Skip to main content Accessibility help

Design and development of a stacked complementary microstrip antenna with a “π”-shaped DGS for UWB, UNII, WLAN, WiMAX, and Radio Astronomy wireless applications

  • Amanpreet Kaur (a1) and Rajesh Khanna (a1)


The proposed research paper presents the design, development, and experimental testing of a broadband stacked complementary microstrip antenna for ultra-wideband (UWB) (5.28–5.85 GHz), Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure band (UNII) (5.25–5.825 GHz), wireless local area networks (WLAN, IEEE802.11a, 5.15–5.35 GHz), and IEEE 802.11b (5.75–5.85 GHz), Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access band (5.25–5.85 GHz), and Radio Astronomy band (6.6–6.75 GHz) wireless applications. The main aim of this paper is to obtain an UWB behavior from the combined effect of two resonances exhibited by the driven and parasitic patches of a stacked complementary antenna geometry. Circularly polarized radiations are also emitted by the antenna by the addition of an orthogonal stub to its feed line. The proposed three-layered antenna structure (without air gap) is fabricated on commercially available glass-reinforced epoxy laminate, FR4 substrate. The topmost layer of FR4 has a square-shaped patch parasitic patch printed over it; this patch has a square slot etched out from it. The middle layer of the antenna has a square-shaped driven patch of approximately the same dimensions as that of the slot in parasitic patch. The antenna is fed using aperture-coupled feeding mechanism. Therefore the lowermost layer of FR4 has a ground plane on its top with a “π”-shaped slot etched from it and a feed line with an orthogonal stub at its bottom forming a “T”-shaped geometry. The antenna is fed by the electromagnetic coupling between the antenna layers .The proposed antenna has a compact structure with overall volumetric dimensions of 4.7 × 3.82 × 0.483 cm3. The antenna design and simulations are carried out using CSTMWSV'10 with perfect boundary (electric and magnetic) estimations. This designed antenna shows an UWB behavior from 5.14 to 5.85 GHz with an impedance bandwidth of 710 MHZ and a fractional bandwidth of 12.62% at the center frequency of band at 5.5 GHz. The radiating antenna also possesses a good gain of 4.59 dBi at the central frequency of 5.50 GHz and a 1 dB axial ratio bandwidth of 820 MHz from 5.16 to 5.98 GHz. The validation of results is done by fabrication and experimental testing of the antenna using a vector network analyzer and placing the antenna in an anechoic chamber for gain measurements. The measured results show close matching with the simulated ones and this makes the antenna well suited for the proposed wireless applications of interest, specifically in small handheld wireless communication devices.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author: A. Kaur Email:


Hide All
[1] Balanis, C.A.: Antenna Theory Analysis and Design, 3rd ed. Wiley Inter Science. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2005.
[2] Weigand, S.; Huff, G.H.; Pan, K.H.; Bernhard, J.T.: Analysis and design of broadband single-layer rectangular U-slot microstrip patch antenna. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 3 (2003), 457468.
[3] Kaur, A.: Semi spiral G-shaped dual wideband Microstrip antenna with aperture feeding for WLAN/WiMAX/U-NII band applications. Int. J. Microw. Wireless Technol., Published online March 2015.
[4] Chen, Y.; Yang, S.; Nie, Z.: Bandwidth enhancement method for low profile E shaped microstrip patch antennas. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 58 (7) (2010), 24422447.
[5] Virga, K.L.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.: Low-profile enhanced-bandwidth PIFA antennas for wireless communications packaging. IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., 45 (10) (1997), 18791888.
[6] Manassas, A.; Kaifas, T.; Siakavara, K.: Multiband printed antenna for low frequencies WLAN applications. Int. J. Microw. Opt. Technol., 2 (3) (2007), 182186.
[7] Wong, K.L.: Compact and Broadband Microstrip Antennas. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2002.
[8] Best, S.R.: On the significance of self-similar fractal geometry in determining the multiband behavior of then Sierpinski gasket antenna. IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., 1 (2002), 2225.
[9] Targonski, S.D.; Waterhouse, R.B.; Pozar, D.M.: Design of wide-band aperture-stacked patch Microstrip antennas. IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 46 (9) (1998), 12451251.
[10] Kaur, A.; Khanna, R.; Kartikeyan, M.V.: A stacked Sierpinski gasket fractal antenna with a defected ground structure for UWB/WLAN/RADIO astronomy/STM link applications. Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., 57 (12) (2015), 27862792. Article first published online: 26 SEP 2015, DOI: 10.1002/mop.29442.
[11] Kaur, A.; Khanna, R.; Kartikeyan, M.: A multilayer dual wideband 2circularly polarized Microstrip antenna with DGS for WLAN/Bluetooth/ZigBee/Wi-Max/ IMT band applications. Int. J. Microw. Wireless Technol., 9 (2) (2017), 317325. Published online 24 August 2015. Cambridge University Press and the European Microwave Association, DOI: 10.1017/S1759078715001294.
[12] Arya, A.K.; Kartikeyan, M.V.; Patnaik, A.: Defected ground structure in the perspective of Microstrip antennas: a review. FREQUENZ – J. RF-Eng. Telecommun., 64 (2010), 7984.
[13] Sharma, R.; Chakravarty, T.; Bhooshan, S.: Design of a novel 3 dB Microstrip backward wave coupler using defected ground structure. Progr. Electromagn. Res., 65 (2006), 261273.
[14] Yadav, R.L.; Vishwakarma, B.R.: Analysis of electromagnetically coupled two layer elliptical Microstrip stacked antennas. Int. J. Electron., 87 (8) (2000), 981993.
[15] Malik, JM.; Kalaria, P.C.; Kartikeyan, M.V.: Complementary Sierpinski gasket fractal antenna for dual-band WiMAX/WLAN (3.5/5.8 GHz) applications. Int. J. Microw. Wireless Technol., 5 (4) (2013), 499505.
[16] Palandoken, M.: Artificial materials based microstrip antenna design. Microstrip Antennas, Nasimuddin, N. (Ed.). ISBN: 978-953-307-247-0, InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, 2011.


Design and development of a stacked complementary microstrip antenna with a “π”-shaped DGS for UWB, UNII, WLAN, WiMAX, and Radio Astronomy wireless applications

  • Amanpreet Kaur (a1) and Rajesh Khanna (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed