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To demonstrate the use of an optical surface scanner, with associated software, in the assessment of rhinoplasty patients, and to discuss the possible clinical applications of this technology in the future.
Case study analysis of pre- and post-operative scans of a patient undergoing septorhinoplasty at Whipps Cross University Hospital, London, UK.
A 21-year-old man undergoing septorhinoplasty underwent pre-operative optical surface scanning of his face. The scans were repeated at one week and one year post-operatively. Software developed at University College London was then used to analyse the scans.
The scans clearly showed that the man's dorsal hump had been well reduced and the nose straightened, with a resulting 1600 mm3 gain on the right side and a 1000 mm3 loss on the left side of the nose. Tip projection had also been achieved.
This technique allowed objective quantification of facial features and analysis of change. It may well prove useful in the future in predicting change following surgical intervention.
We report a rare case of sialadenoma papilliferum.
A case report of sialadenoma papilliferum is presented.
A 67-year-old woman presented with recurrent epistaxis. She was found to have an exophytic, well circumscribed mass on the nasal septum mucosa. The lesion was completely excised. A diagnosis of sialadenoma papilliferum was made based on the characteristic histological pattern. Follow up showed no evidence of recurrence. Subsequently, the patient remained well without complaint of epistaxis.
To our knowledge, this is the first report in the world literature of sialadenoma papilliferum of the nasal cavity. This case indicates that this rare tumour can present with epistaxis, and can be resolved by means of total excision.
This paper attempts to review changes in the lives of hearing-impaired patients within the developing world, brought about by globalisation and development. The paper also explores limitations to improved care and addresses the collective moral responsibility of developed nations.
Analysis of literature.
Within developing nations, large populations have emerged with a similar pattern of problems, access to information and aspirations as those living in developed nations. However, marked differences in income have persisted. These trends have resulted in a relative increase in the proportion of the hearing-impaired population in need of cochlear implantation, while at the same time restricting their access to such treatment.
The emergence of global markets and media and a shared sense of destiny amongst the people of this planet should translate into a concerted, worldwide effort to assist the deaf in developing countries. Much more can be done within existing resources and frameworks to improve the quality of these peoples' lives.
The objective of the study was to correlate quantitative changes in the lipid composition of human cerumen with changes in age, sex and menstrual cycle stage.
Cerumen samples were collected from the external ear canal and analysed using sequential, one dimensional, high performance thin layer chromatography.
The following age groups of both sexes were investigated: one to 10 years; 11–18 years; 19–40 years; and 40 years and over. Additionally, cerumen samples from subjects in three stages of the menstrual cycle were compared.
In the cerumen samples, the peak values for wax ester and cholesterol occured between the ages of one and 10 years for both sexes. However, squalene and triglyceride content reached maximum levels at puberty. Men aged 19–40 years had a significantly greater percentage of cerumen lipid squalene content than women from the same age group; however, their cholesterol content was found to be lower. Regarding the various menstrual cycle stages, cerumen samples taken at the follicular stage from women aged 19–40 years had a significantly lower free fatty acids content, and higher cholesterol and squalene levels, compared with samples taken in the luteal or menstrual stages.
The proportions of the lipid constituents of cerumen varied with age, sex and menstrual stage. In cerumen, the main lipid constituent stimulated at puberty appears to be squalene, not wax esters as reported for sebum. The relevance of lipid constituents to cerumen's protective role is discussed.
To evaluate the vestibular aqueduct in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
We evaluated 19 patients (12 men and seven women; age range, 22−79 years) with unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss, using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. All these patients had unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss. We also evaluated 47 control subjects (22 men and 25 women; age range, 22–79 years).
In sensorineural hearing loss affected ears, the width of the vestibular aqueduct at the midpoint and at the operculum was significantly greater than that in contralateral ears or in control ears. The width of the vestibular aqueduct at the midpoint and the operculum did not correlate with the audiometric threshold or the audiogram configuration. Contrast enhancement of the ipsilateral endolymphatic sac was observed in 17 of 19 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (89 per cent). Eleven of these 17 patients also showed enhancement on the contralateral side, but no patient showed enhancement only on the contralateral side. In sensorineural hearing loss affected ears, the width of the vestibular aqueduct did not differ significantly between those patients with and without enhancement.
The vestibular aqueducts of sudden sensorineural hearing loss affected ears are wider than those of controls. Precise imaging and evaluation of the inner ear is essential when investigating the pathological conditions responsible for sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between tuberculous meningitis and tuberculous otomastoiditis.
Materials and methods:
Meningeal involvement sites were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging in 32 patients (21 males, 11 females) who had previously been diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis. Clinical and laboratory findings and responses to anti-tuberculous treatment were evaluated, and the presence of concomitant tuberculous otomastoiditis was also investigated.
The meningeal involvement site was unilateral (in the sylvian fissure and the perimesencephalic cistern) in 28 patients (87.5 per cent), and bilateral and widespread in four patients (12.5 per cent). Tuberculous otomastoiditis was found in 11 of the patients with tuberculous meningitis (34.3 per cent). Otomastoiditis was on the same side as the meningeal involvement in nine of these 11 patients. Bilateral otomastoiditis with meningeal involvement was observed in two patients.
Tuberculous meningitis is frequently accompanied by otomastoiditis, although the exact causal relationship between the two conditions is unclear. Since meningitis is a serious clinical condition, concomitant otomastoiditis generally remains unrecognised. Tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with otitis or otomastoiditis who do not respond to antibiotic therapy.
To describe a series of five patients with isolated fracture of the manubrium of the malleus.
Retrospective case series.
Five patients aged 44–64 years with isolated fracture of the manubrium who presented to our institution over a five-year period (2000–2005).
All patients presented with a history of digitally manipulating the external auditory canal, leading to the manubrial fracture, which we presume was due to a suction-type mechanism. Otomicroscopy often revealed a break in the smooth contour of the manubrium. All patients had air–bone gaps on audiometry, especially at higher frequencies. Tympanometry showed hypermobility of the tympanic membrane in four patients who were tested. Laser-Doppler vibrometry revealed increased umbo velocity in four out of five patients. Four patients were treated conservatively. One patient underwent exploratory tympanotomy with successful ossiculoplasty.
Isolated fracture of the manubrium is a rare condition which may present as sudden-onset hearing loss after digital manipulation of the external auditory canal. The diagnosis can be made on the basis of otomicroscopy, audiometry, tympanometry and laser-Doppler vibrometry. Conservative treatment is often successful.
There is growing interest in the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the upper aerodigestive tract, and in the middle ear in patients with otitis media with effusion. Some studies have reported detecting H pylori in the middle ear, although reports to the contrary exist. In this study, we critically evaluate the evidence for the theory that H pylori in the middle ear plays a role in otitis media with effusion.
We undertook a systematic review of all available studies investigating the presence of H pylori in the middle ear of patients with otitis media with effusion. The current literature was critically analysed using the key words and phrases ‘Helicobacter pylori’ ‘otitis media with effusion’, ‘serous otitis media’, ‘glue ear’ and ‘middle ear’. Six original research papers were identified, studying a total of 203 patients and 27 controls; two of these papers were randomised, controlled studies and four were prospective, cohort studies.
At present, there is poor evidence for the existence of H pylori-associated otitis media with effusion.
Further research in the field is needed in order to delineate the presence of H pylori and its role in the pathogenesis of otitis media with effusion.
To determine olfactory adaptation and clearance times for healthy individuals, and to assess the effect of common variables upon these parameters.
Study design and setting:
Fourteen healthy volunteers were recruited for a series of tests. Their initial olfactory threshold levels for phenethyl alcohol were determined. After olfactory exposure to a saturated solution of phenethyl alcohol (i.e. olfactory adaptation), the time taken for subjects to return to their initial olfactory threshold was then recorded (i.e. olfactory clearance). Visual analogue scale scores for subjective variables were also recorded.
The 14 subjects performed 120 tests in total. Despite consistent linear trends within individuals, olfactory clearance times varied widely within and between individuals. The mean olfactory clearance time for phenethyl alcohol was 170 seconds (range 81–750). Univariate analysis showed a relationship between olfactory clearance times and age (p = 0.031), symptoms (p = 0.029) and mood (p = 0.048).
When testing a person's sense of smell in a clinical setting, recent exposure to similar smells should be noted, and a period of 15 minutes needs to be allowed before retesting if using phenethyl alcohol. Other variables need not be controlled, but greater clearance time may be needed for older patients.
Endoscopic sinus surgery has been widely performed to treat nose and paranasal diseases. However, it is difficult to manipulate anterior wall lesions of the maxillary sinus using conventional surgical instruments. This paper presents a method of performing endoscopic surgery for anterior wall lesions of the maxillary sinus, using a 135° reflective CO2 laser.
A CO2 laser with a 135° reflective tip on the pipe-guide handpiece and a CO2 laser angulated to the same degree were used. The pipe-guide handpiece with reflective tip was inserted into the nasal cavity and the base of the maxillary sinus anterior wall lesion was vaporised and removed via an enlarged natural ostium. During the procedure, the maxillary antrum was visualised with a 70° endoscope. Ten cases of maxillary sinus anterior wall lesion underwent this surgical procedure.
In all cases, the base of the maxillary sinus anterior wall lesion was removed completely and recurrence avoided.
This method is a reliable procedure enabling endoscopic sinus surgery for anterior wall lesions of the maxillary sinus.
We performed endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy in cases diagnosed with both anatomical and functional lacrimal obstruction, and here report results for the latter cases.
Sixty-eight endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomies were performed for functional obstruction on 44 patients. The indication for surgery was epiphora in 66 patients and recurrent dacryocystitis in two. The minimum follow up was six months.
There was complete cure in 44 (65 per cent) patients, partial cure in nine (13 per cent) and no improvement in 15 (22 per cent). Revision surgery was performed in five of the 15 cases with no improvement, after which there was an overall complete cure in 47 patients (69 per cent), partial cure in 10 (15 per cent) and no improvement in 11 (16 per cent).
Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy is indicated in cases of epiphora with a diagnosis of functional lacrimal obstruction. Currently available investigations cannot reliably distinguish partial anatomical obstruction from pump failure.
Dacryocystorhinostomy via an endonasal route has been adopted in our department. This audit study describes and compares our results for external, laser endonasal and ‘cold steel’ endonasal techniques. Success was defined as a subjective report of eye watering being ‘better’ or ‘cured’. Data were obtained from a retrospective review of the medical records of all patients undergoing primary dacryocystorhinostomy in our department.
External dacryocystorhinostomy performed by a consultant ophthalmologist was taken as our gold standard. In our study, the success rate for external dacryocystorhinostomy was 94 per cent.
First cycle – laser-assisted endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy:
Our initial results for endonasal laser-assisted dacryocystorhinostomy produced a success rate of 64 per cent, which was significantly worse than that for external dacryocystorhinostomy. These results have been previously published.
Change in practice:
Evidence suggested that cold steel endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy was more effective, and we adopted this as our technique of choice.
Second cycle – cold steel endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy:
Over a four-year period, 57 cases completed a full nine months' follow up. 93 per cent were completed as day cases and 39 per cent were performed under local anaesthetic. The success rate was 79 per cent (45/57). There was no difference in success rates when this procedure was compared with external dacryocystorhinostomy (p = 0.55). The type of anaesthetic used (i.e. local vs general) made no difference to the success rate (p = 0.93).
Change in practice:
Cold steel endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy was as effective as the gold standard, i.e. external dacryocystorhinostomy. Laser-assisted dacryocystorhinostomy was significantly less successful than external dacryocystorhinostomy. Due to the benefits of decreased operating time, lower morbidity and success under local anaesthetic, we recommend cold steel endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy as our procedure of choice for the treatment of epiphora.
To evaluate the type of aerobic bacteria commonly isolated from peritonsillar abscesses.
A retrospective study involving 60 patients presenting with peritonsillar abscess treated between 2003 and 2006.
The patients were treated in a tertiary care, teaching hospital. The records of the patients were reviewed and analysed.
Gram-positive organisms were commonly isolated from the abscesses. However, an increasing trend towards Gram-negative bacterial isolates was noted. The antibiogram showed changing patterns of sensitivity, with a resistance to penicillin.
There is an increasing incidence of Gram-negative aerobic bacteria causing peritonsillar abscess. Appropriate antibiotics for Gram-negative bacteria should be included in the regimen if such bacteria are isolated in culture and sensitivity studies.
Empirical antibiotics with Gram-negative cover will be appropriate as adjunctive therapy.
Enlarged tonsils and adenoids (part of Waldeyer's ring) are responsible for obstructive sleep disordered breathing. Obstructive sleep disordered breathing episodes lead to hypoxaemia, hypercapnia and a state of arousal, all of which affect normal development of the nervous system. In this study, two hypotheses were tested: (1) obstructive sleep disordered breathing is caused by adenotonsillar hypertrophy and is associated with hypoxia and brain dysfunction; and (2) children with obstructive sleep disordered breathing more commonly display emotional lability, depressive behaviour and anxiety.
Material and methods:
A total of 225 children were examined. The study group consisted of 121 children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy (87 aged six to nine years and 34 aged 10 to 13 years) and with obstructive sleep apnoeas and hypopnoeas confirmed by polysomnography. Patients were compared with 104 children with no obstructive sleep disordered breathing and no adenotonsillar hypertrophy (74 aged six to nine years and 30 aged 10 to 13 years). The following tests were used to measure the children's emotional disorders: the children's depression inventory; the state-trait anxiety inventory for children; and the emotional instability scale. The average values and standard deviations were calculated for all results. Student's t-test was used to compare differences in all groups of children. The minimum level of p < 0.05 was set as statistically significant.
Children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy are more likely to experience poor brain development and sleep problems. They also have emotional disturbances. In the sick and healthy children aged six to nine years, mean results for the emotional instability scale were statistically significantly different in the two groups, being higher in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy than in healthy children. Mean values for the children's depression inventory test were higher in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy, but the differences were not statistically significant. In the state-trait anxiety inventory for children test, the mean T score was T = 1.760 and the level of significance was p = 0.08 for both groups. Since the standard level of significance was p < 0.05, the differences in mean values for the state-trait anxiety inventory for children test bordered on statistical significance. There were no differences between tests results in the older children (10 to 13 years).
Recent studies have confirmed the negative emotional effect of adenotonsillar hypertrophy induced obstructive sleep disordered breathing in children aged six to nine years. The main problems are emotional lability, and anxiety and depressive disturbances. Such emotional problems subside in older children (aged 10 to 13 years).
To evaluate the functional results obtained after voice therapy in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis caused by different aetiologies.
Prospective analysis of the outcome of unilateral vocal fold paralysis cases treated at our speech and language rehabilitation service from November 2003 to January 2006. Thirty cases underwent behavioural treatment, between two and six weeks after unilateral vocal fold paralysis onset. A multi-dimensional assessment was carried out before, immediately after and six months after treatment.
After behavioural therapy, the prevalence of complete glottal closure increased significantly (p < 0.05). Subjects' pre-therapy mean values for jitter, shimmer and noise-to-harmonic ratio were statistically significantly different from those taken both immediately and six months after treatment (p < 0.05). The mean values for voice turbulence index significantly improved only six months after therapy (0.08 vs 0.04). At both post-treatment assessments, voice range profile analysis showed a significant decrease of lowest voice frequency and a significant increase of the number of semitones (p < 0.05). Mean values for grade, instability, breathiness, asthenia and voice handicap index scores were significantly decreased both immediately and six months after treatment, compared with pre-treatment values (p < 0.05).
Early voice therapy may enable significant improvement in vocal function, allowing the patient to avoid surgery.
In cases of re-operation for secondary hyperparathyroidism, to evaluate the extent to which the location of recurrent hyperplasia was predicted by (1) operative data from the first intervention, and (2) pre-operative imaging (before the re-operation).
The files of 18 patients undergoing surgery for recurrent secondary hyperparathyroidism were reviewed. The surgical findings were compared both with the report of the initial operation and with the results of pre-operative imaging (i.e. ultrasonography, Mibi scintigraphy or computed tomography).
The location of the recurrent hyperplasia corresponded with the data for the primary intervention in about one-third of patients. There was a partial correlation in one-third of patients, and no correlation at all in one-third. Pre-operative imaging enabled better prediction of the location of recurrent disease.
Surgeons should have both sources of information at their disposal when planning a re-intervention for secondary hyperparathyroidism. However, in our series, the predictive value of imaging was superior to that of information deduced from the previous surgical record.