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Surrogate Fathers: The Lazarists as Jesuit Successors in the Eighteenth Century, 1759–1814

  • SEÁN A. SMITH (a1)


From 1759 to 1773 rulers throughout Europe deemed the Society of Jesus highly dangerous and began moving against it. This article, however, rather than focussing on Jesuit failings, uncovers an alternative story of the popularity enjoyed by the Lazarists, appointed to be the Jesuits’ successors in many important locations. The Lazarists’ ethos and behaviour provided attractive contrasts to the Jesuits, first winning the patronage of European elites in the pre-suppression era. Yet replacing the Jesuits was tricky, imposing novel demands on the Lazarists’ resources. More ominously, the forces which brought down the Jesuits had not gone into full slumber, seriously endangering the Lazarist succession.



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1 Some key texts give a flavour of the vitriol. Diderot's Encyclopédie accused the Jesuits of being ‘the most abject fomenters of despotism in the state’: Jésuite’, Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, Paris 1765, viii. 512–16. In Portugal, the infamous Relação abreviada accused them of a litany of crimes there, including robbing and defrauding the indigenous population, as well as flouting church and state law: Relaçaõ abbreviada da republica, que os religiosos jesuitas das provincias de portugal, e hespanha, estabeleceraõ nos dominios ultramarinos das duas monarquias, e da guerra, que nelles tem movido, e sustentado contra os exercitos hespanhoes e portuguezes; formada pelos registos das secretarias dos dous respectivos principaes commissarios, e plenipotenciarios; e outros documentos authenticos, Lisbon 1757 . The writer and traveller Joseph Baretti called them ‘a gang of traitors always ready to stab sovereigns and overthrow kingdoms’: A journey from London to Genova, through England, Portugal, Spain, and FranceLondon 1770, i. 263 .

2 See, for example, Abrassevin, Claude, Tout le monde a tort; ou, Jugement impartial, d'une dame philosophe, sur l'affaire présente des jésuites, Avignon 1762, 46, 65. Several scholars have discussed the suppression's links to the Enlightenment: Wright, Jonathan, ‘The suppression and restoration’, in Worcester, Thomas (ed.), The Cambridge companion to the Jesuits, Cambridge 2008, 263–64; Chadwick, Owen, The popes and European revolution, Oxford 1981, 354–5.

3 Delattre, P., Les Établissements des Jésuites en France depuis quatre siecles, Enghien 1949–57, ii. 1016–17.

4 Ibid. ii.  623.

5 Chadwick, The popes and European revolution, 377–80.

6 Recent region-specific studies are plentiful. See Caeiro, J., Historia da expulsão da Companhia de Jesus da provincia de Portugal, Lisbon 1995 ; Benimeli, J. A. Ferrer, Expulsion y extinción de los jesuitas, 1759–1773, Bilbao 2013 ; Shore, P., ‘The suppression of the Society of Jesus in Bohemia’, AHSI lxv (1996), 138–56; Flaga, J., ‘Le Sort des Jésuites polonais après la suppression de l'ordre en 1773’, Revue d'histoire ecclésiastique xcvii (2002), 892908 ; and Beales, D., ‘Maria Theresa, Joseph ii and the suppression of the Jesuits’, in his Enlightenment and reform in eighteenth-century Europe, London 2005, 207–26.

7 Danieluk, Robert sj, ‘Some remarks on Jesuit historiography, 1773–1814’,  in Maryks, Robert A. and Wright, Jonathan (eds), Jesuit survival and restoration: a global history, 1773–1900, Leiden 2015, 3450 .

8 Albert, Salvador Bernabéu, ‘El vacío habitado: Jesuitas reales y simulados en México durante los años de la supresión (1767–1816)’, Historia Mexicana lviii (Apr.–June 2009),  1261–303.

9 Bianchini, Paolo (ed.),  Morte e resurrezione di un ordine religioso: le strategie culturali ed educative della Compagnia di Gesu durante la soppressione (1759–1814), Milan 2006, 7 .

10 Maryks and Wright, Jesuit survival and restoration.

11 The Company remained a controversial entity in some ex-Jesuit circles, and its founder, Niccolò Paccanari, was ultimately condemned by the Holy Office in 1808: Castelli, Eva Fontana, La Compagnia di Gesù sotto altro nome: Niccolò Paccanari e la Compagnia della fede di Gesù (1797–1814), Rome 2007 .

12 Dauril Alden, ‘The gang of four and the campaign against the Jesuits in eighteenth-century Brazil’, and Hsia, Ronnie Po-chia, ‘Twilight in the imperial city: the Jesuit mission in China, 1748–1760’, in O'Malley, John W. sj, Bailey, Gauvin Alexander, Harris, Steven J. and Kennedy, T. Frank sj, The Jesuits, II: Cultures, sciences, and the arts, 1540–1773, Toronto 2006, 707–24, 725–37.

13 Richard Clay, ‘The expulsion of the Jesuits and the treatment of Catholic representational objects during the French Revolution’, ibid. 691–706.

14 Maurice Whitehead, ‘On the road to suppression: the Jesuits and their expulsion from the reductions of Paraguay’, and Storrs, Christopher, ‘The suppression of the Jesuits in the Savoyard state’, in Burson, Jeffrey D. and Wright, Jonathan (eds), The Jesuit suppression in global context: causes, events, and consequences, Cambridge 2015, 83–99, 139–60.

15 Ronnie Po-chia Hsia, ‘Jesuit survival and restoration in China’, in Maryks and Wright, Jesuit survival and restoration, 254.

16 O'Malley, John W., The first Jesuits, Cambridge, Ma–London 1994, 18 .

17 Hamy, Alfred sj, Documents pour servir à l'histoire des domiciles de la Compagnie de Jésus dans le monde entier de 1540 à 1773, Paris 1892, 96 .

18 ‘Foundation contract of the Congregation of the Mission’, 17 Apr. 1625, in CCD xiiia. 214.

19 Hamy, Documents, 96.

20 Annales de la Congrégation de la Mission et de la compagnie des filles de la Charité, Paris 1833–1963, lxv. 6.

21 Ignatius of Loyola to Jaime Cazador, 12 Feb. 1536, cited in de Aldama, Antonio M. sj, The constitutions of the Society of Jesus: an introductory commentary on the constitutions, trans. Owen, Aloysius J. sj, Rome–St Louis 1989, 13 .

22 Philip Endean, ‘The Spiritual Exercises’, in Worcester, The Cambridge companion to the Jesuits, 52.

23 Harris, Steven, ‘Transposing the Merton thesis: apostolic spirituality and the establishment of the Jesuit scientific tradition’, Science in Context iii (1989), 3940 . For a solid exposition of the Formula and Constitutions see Ganss, George E. sj, The Constitutions of the Society of Jesus, translated with an introduction and commentary, St Louis 1970 .

24 O'Malley, First Jesuits, ch. vi.

25 Ibid. 201.

26 Bireley, Robert, The Jesuits and the Thirty Years War: kings, courts, and confessors, Cambridge 2003 ; Reinhardt, N., ‘The king's confessor: changing images’, in Schaich, M. (ed.), Monarchy and religion in eighteenth-century Europe, Oxford 2007, 154–85; Höpfl, Harro, Jesuit political thought: the Society of Jesus and the state, c. 1540–1630, Cambridge 2005, chs i–iii.

27 Alden, Dauril, The making of an enterprise: The Society of Jesus in Portugal, its empire and beyond, 1540–1750, Stanford 1996, chs iv–viii, xiii, xxiii. The literature on Jesuit colonial missions is predictably vast, but see Hosne, Ana Carolina, The Jesuit missions to China and Peru, 1570–1610: expectations and appraisals of expansionism, London–New York 2013 , and True, Micah, Masters and students: Jesuit mission ethnography in seventeenth-century New France, Ithaca 2015 . For Jesuit roles in one non-colonial space see Brockey, Liam Matthew, Journey to the East: the Jesuit Mission to China, 1579–1724, London–Cambridge, Ma 2007 .

28 Cited in Martin, A. Lynn, The Jesuit mind: the mentality of an elite in early modern France, Ithaca 1988, 15 .

29 Alden, ‘The gang of four’, 714–16.

30 Ferrão, Antonio, O marquês de Pombal e a expulsão dos Jesuitas, Coimbra 1928 .

31 Thompson, D. G., ‘The Lavalette Affair and the Jesuit superiors’, French History x (1996), 206–39.

32 Van Kley, Dale, ‘Jansenism and the international suppression of the Jesuits’, in Brown, Stewart J. and Tackett, Timothy (eds), The Cambridge history of Christianity, VII: Enlightenment, reawakening and revolution 1660–1815, Cambridge 2006, 302–28.

33 Egido, Teófano, ‘La expulsión de los Jesuitas de España’, in Lada, Ricardo Garcia-Villos (ed.), Historia de la Iglesia en España, Madrid 1979, iv.745–92.

34 ‘deploravelmente alienados do seu santo Instituto’; ‘com differência de todas as outras Ordens Regulares cujo commun se conservou sempre em louvavel e exemplar observancia’: Carta Regia to the cardinal of Lisbon, 3 Sept. 1759, BNP, ms RES 2486, 10.  ‘Institute’ is a canonical term referring to the charter approving a society; it is sometimes confused with ‘institution’.

35 ‘non un ordre qui aspire véritablement et uniquement à la perfection évangélique, mais plutôt un corps politique’: arrêt de la cour du parlement, 6 Aug. 1762, in Isambert, François, Recueil général des anciennes lois françaises, depuis l'an 420 jusqu’à la revolution de 1789, xxii, Paris 1830, 358 .

36 Martin, A. Lynn, ‘The Jesuit mystique’, Sixteenth Century Journal iv (Apr. 1973), 3140 .

37 CCD xiiia. 467.

38 Bergin, Joseph, ‘The royal confessor and his rivals in seventeenth-century France’, French History xxi (2007), 187204 ; Greer, Allan, The Jesuit relations: natives and missionaries in seventeenth-century North America, Boston 2000 .

39 Brockey, Journey to the East, 210–21.

40 CCD xiiia. 201.

41 Assessing the mission's failure, the superior general specifically invoked the inferior human resources of the Lazarists compared to the Jesuits: RC i. 118.

42 Smith, Seán A., Fealty and fidelity: the Lazarists of Bourbon France, 1660–1736, London 2015 .

43 Forrestal, Alison, Vincent de Paul, the Lazarist mission and French Catholic reform, Oxford forthcoming, ch. xi.

44 Smith, Fealty and fidelity, ch. iii.

45 ‘de pauvres prêtres de village ne sont guère propres pour la Cour’: René Alméras to Antoine Durand, 10 July 1664, in Durand, Antoine, Journal de Antoine Durand, prêtre de la Mission et premier curé de Fontainebleau, 1661–1677, ed. Estournet, Olivier, Fontainebleau 1899, 5960 .

46 RC i. 378, 573.

47 Julia, Dominique, ‘L'Expansion de la Congrégation de la Mission de la mort de Vincent de Paul à la Révolution française’, in Actes du colloque international d’études vincentiennes, Rome 1981, 371 .

48 Mezzadri, Luigi and Román, José Maria, The Vincentians: a general history of the Congregation of the Mission, I: 1625–1697, trans. Cummings, Robert, New York 2009, 96–7. See also volume iii of this six-volume series: Rybolt, John E., The Vincentians: a general history of the Congregation of the Mission, III: Revolution and restoration (1789–1843), New York 2013 .

49 Julia, ‘L'Expansion de la Congrégation de la Mission’, 373.

50 Smith, Fealty and fidelity, 35–6.

51 RC i. 241, 1 Jan. 1705.

52 La Congregazione della Missione in italia dal 1640 al 1835, Paris 1884, 195 .

53 Decree of 22 July 1714, in de Sousa Guimarães, Braulia, Apuntamentos para a historia da provincia Portuguesa da Congregação da Missão, Lisbon 1959, 53–4.

54 ‘bien voulue du roi, qui l'a honorée de sa présence aux divins offices’; ‘qui la traite avec une grande bonté et une affection vraiment paternelle’: RC i. 317, 332 respectively.

55 ‘il a nouvellement acheté un vaste emplacement pour pouvoir bâtir des logements plus proportionnés à l'objet de sa fondation’: RC i. 501.

56 João v to Jean Couty, 22 Dec. 1738, Guimarães, Apuntamentos, 169.

57 CCD ii. 39; xiiia. 452. Although these were often relaxed the Jesuits had similar prohibitions: Loyola, Ignatius, Constitutiones Societatis Iesu: tomus tertius: textus latinus, Rome 1938, 191 (pt vi, ch. iii, n. vii), 277 (pt x, n. xi).

58 See generally Van Kley, Dale, The Jansenists and the expulsion of the Jesuits from France, 1757–1765, New Haven–London 1975 .

59 RC i. 333–5.

60 ‘avec le meme zèle que vous et votre Congregation, Monsieur, avez toujours montré dans tout ce qui a droit au bien de la religion et de l'Etat’: M. de Castries to Antoine Jacquier, 6 Nov. 1782, ACMP, 171, IIB, unpaginated.

61 Leite, Serafim sj, Historia da Companhia de Jesus no Brasil, São Paulo 2008, iii. 121–8.

62 ‘Memorias chronologicas da Caza da Congregação da Missão de Lisboa: em que se referem os sucessos notaveis, e extraordinarios que nella tem havido desde a fundação athe ao presente/ escriptas por hum de seus sacerdotes, e por elle offerecidas aos congregados da mesma Caza’: BNP, Cod.12916, fo. 196, 1759. See also de Oliveira Santos, Guilherme G., O Caso dos Távoras, Lisbon 1959 .

63 ‘Mémoire analytique de l'esprit des fonctions et des exercices des Prêtres de la Congrégation de la Mission’, 1781, Archivio della Missione, Casa Provinciale, Turin.

64 ‘Quatro corporações da quella Metropole requererão a S. Magestade para nos o dito Collegio: a saber o Cabido, os Parocos da Se que são muitos, o Senado com a Nobreza, e o Juiz do Povo com os seus adjuntos’: ‘Memorias’, fo. 236.

65 ‘le dit Séminaire ne pouvait solidement subsister, ni la Direction d'icelui être de durée, qu'étant uni à une Congrégation d'Ecclésiastiques’: Foundation contract, 16 Mar. 1767, in Contassot, Félix, Les Prêtres de la Mission au Grand Séminaire de Rodez (1767–1791), Paris 1960, 23 .

66 RC ii. 126.

67 ‘Les fonctions qui nous y attendent m'avoient effrayé parce qu'elles me paroissent au dessus de nos forces’: Jacquier to de Castries, 6 Nov. 1782 (copy), Archives Nationales, Paris, S6636, unpaginated.

68 RC ii.129, 1 Jan. 1780.

69 RC ii. 2.

70 ‘je n'en recherche aucun, et que, quand on m'en propose, je me défends autant qu'il m'est possible; mais quelquefois les instances sont si vives, et les personnes qui les font sont si pieuses et si respectables, que je crains, en refusant, de m'opposer aux desseins que la Providence a sur nous’: RC ii. 126.

71 ‘Ristretto della Visita delle Missioni degli ex-gesuiti in Levante dal fine d'ottobre del 1778 fino al principio di April del 1779’, SCPF, SC, Arcipelago 44, fos 121–2.

72 Ibid.

73 ‘Les ouvriers que nous avons envoyés ne suffisent pas; nous en augmenterons le nombre dès que les circonstances nous le permettront’: RC ii. 162, 1 Jan. 1784.

74 In addition to former Jesuit bases, the Lazarists opened four new seminaries in Italy, two residences in Russia, one in Prussia and another in Poland: RC ii. 4.

75 ARSI, Collegia 1375 (Bologna), fos 88r–89r.

76 Ibid. fo. 195v.

77 ‘Catalogo degli Individui exgesuiti pensionandi che dimoravano nei Collegi di Bologna e che riscuotevano la pensione vitalizia a tutto il di 11 Dec, 1775 come da documento negli atti sacchetti’, ibid. fo. 110r.

78 RC ii. 56, 1 Jan. 1768.

79 ADE, Cod. CL XIX 1–30, 22 Aug. 1779.

80 ‘Livro para servir aos assentos dos Exercicios dos Ordenandos e que teve principio em Dezembro de 1779 que foi o tempo em que se admittirão os primeiros depois que a Congregação tomou posse deste Collegio da Purificação de Evora’: ANTT, PT/TT/AC/M026.03.

81 ADE, Cod. CL XIX 1–30, 27 June, 25 Oct. 1792. For more on the Lazarists’ duties in Évora see Smith, Seán A., ‘Succeeding the Jesuits: the Congregation of the Mission and the Colégio da Purificação in Evora’, Vincentian Heritage Journal xxxiii (2016), article 1.

82 RC i. 151, 1 Jan. 1782.

83 ‘Schenkung und Übertrag sämtlicher Güter der erloschenen Gesellschaft Jesu an die Priester der Mission zu Errichtung einer Provinz in der Kurpfalz’, 7 Nov. 1781, GLAK, Pfälzer Generalia, 77, 6262, unpaginated.

84 RC ii. 158, 1 Jan. 1783.

85 RC ii. 220.

86 ‘la belle et vaste maison de Saint-André, sur le mont Esquilin; l'autre à Bologne, où … Son Éminence Mgr le cardinal Malvezzi nous a mis en possession d'une magnifique habitation, [94] bien meublée, et fournie de provisions abondantes’: RC ii. 93–4.

87 ‘Le premier est que le Souverain Pontife, de son propre mouvement et sans aucune sollicitation de notre part, a fait remettre à nos confrères de la maison de Saint-André de Rome toute l'argenterie qui avait été enlevée de l'église lors de l'extinction de la société des Jésuites’: RC ii. 117.

88 ‘mit allen dazu gehörigen Kirchen, Gebäuden, Gütern, Renten, Gefällen, Kapitalien, Zinsen, Kirchengerätschaften, vorrätigen Mobilien, Büchern, Baarschaften, Weinen, Früchten und Lasten’: GLAK. Pfälzer Generalia, 77, 6262, ‘Schenkung’.

89 McCormick, Andrew, ‘Serving God and Caesar: Pierre-François Viguier's reconnaissance mission to the Archipelago (1778–1779)’, in Forrestal, Alison and Smith, Seán A. (eds), The frontiers of mission: perspectives on early modern missionary Catholicism, Leiden 2016, 115–35.

90 ‘Ristretto della Visita’, SCPF, SC, Arcipelago 44, fo. 122v.

91 ‘Etat des biens à Naxie 19 mai 1790’, ibid. 40, fo. 533v

92 ‘la reine a promis de fournir les fonds nécessaires pour leur subsistance’: RC ii. 130.

93 Decrees of 10 Sept. 1783 and of 28 July 1785, ANTT, PT/TT/AC/L0060, fos 35r–36r.

94 ‘Tous ces biens sont très considérables en soi, mais vu le mauvais état où nous les avons trouvés, la rareté des cultivateurs, leur ignorance, leur fainéantise, ils ne rapportent à beaucoup près le cinquième de ce qu'ils peuvent rapporter comme il a paru par la pauvre totale des revenus’: ‘Etat des biens à Naxie, 19 mai 1790’, SCPF, SC, Arcipelago 40, fo. 533v.

95 Belin, François, L'Histoire de la latinité à Constantinople, Paris 1894, 429 .

96 ‘Art. 4. – Ils feront un établissement à Smyrne dès que la Congrégation sera en état de rétablir l'église et les maisons incendiées, etc’: extract of royal ordonnance, 5 Jan. 1783 in Notices sur les prêtres, clercs et frères défunts de la Congrégation de la Mission: première série: Compagnons de St. Vincent depuis la fondation de la Compagnie jusqu’à la fin du XVIII siècle, Paris 1881–1910, iv. 637.

97 ‘La maggior parte delle occupazioni de'missionari, segnalato per Scio e Smirne, deve intendersi, quando ivi saran di nuovo fabbricare le chiese distrutte’: Jacquier to Propaganda, 17 Jan. 1780, SCPF, SC, Arcipelago 44, unpaginated.

98 McCormick, ‘Serving God and Caesar’.

99 Chadwick, The popes and European revolution, 350, 358–9.

100 Jacquier to Propaganda, 17 Jan. 1780.

101 Raux, Nicolas to de Vaivre, M., 16 Nov. 1788,  in Mémoires de la Congrégation de la Mission: la Congrégation en Chine, Paris 1912, ii. 125.

102 ‘richtig und ordentlich entrichten’: GLAK. 6262, ‘Schenkung’.

103 ‘Verzeichnis’, Sept. 1783: GLAK, Pfälzer Generalia, 77, 6270, unpaginated.

104 A few Jesuits became Lazarists in the process. This happened in the Palatinate (Bros Bach and Muskino) and in the Levant (Fr Virot in Damascus). My thanks to the Revd Dr John Rybolt cm for supplying me with this information.

105 ‘ce prince a bien voulu s'occuper de nos besoins, et il a réglé lui-même les fonds nécessaires à notre dotation’: RC i. 225.

106 Miller, Samuel J., Portugal and Rome c. 1748–1830: an aspect of the Catholic Enlightenment, Rome 1978 , ch. ii; de Andrade, Antonio Alberto, ‘Proceso Pombalino contra os Oratorianos’,  Arquivos do Centro Cultural Português  i (1969), 270–96.

107 Maass, F., Der Josephismus: Quellen zu seiner Geschichte in Oesterreich, 1760–1790, Vienna 1956, iii. 61–2, 367–9.

108 Timothy Tackett, ‘The French Revolution and religion to 1794’, in Brown and Tackett, Cambridge history of Christianity, vii. 556–74 at pp. 542–4.

109 Planert, Ute and Blackaby, Frank (eds), Napoleon's empire: European politics in global perspective, Basingstoke–New York 2016, 3 . See also Villani, Pasquale, ‘Il decennio francese’, in Rao, Anna Maria and Villani, Pasquale (eds), Napoli 1799–1815: dalla republica alla monarchia amministrativa, Naples 1995, 179284 .

110 Cayla had previously served as the first director of the seminary at Rodez in its post-Jesuit era.

111 ‘les États les mieux affermis sont menacés d'une subversion totale par cet esprit d'une liberté fanatique qui gagne de toutes parts; où l'Église fait des pertes immenses par les attaques redoublées de l'erreur, par les vues d'une fausse politique, et surtout par les fureurs de l'impiété qui étend ses ravages et multiplie ses partisans’: RC ii. 257.

112 RC ii. 239.  See also Joseph Guichard cm, ‘La Congrégation et la Révolution’, unpublished manuscript, ACMP.

113 ‘Nos maisons du Levant soutiennent avec bien des difficultés depuis la perte de leurs revenus de France. Le peu qu'elles peuvent posséder en Turquie est confié à des économes nommés par le gouvernement; je ne m'étonnerais point que ces messieurs n'en fussent complètement dépouillés par les menées des ministres de la révolution française’: RC ii. 252, 1 Jan. 1795.

114 ‘empêcher que les agents de la France ne s'emparent de nos maisons et de nos églises’: RC ii. 256.

115 RC ii. 261, 323.

116 Inglot, Marek sj, How the Jesuits survived their suppression: the Society of Jesus in the Russian Empire (1773–1814), Philadelphia 2015 .

117 Frederick ii to Abbé Ciofani, 10 Sept. 1774, in Kratz, Wilhelm sj,Ungedruckte Briefe Friedrichs des Großen’, AHSI i (1932), 281–91 at p. 291.

118 ‘sur ce qui concerne les principes du Gouvernement et de l'administration des Etats avec celle des temps où le Jésuitisme a fleuri’: P. Diesbach to Leopold, Vienna, Jan. 1790, ARSI, Hist.Soc 226, fo. 85r.

119 ‘sarebbe la consolazione di tutti i buoni, e un efficace riparo a tanti disordini’: Cardinal Gianfrancesco Albani to Mons. Giovanelli, patriarch of Venice, 31 Dec. 1796, ibid. fo. 63r.

120 ‘si un jour ladite Societe des Jesuites dût … être rétablie, elle la remettroit dans la possession de leurs bien et dans l'acquit des fonctions’: ‘Mémoire analytique de l'esprit des fonctions’, 1781, fo.1.

121 ‘wenn Künste und Wissenschaften in Abnahme gerathen, und wenn die Bildung des wichtigsten Standes im Lande (der Geistlichkeit) vernachlässiget wird’: Johannes Arnold Mathy, Die französischen Pädagogen in Deutschland oder die Geschichte des Lazarismus in der Pfalz, Bethania 1793, pp. xiii–xiv.

122 Haas, Alban, Die Lazaristen in der Kurpfalz, Speyer 1960, 712 .

123 ARSI, Collegia, 1375, fo. 453r.

124 Vaz, Francisco A. Lourenco, Evora lastimosa e outros textos sobre o saque de Evora pelos franceses em 1808, Lisbon 2002, 191210 . See also Gates, David, The Spanish ulcer: a history of the Peninsular War, London 2002 , and Glover, Michael, The Peninsular War, 1807–1814, London 2001 .

125 ‘sur le seul désir du Saint Père’: RC ii. 350.

126 Ibid.

127 RC ii. 379.

128 Carven, John W., Napoleon and the Lazarists, The Hague 1974, 150–1.

129 The Lazarists closed their Naxos base only in 1877: Andrew McCormick, ‘Religion et jeux de pouvoir en Méditerranée: les Lazaristes sur l’île grecque de Naxos (1780–1840)’, unpubl. PhD diss. Paris 2012. The Lazarists remain custodians of St Benoît, the Jesuits’ one-time church in Istanbul.

Research for this article was made possible by grants from the Vincentian Studies Institute and the Irish Research Council. My thanks go to the Revd Dr John Rybolt cm, Dr Tadhg Ó hAnnracháin, Dr Alison Forrestal, Dr Andrew McCormick, Dr Patrick Ryan and the anonymous reader for their counsels.

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