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Turbulent pipe flow downstream of a $90{{}^\circ} $ bend

  • Leo H. O. Hellström (a1), Metodi B. Zlatinov (a1), Guangjun Cao (a2) and Alexander J. Smits (a1) (a3)


Time-resolved stereoscopic PIV was used to investigate the curvature-induced structures downstream of a $90{{}^\circ} $ bend at Reynolds numbers between $20\times 1{0}^{3} $ and $115\times 1{0}^{3} $ . Data were taken at three downstream locations to investigate the evolution of the structures. Snapshot proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis shows that the most energetic structure is not the well-known Dean motion but a bimodal single cell structure with alternating direction of rotation, called the ‘swirl switching’ mode. The strengths of the Dean motion and the swirl-switching structures are similar, indicating that the difference in energy is related to their duration of occurrence, where the Dean motion is associated with a comparatively rapid transition between the two states in the swirl switching mode.


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