In spite of extensive proper motion surveys, there remains some uncertainty about the space density and the kinematics of late-type dwarf stars. This uncertainty is primarily due to the unknown kinematic bias introduced by the proper motion discovery technique.
A spectrographic search, especially one using an objective prism on a Schmidt telescope, can identify significant numbers of intrinsically (and actually) faint stars, free from any kinematic bias. To find faint and cool stars, one chooses an objective prism with low dispersion and emulsions sensitive to the red and near photographic infrared. At low dispersions, in this wavelength region, there are no reliable luminosity criteria. Thus Sanduleak conducted his survey in the direction of the north galactic pole, with the expectation that very few remote giants would contaminate his results. A catalog of 273 probable dwarf stars of type M3 and later (Sanduleak, N. 1976, A.J., 81, 350) based on his objective prism survey in the direction of the north galactic pole is now available. Thanks to W.J. Luyten (1976, Proper Motion Survey with the Forty-Eight Inch Schmidt Telescope XLVI (Univ. Minnesota, Minneapolis)) proper motions have been measured for all of these stars.