A preprint is an early version of an article prior to the version accepted for publication in a journal. This journal allows preprints to be posted anywhere at any time, including before submission to the journal. For more information, see our full preprint policy.
This is a hybrid journal, meaning that it publishes on a subscription basis but provides authors with options to make their article open access in two different ways.
(1) Under our Green Open Access policy for Science, Technology and Medicine (STM) journals, authors can archive certain versions of their articles in an institutional or non-commercial subject repository, or on their personal or departmental websites. The archived version can be the Accepted Manuscript (after peer review) six months after publication, or an earlier version at any time, but not the final published PDF (the Version of Record). This allows authors to comply with the open access mandates of many funders and institutions.
For more details, see our Green Open Access policy.
(2) Under Gold Open Access the author can publish under a Creative Commons license, enabling anyone to access and redistribute the content and, depending upon the license, re-use the content in new or derivative works with attribution. The terms of re-use for Gold Open Access content are stated in the copyright line of the article.
Gold Open Access is supported by an article processing charge (APC) typically paid by the author’s funding body or institution.
Find the APC for this journal in our full list of APC charges.
We have made a number of Read and Publish agreements to support Open Access. Authors at participating institutions may be eligible for waivers or discounts, depending on the deal. Please click here to find out more.
You can also use our eligibility checker tool to find out if you are eligible for an Open Access waiver or discount
The journal is registered with cOAlition S as a Transformative Journal. Authors should publish as Gold OA in order to comply with Plan S.
Journals participating in Cambridge Core Share allow a read-only version of a final published PDF (the Version of Record) to be shared and easily accessed by anyone. Core Share links, and Core Share PDFs containing the links, can be freely shared on social media sites and scholarly collaboration networks to enhance both the impact and discoverability of research.