London: Zed Books, 2007); and Rodgers, Dennis, Beall, Jo and Kanbur, Ravi (eds.), Latin American Urban Development into the Twenty First Century: Towards a Renewed Perspective on the City (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012).

2 Imbusch, Peter, Misse, Michel and Carrión, Fernando, ‘Violence Research in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Literature Review’, International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 5: 1 (2011), pp. 87154; Arias, Desmond and Daniel, Goldstein (eds.), Violent Democracies in Latin America (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010); Pearce, Jenny, ‘Perverse State Formation and Securitized Democracy in Latin America’, Democratization, 17: 2 (2010), pp. 286386; Jones, Gareth A. and Rodgers, Dennis (eds.), Youth Violence in Latin America: Gangs and Juvenile Justice in Perspective (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009); Caldeira, Teresa, City of Walls: Crime, Segregation, and Citizenship in Sao Paulo (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2000).

3 See, for example, Hume, Mo, The Politics of Violence: Gender, Conflict, and Community in El Salvador (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009); Wilding, Polly, ‘“New Violence”: Silencing Women's Experiences in the Favelas of Brazil’, Journal of Latin American Studies, 42 (2010), pp. 719–47.

4 Koonings, ‘Armed Actors, Violence and Democracy’, p. 403.

5 Imbusch, Misse and Carrión, ‘Violence Research in Latin America and the Caribbean’, p. 95.

6 Gay, Robert, Lucia: Testimonies of a Brazilian Drug Dealer's Woman (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2005); Brinks, Daniel, The Judicial Response to Police Violence in Latin America: Inequality and the Rule of Law (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008); Centro de Estudios Legales y Sociales, Derechos humanos en Argentina: informe 2009 (Buenos Aires: Siglo XXI, 2009); Imbusch, Misse and Carrión, ‘Violence Research in Latin America and the Caribbean’.

7 Moser, Caroline and McIlwaine, Cathy, Encounters with Violence in Latin America (New York: Taylor and Francis, 2004). For Rio de Janeiro, see Gay, Lucia; Perlman, Janice, Favela (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011); Wilding, ‘“New Violence”’; Penglase, Ben, ‘The Owner of the Hill: Masculinity and Drug-Trafficking in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil’, Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Anthropology, 15: 2 (2010), pp. 317–37. For Managua, see Rodgers, Dennis, ‘Slum Wars of the 21st Century: Gangs, Mano Dura, and the New Urban Geography of Conflict in Central America’, Development and Change, 40: 5 (2009), pp. 949–76. For Medellín, see Baird, Adam, ‘The Violent Gang and the Construction of Masculinity amongst Socially Excluded Young Men’, Safer Communities, 11: 4 (2012). For Guatemala, see O'Neill, Kevin and Thomas, Kedron (eds.), Securing the City: Neoliberalism, Space, and Insecurity in Postwar Guatemala (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2011).

8 Rodgers, Beall and Kanbur (eds.), Latin American Urban Development, p. 15.

9 Observatorio de la Deuda Social Argentina, El problema de la inseguridad en la Argentina: factores que influyen en la delincuencia y disparan el sentimiento de inseguridad o miedo a ser víctima de un delito (Buenos Aires: Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina, 2011).

10 Dirección Nacional de Política Criminal, Hechos delictuosos registrados: 2008 (Buenos Aires: Ministerio de Justicia, Seguridad y Derechos Humanos, 2008).

11 Sebastián Lalaurette, ‘Creció 50% el abuso sexual de menores’, La Nación, 24 Feb. 2008. On the diverse forms of violence experienced by the Argentine poor, see Bonaldi, Pablo and del Cueto, Carla, ‘Fragmentación y violencia en dos barrios de Moreno’, in Grimson, Alejandro, Curto, Cecilia Ferraudi and Segura, Ramiro (eds.), La vida política en los barrios populares de Buenos Aires (Buenos Aires: Prometeo Libros, 2009), pp. 103–28. On fear of crime and perceptions of inseguridad, see Kessler, Gabriel, El sentimiento de inseguridad (Buenos Aires: Siglo XXI, 2009). It is important to note, however, that although in the last three decades there has been a significant rise in crime, the overall crime rates in Argentina remain comparatively low: see United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Global Study on Homicide: Trends, Contexts, Data (Vienna: UNODC, 2011).

12 Goffman, Erving, Where the Action Is (New York: Allen Lane, 1969).

13 The Conurbano is the area, comprised of 24 districts, that surrounds the city of Buenos Aires.

14 Torresi, Leonardo, ‘Ingeniero Budge, una de las zonas más temibles del país’, Clarín, 29 Nov. 1998.

15 Jacobs, Bruce, ‘A Typology of Street Criminal Retaliation’, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 41: 3 (2004), pp. 295323; Mullins, Christopher, Wright, Richard and Jacobs, Bruce, ‘Gender, Street Life and Criminal Retaliation’, Criminology, 42: 4 (2004), pp. 911–40; Jacobs, Bruce and Wright, Richard, Street Justice: Retaliation in the Criminal World (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006); Papachristos, Andrew, ‘Murder by Structure: Dominance Relations and the Social Structure of Gang Homicide’, American Journal of Sociology, 115: 1 (2009), pp. 74128.

16 Rodgers, ‘Slum Wars of the 21st Century’; Portes, Alejandro and Roberts, Bryan R., ‘The Free-Market City: Latin American Urbanization in the Years of the Neoliberal Experiment’, Studies in Comparative International Development, 40: 1 (2005), pp. 4382.

17 Auyero, Javier, ‘Visible Fists, Clandestine Kicks, and Invisible Elbows: Three Forms of Regulating Neoliberal Poverty’, European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, 8 (2010), pp. 526; Segura, Ramiro, ‘Si vas a venir a una villa, loco, entrá de otra forma: distancias sociales, límites espaciales, y efectos de lugar en un barrio segregado del Gran Buenos Aires’, in Grimson, Alejandro, Curto, Cecilia Ferraudi and Segura, Ramiro (eds.), La vida política en los barrios populares de Buenos Aires (Buenos Aires: Prometeo Libros, 2009), pp. 4162; Bonaldi and del Cueto, ‘Fragmentación y violencia’; Portes and Roberts, ‘The Free-Market City’.

18 Auyero, Javier, de Lara, Agustín Burbano and Berti, María Fernanda, ‘Violence and the State at the Urban Margins’, Journal of Contemporary Ethnography (forthcoming, 2014); Horacio Verbitsky, ‘¿Seguriqué?’, Página/12, 6 Mar. 2011; Matias Dewey, ‘Fragile States, Robust Structures: Illegal Police Protection in Buenos Aires’, GIGA Working Paper no. 169 (2011); Sain, Marcelo, ‘El fracaso del control de las drogas ilegales en Argentina’, Nueva Sociedad, 222 (2009), pp. 132–46; Isla, Alejandro and Miguez, Daniel (eds.), En los márgenes de la ley (Buenos Aires: Paidós, 2003). See also Müller, Markus-Michael, ‘Addressing an Ambivalent Relationship: Policing and the Urban Poor in Mexico City’, Journal of Latin American Studies, 44: 2 (2012), pp. 319–46.

19 Sain, ‘El fracaso del control’.

20 For the United States, see Bourgois, Philippe, In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995); and Reding, Nick, Methland: The Death and Life of an American Small Town (New York: Bloomsbury, 2009). For Argentina, see Alarcón, Cristian, Si me querés, quereme transa (Buenos Aires: Norma, 2009).

21 Bourgois, In Search of Respect; Alarcón, Cristian, Cuando me muera quiero que me toquen cumbia: vidas de pibes chorros (Buenos Aires: Norma, 2003); Alarcón, Si me querés, quereme transa; Venkatesh, Sudhir, Gang Leader for a Day: A Rogue Sociologist Takes to the Streets (New York: Penguin, 2008); Papachristos, ‘Murder by Structure’.

22 Tilly, Charles, The Contentious French (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986); and ‘Contentious Repertoires in Great Britain’, in Mark Traugott (ed.), Repertoires and Cycles of Collective Action (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995).

23 In his classic study of the US ghetto, Ulf Hannerz uses the notion of repertoire to describe individuals' beliefs, values and modes of action – ‘items of culture which are somehow stored’ in them. See Hannerz, Ulf, Soulside: Inquiries into Ghetto Culture and Community (New York: Columbia University Press, 1969), p. 191. We are here using the notion in a more restricted sense to focus attention on the deployment of violence as a repertoire of action.

24 Shaw, Clifford and McKay, Henry, Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1942); Kornhauser, Ruth R., Social Sources of Delinquency: An Appraisal of Analytic Models (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1978).

25 Sampson, Robert and Groves, Byron, ‘Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory’, American Journal of Sociology, 94: 4 (1989), pp. 774802; Sampson, Robert, Great American City: Chicago and the Enduring Neighborhood Effect (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2012).

26 Villarreal, Andrés, ‘Political Competition and Violence in Mexico: Hierarchical Social Control in Local Patronage Structures’, American Sociological Review, 67: 4 (2002), pp. 477–98.

27 Sampson and Groves, ‘Community Structure and Crime’; Sampson, Robert, Raudenbush, Stephen W. and Earls, Felton, ‘Neighborhoods and Violent Crime: A Multilevel Study of Collective Efficacy’, Science, 277 (1997), pp. 918–24; Villarreal, ‘Political Competition and Violence in Mexico’.

28 Turpin, Jennifer and Kurtz, Lester, The Web of Violence: From Interpersonal to Global (Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1997); Muggah, Robert, Researching the Urban Dilemma: Urbanization, Poverty and Violence (Canada: IDRC, 2012).

29 Jacobs, ‘A Typology of Street Criminal Retaliation’; Mullins, Wright and Jacobs, ‘Gender, Street Life and Criminal Retaliation’; Jacobs and Wright, Street Justice.

30 Ibid., p. 5; see also Jacobs, ‘A Typology of Street Criminal Retaliation’.

31 Mullins, Wright and Jacobs, ‘Gender, Street Life and Criminal Retaliation’, p. 911.

32 Papachristos, ‘Murder by Structure’, p. 80.

33 Black, Donald, ‘Crime as Social Control’, American Sociological Review, 48 (1983), pp. 3445; Jacobs and Wright, Street Justice.

34 Kotlowitz, Alex, There are No Children Here: The Story of Two Boys Growing Up in the Other America (New York: Anchor Books, 1991); Bourgois, In Search of Respect; Anderson, Elijah, Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City (New York: W. W. Norton, 1999); Alarcón, Cuando me muera and Si me querés; LeBlanc, Adrian, Random Family: Love, Drugs, Trouble, and Coming of Age in the Bronx (New York: Scribner, 2004); Venkatesh, Gang Leader for a Day; Jones, Nikki, Between Good and Ghetto: African American Girls and Inner-City Violence (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2009); Harding, David, Living the Drama: Community, Conflict, and Culture among Inner-City Boys (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2010).

35 Papachristos, ‘Murder by Structure’, p. 81.

36 Wacquant, Loïc, Urban Outcasts: A Comparative Sociology of Advanced Marginality (London: Polity, 2007). For two paradigmatic examples from Latin America, see, on ‘the traido’ in Nicaragua, Rocha, J. L., ‘El traido: clave de la continuidad de las pandillas’, Envío, 280 (2005), pp. 3541; and on the Brazilian briga, Linger, Daniel, ‘Essential Outlines of Crime and Madness: Man-Fights in São Luís’, Cultural Anthropology, 5: 1 (1990), pp. 6277.

37 Bourgois, In Search of Respect.

38 Rodgers, Dennis, ‘Living in the Shadow of Death: Gangs, Violence and Social Order in Urban Nicaragua, 1996–2002’, Journal of Latin American Studies, 38: 2 (2006), pp. 267–92; Jones, Between Good and Ghetto; Zubillaga, Verónica, ‘“Gaining Respect”: The Logic of Violence among Young Men in the Barrios of Caracas, Venezuela’, in Jones, and Rodgers, (eds.), Youth Violence in Latin America, pp. 83104; Penglase, ‘The Owner of the Hill’.

39 Gould, Roger, Collision of Wills: How Ambiguity about Social Rank Breeds Conflict (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2003).

40 Keohane, Robert, ‘Reciprocity in International Relations’, International Organization, 40: 1 (1986), p. 4.

41 Jackman, Mary, ‘Violence in Social Life’, Annual Review of Sociology, 28 (2002), p. 387.

42 Tolan, Patrick, Gorman-Smith, Deborah and Henry, David, ‘Family Violence’, Annual Review of Psychology, 57 (2006), pp. 557–83; Kurst-Swanger, Karel and Petcosky, Jacqueline (eds.), Violence in the Home: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003); Gelles, Richard, ‘Family Violence’, Annual Review of Sociology, 11 (1985), pp. 347–67.

43 Jones, Between Good and Ghetto; Harding, Living the Drama; Venkatesh, Gang Leader for a Day; McCart, Michael, Smith, Daniel, Saunders, Benjamin, Kilpatrick, Dean, Resnick, Heidi and Ruggiero, Kenneth, ‘Do Urban Adolescents Become Desensitized to Community Violence? Data from National Survey’, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77: 3 (2007), pp. 434–42; Bourgois, In Search of Respect.

44 See, for example, Bourgois, In Search of Respect; LeBlanc, Random Family; Kotlowitz, There are No Children Here.

45 Tolan, Gorman-Smith and Henry, ‘Family Violence’, p. 558.

46 Collins, Randall, Violence: A Micro-Sociological Theory (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008).

47 Ibid., p. 8.

48 Ibid., p. 7.

49 Jackman, ‘Violence in Social Life’; Anderson, Code of the Street.

50 Jackman, ‘Violence in Social Life’, p. 404.

52 Anderson, Code of the Street.

53 Moser and McIlwaine, Encounters with Violence.

54 Scheper-Hughes, Nancy and Bourgois, Philippe (eds.), Violence in War and Peace: An Anthology (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004).

55 Bourgois, Philippe, ‘Recognizing Invisible Violence: A Thirty-Year Ethnographic Retrospective’, in Rylko-Bauer, Barbara, Whiteford, Linda and Farmer, Paul (eds.), Global Health in Times of Violence (Santa Fe, NM: School of Advanced Research Press, 2009), pp. 1840; Scheper-Hughes, Nancy, ‘Peace-Time Crimes’, Social Identities, 3: 3 (1996), pp. 471–97; and ‘Small Wars and Invisible Genocides’, Social Science and Medicine, 43: 5 (1997), pp. 889–900.

56 Bourgois, ‘Recognizing Invisible Violence’, p. 18.

57 Kelly, Liz, Surviving Sexual Violence (Cambridge: Polity, 1988).

58 Hume, The Politics of Violence; Wilding, Polly, Negotiating Boundaries: Gender, Violence, and Transformation in Brazil (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013).

59 Hume, The Politics of Violence, p. 4.

60 The notion of repertoire brings together different levels of analysis ranging from large-scale changes such as the development of capitalism (with the subsequent proletarianisation of work) and the process of state-making (with the parallel growth of the state's bulk, complexity, and penetration of its coercive and extractive power) to patterns of citizen–state interaction. Tilly's model exhorts us to conceptually hold together macro-structures and micro-processes by looking closely at the ways in which big changes indirectly shape collective action by affecting the interests, opportunities, organisations and identities of ordinary people. See Tilly, Charles, Regimes and Repertoires (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2006); The Contentious French; and ‘Contentious Repertoires in Great Britain’.

61 Tilly, ‘Contentious Repertoires in Great Britain’, p. 26.

63 Auyero, Javier, Poor People's Politics: Peronist Survival Networks and the Legacy of Evita (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2000).

64 In order to identify residential patterns, sources of employment, levels of education and the most common problems identified by the population under investigation, we conducted 100 short interviews, each of which lasted between 30 minutes and an hour. We recruited the respondents via snowball sampling. For insightful accounts of the history and workings of the street fair and the surrounding neighbourhood, see Sebastián Hacher, Sangre salada (Buenos Aires: Marea Editorial, 2011); and Girón, Nacho, La Salada: radiografía de la feria más polémica de Latinoamérica (Buenos Aires: Ediciones B, 2011).

65 Emerson, Robert, Fretz, Rachel and Shaw, Linda, Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1995).

66 Becker, Howard, ‘Problems of Inference and Proof in Participant Observation’, American Sociological Review, 23 (1958), pp. 652–60; and Sociological Work: Methods and Substance (Chicago, IL: Aldine, 1970); Katz, Jack, ‘A Theory of Qualitative Methodology: The Social System of Analytic Fieldwork’, in Poor People's Lawyers in Transition (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1982), pp. 197218; ‘From How to Why: On Luminous Description and Causal Inference in Ethnography (Part I)’, Ethnography, 2: 4 (2001), pp. 443–73; and ‘From How to Why: On Luminous Description and Causal Inference in Ethnography (Part II)’, Ethnography, 3: 1 (2002), pp. 73–90.

67 Our study was approved by the University of Texas at Austin IRB (protocol no. 2011-05-0126). Research participants (students, parents and school authorities) were fully aware of Berti's dual role as teacher and researcher.

68 Tolan, Gorman-Smith and Henry, ‘Family Violence’; Gelles, ‘Family Violence’. See, for a description of continuities between private and public violence, Brush, Lisa, Poverty, Battered Women, and Work in U. S. Public Policy (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).

69 Auyero, Javier, ‘Born amid Bullets’, Contexts, 12: 1 (2013), pp. 24–9.

70 See, for a full description, Auyero, Javier and Berti, María Fernanda, La violencia en los márgenes (Buenos Aires: Katz Editores, 2013).

71 See Sain, ‘El fracaso del control’.

72 See Javier Auyero, ‘Deseos urgentes’, Página/12, 19 Mar. 2012.

73 Hacher, Sangre salada; Girón, La Salada.

74 Hume, The Politics of Violence.

75 Arendt, Hannah, On Violence (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1970).

76 Katz, Jack, Seductions of Crime (New York: Basic Books, 1988).

77 Thieves, so the folk narrative goes, do not make deals with the police and are united in their collective hatred of cops. Transas, on the contrary, make all sorts of illicit arrangements with the police (‘arreglan con la gorra’). Although the ‘thief versus dealer’ symbolic opposition organises the moral universe of street crime, in real life the boundaries between these two roles are less clear-cut: see Alarcón, Cuando me muera and Si me querés. As our fieldwork taught us, people can be one or another at different points in time, and families may have members involved in both types of shady street entrepreneurship. See also Venkatesh, Sudhir, Off the Books: The Underground Economy of the Urban Poor (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009).

78 This is quite common in the province of Buenos Aires, where 68 per cent of inmates in state jails are awaiting trial or final sentencing. See Centro de Estudios Legales y Sociales, ‘Denuncia incumplimiento, propone medidas, solicita audiencia pública’, 2010, available at www.cels.org.ar/common/documentos/denuncia%20incumplimiento%20%20solicita%20audiencia%20%20publica%20final.pdf (last checked May 2014).

79 Brennan, Robert, Molnar, Beth and Earls, Feltron, ‘Refining the Measurement of Exposure to Violence (ETV) in Urban Youth’, Journal of Community Psychology, 35: 3 (2007), pp. 603–18.

80 Reinarman, Craig and Levine, Harry G. (eds.), Crack in America: Demon Drugs and Social Justice (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1997); Parker, Robert N. and Auerhahn, Kathleen, ‘Alcohol, Drugs, and Violence’, Annual Review of Sociology, 24 (1998), pp. 291311.

81 Goldstein, Paul J., ‘The Drugs/Violence Nexus: A Tripartite Conceptual Framework’, Journal of Drug Issues, 14 (1985), pp. 493506; see also Goldstein, Paul J., Brownstein, Henry H., Ryan, Patrick J. and Bellucci, Patricia, ‘Crack and Homicide in New York City: A Case Study in Epidemiology of Violence’, in Reinarman, and Levine, (eds.), Crack in America, pp. 113–30.

82 Ousey, Graham and Lee, Matthew, ‘Examining the Conditional Nature of the Illicit Drug Market-Homicide Relationship: A Partial Test of the Theory of Contingent Causation’, Criminology, 40: 1 (2002), pp. 74–5.

83 Goldstein, ‘The Drugs/Violence Nexus’, p. 496.

84 Ousey and Lee, ‘Examining the Conditional Nature’, p. 75.

85 Reinarman and Levine (eds.), Crack in America; Ousey and Lee, ‘Examining the Conditional Nature’; Bourgois, In Search of Respect; Venkatesh, Gang Leader for a Day; Reding, Methland.

86 Lancaster, Roger, Life Is Hard: Machismo, Danger, and the Intimacy of Power in Nicaragua (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press).

87 Bourgois, In Search of Respect.

88 Fanon, Franz, The Wretched of the Earth (New York: Penguin Classics, 1990), p. 74.

89 Davis, Natalie, ‘The Rites of Violence: Religious Riot in Sixteenth-Century France’, Past and Present, 59 (1973), pp. 5191; Darnton, Robert, The Great Cat Massacre and other Episodes in French Cultural History (New York: Basic Books, 2006); Thompson, E. P., Customs in Common (New York: New Press, 1994); Scott, James, Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1985); Steinberg, Marc, Fighting Words: Working-Class Formation, Collective Action, and Discourse in Early Nineteenth-Century England (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999).

* Special thanks to Dennis Rodgers, Matías Dewey, Matthew Desmond, Nancy Scheper-Hughes, Philippe Bourgois, Alice Goffman, Loïc Wacquant and Lucas Rubinich, as well as the four anonymous JLAS reviewers, for their critical comments. We would also like to give thanks to participants at the Development Studies Workshop at the University of Helsinki, Finland, where Javier Auyero presented a draft of this paper – and especially to Anja Nygren and Jeremy Gould for organising such a lively and energising event. Katherine Jensen and Pamela Neumann provided much-needed editorial assistance. Previous versions of this article were presented in the sociology departments at Rutgers University, Princeton University and the University of South Florida; in the Department of Social and Cultural Analysis at New York University; and at the Universidad General San Martín. The National Science Foundation (Award SES-1153230), the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation and the Teresa Lozano Long Institute of Latin American Studies at the University of Texas at Austin provided funding for this project.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed