Napoleon said that in war ‘the moral is to the physical as three to one’. Alexander would have agreed. He was not only a great strategist and tactician; he was a personal leader of heroic mould, heading every major assault, probably more often wounded than any other man in his army. First up the ladder when the troops hung back at the city of the Malloi in India, leader of the last five in the search for water, when his desert column nearly foundered in Gedrosia, pouring out for a libation, David-like, the water brought to him in a helmet, earlier in that same march, he kept the love of his soldiers even through times of exasperation. Thus, from the very first, he built up in his army a tremendous feeling of moral superiority, a certainty that under his leadership no one could stand against them and no obstacle was impossible, in the strength of which his thirty to forty thousand marched from the Dardanelles to the Nile, the Oxus, and the Indus, with never a check, save at Tyre for a time, when he was present. Any special defiance, or any reputedly impossible problem, he took as a personal challenge, and fell upon it with especial ardour. The Gordian Knot yielded when he slid the yoke sideways out of it—and revealed many rope-ends, not only two. The defenders of the ferocious defile of the Cilician Gates fled at the mere terror of his approach; no doubt he would have scaled the Taurus to outflank them, but they could have gained time. Of Gaza on its high tell he said ‘the more “impossible” it is, the more it must be taken’, because of the moral effect: ‘for the achievement would amaze and dismay the enemy, and failure would be a disgrace when told to the Greeks and to Darius’. It was at Gaza that he is said to have disgraced himself by the atrocious killing of the captured Batis (Berve, ii. 104 f., no. 209—an atrocity unmentioned by Arrian, and disbelieved by Tarn—but Tarn had convinced himself that Alexander was a saint). More often, anyone who gave Alexander a stern fight gained his respect. Porus the Indian was among those who survived to enjoy it. Batis, a eunuch, perhaps aroused Alexander's disgust.