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Gadfly or Spur? The Meaning of ΜΎΩΨ in Plato’s Apology of Socrates

  • Laura A. Marshall (a1)

Abstract

The standard translation of μύΩΨ in Plato’s Apology of Socrates 30e is ‘gadfly’. However, this word was generally translated as ‘spur’ until the 1800s. This article re-evaluates the scholarship that led to the ‘gadfly’ translation and argues that the ‘spur’ translation is correct based on the use elsewhere in Greek literature of μύΩΨ and other significant words in the passage.

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* . I would like to thank Benjamin Acosta-Hughes, Anthony Kaldellis, Tom Hawkins and Allan Silverman for their help in preparing this article. I would also like to thank the anonymous readers of JHS and Douglas Cairns for their helpful feedback and edits. Any errors that remain are my own.

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Gadfly or Spur? The Meaning of ΜΎΩΨ in Plato’s Apology of Socrates

  • Laura A. Marshall (a1)

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