Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Democratizing the Democracy? Crisis and Reform in Venezuela

  • Brian F. Crisp (a1) and Daniel H. Levine (a2)

Extract

Venezuelan politics presents a puzzle to students of Latin America, and to anyone concerned with the comparative analysis of democratization and democracy. As the major countries of Latin America (and the majority of scholars) worked their way from authoritarianism through “transitions”to democracy and hopefully toward democracy’s consolidation, Venezuela moved in the opposite direction. After decades of political stability and social peace, beginning in 1987 Venezuela’s democratic order was shaken by widespread unrest and citizen disaffection, the decay of key parties and state institutions, attempted coups, and the impeachment and removal of the president in 1993.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Alvarez, Angel. 1998. Venezulean Local and National Elections, 1958–1995. In Urban Democratic Elections in Latin America, ed. Henry, A. Dietz and Gil, Shidlo. Wilmington : SR Books. 239–74.
Ames, Barry. 1995. Electoral Rules, Constituency Pressures, and Pork Barrel: Bases of Voting in the Brazilian Congress. Journal of Politics 57: 324–43.
Baptista, Asdrúbal. 1985. Mas allá del optimismo y del pesimismo: las transformaciones fundamentales del país. In El caso Venezuela. Una ilusión de armonía, ed. Moises, Naím and Ramón, Piñango. Caracas : Ediciones IESA. 2041.
Baptista, Asdrúbal. 1995. “Crisis en Venezuela? Elementos para ayudar a entender los tiempos del país. Economía Hoy (Caracas), 30 May [Special edition on La Crisis].
Brewer-Carias, Allan R. 1976. La distinción entre las personas públicas y las personas privadas y el sentido de la problemática actual de la clasificación de los sujetos de derecho. Revista de la Facultad de Derecho (Universidad Central de Venezuela) 57 (April): 115–35.
Brewer-Carias, Allan R. 1980. Régimen jurídico de las empresas públicas en Venezuela. Caracas : Centro Latinoamericano de Administración para el Desarrollo.
Caballero, Manuel. 1988. Las Venezuelas del siglo veinte. Caracas : Grijalbo.
Caballero Ortiz, Jesús. 1982. Las empresas públicas en el derecho venezolano. Caracas : Editorial Jurídica Venezolana.
Caballero Ortiz, Jesús. 1984. Los institutos autónomos. Caracas : Fondo de Inversiones de Venezuela.
Carey, John M., and Matthew Soberg, Shugart. 1995. Incentives to Cultivate a Personal Vote: a Rank Ordering of Electoral Formulas. Electoral Studies 14, 4:417–39.
Cavarozzi, Marcelo. 1992. Beyond Transitions to Democracy in Latin America. Journal of Latin American Studies 24, 3 (October): 665–84.
Cohen, Jean, and Andrew, Arato. 1992. Civil Society and Political Theory. Cambridge : MIT Press.
Collier, David, and Ruth Berins, Collier. 1991. Shaping the Political Arena: Critical Junctures, the Labor Movement, and Regime Dynamics in Latin America. Princeton : Princeton University Press.
Consejo Supremo Electoral (CSE). 1991. Primer informe: la democracia y sus instituciones. Estudio de opinión pública. CSEDEMOCRACIA 91. Caracas : Consejo Supremo Electoral, Dirección de Estadísticas y Encuestas.
Coppedge, Michael. 1994. Strong Parties and Lame Ducks: Presidential Partyarchy and Factionalism in Venezuela. Stanford : Stanford University Press.
Coronel, Gustavo. 1990. Venezuela. La agonía del subdesarrollo. Caracas : G. Coronel.
Crisp, Brian F. 1996. Institutional Design and the Crisis of Democracy in Venezuela. Paper presented at the conference Compromised Legitimacy? Assessing the Crisis of Democracy in Venezuela. Caracas, 9–10 May.
Crisp, Brian F. 1997a. El control institucional de la participación en la democracia venezolana. Caracas : Editorial Jurídica Venezolana.
Crisp, Brian F. 1997b. Presidential Behavior in a System with Strong Parties. In Presidentialism and Democracy in Latin America, ed. Scott, Mainwaring and Matthew, Shugart. New York : Cambridge University Press.
Crisp, Brian F., Daniel, H. Levine, and Juan Carlos, Rey, 1995. The Legitimacy Problem. In Venezuelan Democracy Under Stress, ed. Jennifer, McCoy, Andrés, Serbín, William, C. Smith, and Andrés, Stambouli. New Brunswick : Transaction. 139–70.
Dahl, Robert A. 1971. Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. New Haven : Yale University Press.
Diamond, Larry, Juan, J. Linz, and Seymour Martin, Lipset. 1989. Democracy in Developing Countries. Volume 4, Latin America. Boulder : Lynne Rienner.
Eckstein, Susan, ed. 1989. Power and Popular Protest: Latin Ameiican Social Movements. Berkeley : University of California Press.
Escobar, Arturo, and Sonia, Alvarez, eds. 1992. The Making of Social Movements in Latin America: Identity, Strategy, and Democracy. Boulder : Westview Press.
Ellner, Steve. 199394. The Deepening of Democracy in a Crisis Setting: Political Reform and the Electoral Process in Venezuela. Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 35, 4 (Winter): 142.
Fox, Jonathan. 1996. How Does Civil Society Thicken? the Political Construction of Social Capital in Rural Mexico. World Development 24, 6: 10891103.
Freije, Samuel. 1995. “Esa olla está muy caliente! El impacto social de las crisis y los ajustes. Debates IESA, no. 5: 1016.
Geigel Lope-Bello, Nelson. 1979. La defensa de la ciudad. Caracas : Instituto de Estudios Regionales y Urbanos, Universidad Simón Bolívar.
Gómez Calcaño, Luis. 1987. Los movimientos sociales: democracia emergente en el sistema político venezolano. In Venezuela hacia el año 2000. Desafios y opciones, ed. Silva Michelena, J. A.. Caracas : Editorial Nueva Sociedad-ILDIS. 337–67.
Gómez Calcaño, Luis. 1996. Organizaciones sociales autónomas y reconstrucción de la legitimidad democrática en Venezuela, 1992–1996. Paper presented at the symposium La crisis de legitimidad de la democracia en Venezuela, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas, May.
Grupo, Roraima, 1987. Más y mejor democracia. Caracas : Cromotip.
Haggard, Stephan, and Robert, R. Kaufman. 1995. The Political Economy of Democratic Transitions. Princeton : Princeton University Press.
Hanes de Acevedo, Rexene. 1991. El control político en tiempos de crisis: estudio del caso de una asociación de vecinos en Venezuela. Caracas : Ediciones IESA.
Hellinger, Daniel. 1991. Venezuela: Tarnished Democracy. Boulder : Westview Press.
Hellman, Judith Adler. 1992. The Study of New Social Movements in Latin America and the Question of Autonomy. In The Making of Social Movements in Latin America: Identity, Strategy, and Democracy, ed. Arturo, Escobar and Sonia, Alvarez. Boulder : Westview Press.
Hillman, Richard S. 1994. Democracy for the Privileged: Crisis and Transition in Venezuela. Boulder : Lynne Rienner.
Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Administración (IESA). 1995. Todo lo que usted quería saber sobre… elecciones regionales y locales 1995. Debates IESA No. 3. Caracas : IESA.
Karl, Terry Lynn. 1987. Petroleum and Political Pacts: the Transition to Democracy in Venezuela. Latin American Research Review 22, 1: 6394.
Karl, Terry Lynn. 1995. The Venezuelan Petro-State and the Crisis of “Its” Democracy. In Venezuelan Democracy Under Stress, ed. Jennifer, McCoy, Andrés, Serbín, William, C. Smith, and Andrés, Stambouli. New Brunswick : Transaction. 3355.
Kohli, Atul. 1990. Democracy and Discontent: India's Growing Crisis of Governability. New York : Cambridge University Press.
Kornblith, Miriam. 1995. Elecciones 95: Nuevos actores, reglas y oportunidades. Debates IESA no. 3. Caracas : IESA. 37.
Kornblith, Miriam, and Daniel, H. Levine. 1995. Venezuela: The Life and Times of the Party System. In Building Democratic Institutions: Parties and Party Systems in Latin America, ed. Scott, Mainwaring and Timothy, Scully. Stanford : Stanford University Press. 3771.
Kornblith, Miriam, and Thais, Maingón. 1985. Estado y gasto público en Venezuela. Caracas : Universidad Central de Venezuela.
Kulisheck, Michael. 1996. Placebo or Potent Medicine? Electoral Reform and Political Behavior in Venezuela. Paper presented at the conference Compromised Legitimacy? Assessing the Crisis of Democracy in Venezuela. Caracas, 9–10 May.
Lander, Edgardo. 1995. Neoliberalismo, sociedad civil, y democracia. Ensayos sobre América Latina y Venezuela. Caracas : Universidad Central de Venezuela, Consejo de Desarrollo Científico y Humanístico.
Levine, Daniel H. 1973. Conflict and Political Change in Venezuela. Princeton : Princeton University Press.
Levine, Daniel H. 1989. Venezuela: the Nature, Sources, and Future Prospects of Democracy. in Diamond et al. 1989. 247–90.
Levine, Daniel H. 1992. Popular Voices in Latin American Catholicism. Princeton : Princeton University Press.
Levine, Daniel H. 1994. Goodbye to Venezuelan Exceptionalism. Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 36, 4 (Winter): 145–82.
Levine, Daniel H. 1996. Beyond the Exhaustion of the Model: Survival and Transformation of Democracy in Venezuela. In Os desafios da democracia na America Latina, ed. Eli, Diniz. Rio de Janeiro : IUPERJ. 367–97.
Lipset, Seymour M. 1981. Political Man. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lipset, Seymour M., and Stein, Rokkan. 1968. Party Systems and Voter Alignments. New York : Free Press.
López Maya, Margarita. 1995. El ascenso en Venezuela de La Causa R. Revista Venezolana de Economía y Ciencias Sociales 2–3 (April–September): 205–39.
López Maya, Margarita. 1996. Nuevos actores en la crisis de legitimidad del sistema político venezolano. La Causa R, Convergencia, y el Mbr-200. Paper presented at the symposium “La crisis de legitimidad de la democracia en Venezuela,” Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas, May.
Mainwaring, Scott, and Timothy, Scully, eds. 1995. Building Democratic Institutions: Party Systems in Latin America. Stanford : Stanford University Press.
Mainwaring, Scott, and Matthew Soberg, Shugart, eds. 1997. Presidentialism and Democracy in Latin America. New York : Cambridge University Press.
Mainwaring, Scott, and Eduardo, Viola. 1986. New Social Movements, Political Culture, and Democracy: Brazil and Argentina in the 1980s. Telos 61: 1752.
Maneiro, Alfredo. 1986. Notas políáicas. Caracas : Ediciones del Agua Mansa.
Martz, John D. 1966. Acción Democrática: Evolution of a Modern Political Party in Venezuela. Princeton : Princeton University Press.
Melucci, Alberto, 1988. Nomads of the Present: Social Movements and Individual Needs in Contemporary Society. Philadelphia : Temple University Press.
Molina, José Enrique. 1991. El sistema electoral venezolano y sus consecuencias políticas. Valencia : Vadell Hermanos.
Molina, José Enrique. forthcoming. Electoral System and Democractic Legitimacy in Venezuela. In Compromised Legitimacy: the Crisis of Democracy in Venezuela, ed. Damarys, Canache and Michael, Kulishek.
Molina, José Enrique, and Carmen, Pérez. 1994. Venezuela. ¿Un nuevo sistema de partidos? Las elecciones de 1993. Cuestiones Políticas 13: 6390.
Naím, Moisés. 1993. Paper Tigers and Minotaurs: The Politics of Venezuela's Economic Reform. Washington, DC : Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Navarro, Juan Carlos. 1994. Reversal of Fortune: the Ephemeral Success of Adjustment in Venezuela between 1989 and 1993. Paper presented at the World Bank conference Governance and Successful Adjustment, Washington, Dc.
Navarro, Juan Carlos. 1995. Venezuela's New Political Actors. In Lessons of the Venezuelan Experience, ed. Louis, Goodman, Johanna, Mendelson Forman, Moisés, Naím, Joseph, Tulchin, and Gary, Bland. Washington, DC : Woodrow Wilson Center/Johns Hopkins University Press.
Nelson, Joan. 1994. Intricate Links: Democratization and Market Reforms in Latin America and Eastern Europe. New Brunswick : Transaction.
O'Donnell, Guillermo, Philippe, Schmitter, and Laurence, Whitehead, eds. 1986. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Prospects for Democracy. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press.
Ortner, Sherry. 1995. Resistance and the Problem of Ethnographic Refusal. Comparative Studies in Society and History 37, 1: 173–93.
Oxhorn, Phillip. 1995. Organizing Civil Society: The Popular Sectors and the Struggle for Democracy in Chile. University Park : Pennsylvania State University Press.
Penniman, Howard, ed. 1980. Venezuela at the Polls. Washington, DC : American Enterprise Institute.
Pereira Almao, Valia. 1996. La lealtad democrática del venezolano en los críticos años 90. Paper presented at the symposium La crisis de legitimidad de la democracia en Venezuela, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas, May.
Programa Venezolana de Acción y Educación en Derechos Humanos (PROVEA). Selected years. Boletín de derechos humanos y coyuntura. Caracas : PROVEA.
Programa Venezolana de Acción y Educación en Derechos Humanos (PROVEA). Selected years. Situación de los derechos humanos en Venezuela. Caracas : PROVEA.
Ramos, Rollón, María, Luisa. 1995. De las protestas a las propuestas. Identidad, acción, y relevancia política del movimiento vecinal en Venezuela. Caracas : Editorial Nueva Sociedad.
Red de Apoyo por la Justicia y la Paz. 1992. Boletín informativo [various dates]. Caracas.
Reforma de los partidos políáicos: financiamiento y democracia. 1995. Caracas : Konrad Adenauer/COPRE.
Rey, Juan Carlos. 1972. El sistema de partidos venezolano. Politeia 1: 175230.
Rey, Juan Carlos. 1981. El financiamiento de los partidos políticos y la democracia en Venezuela. Caracas : Consejo Supremo Electoral.
Rey, Juan Carlos. 1989. El futuro de la democracia en Venezuela. Caracas : Ediciones IDEA.
Rey, Juan Carlos. 1991. La democracia venezolana y la crisis del sistema populista de conciliación. Revista de Estudios Políticos 74: 533–78.
Romero, Aníbal. 1997. “Rearranging the Deck Chairs on the Titanic”: the Agony of Democracy in Venezuela. Latin American Research Review 32, 1: 736.
Santana, Elías. 1983. El poder de los vecinos. Caracas : Tropykos.
Sesto, Farruco. 1992a. Pablo Medina en entrevista. Caracas : Ediciones del Agua Mansa.
Sesto, Farruco. 1992b. Tres entrevistas con Andrés Velásquez. 1986, 1990, 1991. Caracas : Ediciones del Agua Mansa.
Shugart, Matthew S. 1992. Leaders, Rank and File, and Constituents: Electoral Reform in Colombia and Venezuela. Electoral Studies 11, 1 (March): 2145.
Shugart, Matthew S., and John, M. Carey. 1992. Presidents and Assemblies: Constitutional Design and Electoral Dynamics. New York : Cambridge University Press.
Sikkink, Kathryn. 1993. Human Rights, Principled Issue Networks, and Sovereignty in Latin America. International Organization 47, 3 (Summer): 411–41.
Smith, Christian. 1996. Resisting Reagan: The U.S. Central America Peace Movement. Chicago : University of Chicago Press.
Sunkel, Osvaldo. 1995. Economic Reform and Democratic Viability. In Consolidation of Democracy in Latin America, ed. Joseph, Tulchin with Bernice, Romero. Boulder : Lynne Rienner. 111–24.
Tarrow, Sidney G. 1994. Power in Movement: Social Movements, Collective Action, and Politics. New York : Cambridge University Press.
Templeton, Andrew. 1995. The Evolution of Public Opinion. In Lessons of the Venezuelan Experience, ed. Louis, Goodman, Johanna, Mendelson Forman, Moisés, Naím, Joseph, Tulchin, and Gary, Bland. Washington, DC : Woodrow Wilson Center/Johns Hopkins University Press.
Toro Hardy, Alfredo. 1992. ¿Cuál democracia?El Globo (Caracas), 8 September.
Urbaneja, Diego Bautista. 1992. Pueblo y petroleo en la política venezolana del siglo XX. Caracas : CEPET.
Veneconomía. 1996. Analysis of Public Opinion: Economics, Politics, Social Issues. Public Opinion in the Caracas Metropolitan Area. Caracas : Consultores 21, SA.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed