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Beginnings Again: Looking for Education in American Histories

  • Donald Warren


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1 Bailyn, Bernard Education in the Forming of American Society (New York: Vintage Books, 1960); Lawrence A. Cremin, The Wonderful World of Ellwood Patterson Cubberley (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1965). For a recent application of the hypothesis, see Jurgen Herbst, “Nineteenth-Century Schools between Community and State: The Cases of Prussia and the United States,” History of Education Quarterly, 42 (Fall 2002): 317–341.

2 Bailyn, Education in the Forming of American Society, 48.

3 Ellis, Founding Brothers, 243.

4 Menand, The Metaphysical Club, 433.

5 Adams, John Thoughts on Government, in Taylor, Robert J. (ed.), Papers of John Adams (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1977–1996), IV, 65–73.

6 See, e.g., Ellis, Passionate Sage, 26–55, 228–232. For a more nuanced and consistently applied concept of education, see Joseph J. Ellis, After the Revolution: Profiles of Early American Culture (New York: W. W. Norton, 1979), especially the chapter on Noah Webster, 161–212.

7 Menand, The Metaphysical Club, 25.

8 Ellis, Founding Brothers, 11; Adams used similar phrasing to refer to Massachusetts and New England. See, e.g., McCullough, John Adams, 149.

9 See, e.g., Michael Katz, The Irony of Early School Reform: Educational Innovation in Mid-Nineteenth Century Massachusetts [Reissued edition] (New York: Teachers College Press, 2001), xxix-xxx, 213–218.

10 See Messerli, Jonathan Horace Mann: A Biography (New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1972), 1527.

11 Ellis, American Sphinx, 334343; Bailyn, Education in the Forming of American Society, 46.

12 Cremin, Lawrence A. American Education: The National Experience, 1783–1876 (New York: Harper & Row, 1980), 124125.

13 Storr, Richard J.The Role of Education in American History: A Memorandum,“ Harvard Educational Review, 46 (August 1976): 345347.

14 Katz, Michael B.Devotion and Ambiguity in the Struggles of a Poor Mother and Her Family: New York City, 1918–1919,“ in Cuban, Larry and Shipps, Dorothy (eds.), Reconstructing the Common Good in Education: Coping with Intractable American Dilemmas (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000), 186205.

15 Storr, The Role of Education in American History,“ 350354.

16 Menand, The Metaphysical Club, xii.

17 Bailyn, Education in the Forming of American Society, 4245.

18 See Altenbaugh, Richard J. (ed.), Historical Dictionary of American Education (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999), 322, 333 for references to school finance within articles on selected court decisions. The Dictionary contains no separate entries on topics related to educational funding or taxes. On the history of school finance in the U.S., see Nancy Beadie, “The Limits of Standardization and the Importance of Constituencies: Historical Tensions in the Relationship between State Authority and Local Control,” in Theobald, Neil D. and Malen, Betty (eds.), Balancing Local Control and State Responsibility for K-12 Education: 2000 Yearbook of the American Education Finance Association (Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education, Inc., 2000), 47–91. For accounts of “public teaching” institutions e.g., libraries, museums, and art galleries, absent funding and budget data, see Cremin, American Education, 298–334.

19 Ellis, Founding Brothers, 116.

20 McCullough, John Adams, 480.

21 Ellis, Founding Brothers, 88.

22 Ibid, 114.

23 See Moroney, SiobhanBirth of a Canon: The Historiography of Early Republican Educational Thought,“ History of Education Quarterly, 39 (Winter 1999): 476491.

Beginnings Again: Looking for Education in American Histories

  • Donald Warren


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