Hostname: page-component-7479d7b7d-rvbq7 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-16T02:59:36.592Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Early Permian to Late Triassic tectonics of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: geochronological and geochemical constraints from gabbros and granites in the northern Alxa area, NW China

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 April 2020

Run-Wu Li
Affiliation:
School of Earth Sciences and Gansu Key Laboratory of Mineral Resources in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou730000, PR China
Xin Zhang
Affiliation:
College of Resources & Environmental Science, Ningxia University, Yinchuan750021, PR China
Qiang Shi
Affiliation:
School of Earth Sciences and Gansu Key Laboratory of Mineral Resources in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou730000, PR China
Wan-Feng Chen
Affiliation:
School of Earth Sciences and Gansu Key Laboratory of Mineral Resources in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou730000, PR China
Yi An
Affiliation:
Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou510640, PR China
Yao-Shen Huang
Affiliation:
School of Earth Sciences and Gansu Key Laboratory of Mineral Resources in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou730000, PR China
Yi-Xin Liu
Affiliation:
School of Earth Sciences and Gansu Key Laboratory of Mineral Resources in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou730000, PR China
Jin-Rong Wang*
Affiliation:
School of Earth Sciences and Gansu Key Laboratory of Mineral Resources in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou730000, PR China
*
Author for correspondence: Jin-Rong Wang, Email: jrwang@lzu.edu.cn

Abstract

Situated between the North China Craton to the east and the Tarim Craton to the west, the northern Alxa area in westernmost Inner Mongolia in China occupies a key location for interpreting the late-stage tectonic evolution of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. New LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb dating results reveal 282.2 ± 3.9 Ma gabbros and 216.3 ± 3.2 Ma granites from the Yagan metamorphic core complex in northern Alxa, NW China. The gabbros are characterized by low contents of Si, Na, K, Ti and P and high contents of Mg, Ca, Al and Fe. These gabbros have arc geochemical signatures with relative enrichments in large ion lithophile elements and depletions in high field strength elements, as well as negative εNd(t) (−0.91 to −0.54) and positive εHf(t) (2.59 to 6.37) values. These features indicate that a depleted mantle magma source metasomatized by subduction fluids/melts and contaminated by crustal materials was involved in the processes of magma migration and emplacement. The granites show high-K calc-alkaline and metaluminous to weakly peraluminous affinities, similar to A-type granites. They have positive εNd(t) (1.55 to 1.99) and εHf(t) (5.03 to 7.64) values. These features suggest that the granites were derived from the mixing of mantle and crustal sources and formed in a postcollisional tectonic setting. Considering previous studies, we infer that the final closure of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean in the central part of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt occurred in late Permian to Early–Middle Triassic times.

Type
Original Article
Copyright
© Cambridge University Press 2020

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Andersen, T (2002) Correction of common lead in U–Pb analyses that do not report 204Pb. Chemical Geology 192, 5979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Badarch, G, Cunningham, WD and Windley, BF (2002) A new terrane subdivision for Mongolia: implications for the Phanerozoic crustal growth of Central Asia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 21, 87110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baker, JA, Menzies, MA, Thirlwall, MF and MacPherson, CG (1997) Petrogenesis of Quaternary intraplate volcanism, Sana’a, Yemen: implications for plume–lithosphere interaction and polybaric melt hybridization. Journal of Petrology 38, 1359–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Batchelor, RA and Bowden, P (1985) Petrogenetic interpretation of granitoid rock series using multicationic parameters. Chemical Geology 48, 4355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
BGNHAR (Bureau of Geology, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region) (1982) Hariaoribuerge Sheet. Regional Geological Survey Report (1:200000) (in Chinese).Google Scholar
Campbell, IH and Griffiths, RW (1992) The changing nature of mantle hotspots through time: implications for the chemical evolution of the mantle. The Journal of Geology 100, 497523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campbell, IH and Griffiths, RW (1993) The evolution of the mantle’s chemical structure. Lithos 30, 389–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Charvet, J, Shu, LS, Laurent-Charvet, S, Wang, B, Faure, M, Cluzel, D, Chen, Y and De Jong, K (2011) Palaeozoic tectonic evolution of the Tianshan belt, NW China. Science China Earth Sciences 54, 166–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dang, B, Zhao, H, Lin, GC, Wu, KL, Kang, XY, Ge, HY, Wu, B and Liu, SH (2011) Geochemistry and tectonic setting of Permian volcanic rocks in Yingen-Ejin Banner basin and its neighboring areas, western Inner Mongolia. Geological Bulletin of China 30, 923–31 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Davidson, JP (1987) Crustal contamination versus subduction zone enrichment: examples from the Lesser Antilles and implications for mantle source compositions of island arc volcanic rocks. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 51, 2185–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fan, CF (2015) Study on the volcanic rocks of the Baishan formation in the Carboniferous in the Guaizi lake area of the Inner Mongolia. M.Sc. thesis, Chang’an University, Xian, China. Published thesis.Google Scholar
Fei, MM, Pan, M, Xie, CL, Wang, JH and Zhao, HS (2019) Timing and tectonic settings of the Late Paleozoic intrusions in the Zhusileng, northern Alxa: implication for the metallogeny. Geosciences Journal 23, 3757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Feng, JY, Xiao, WJ, Windley, BF, Han, CM, Wan, B, Zhang, JE, Ao, SJ, Zhang, ZY and Lin, LN (2013) Field geology, geochronology and geochemistry of mafic-ultramafic rocks from Alxa, China: implications for Late Permian accretionary tectonics in the southern Altaids. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 78, 114–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Han, BF, Guo, ZJ and He, GQ (2010) Timing of major suture zones in North Xinjiang, China: constraints from stitching plutons. Acta Petrologica Sinica 26, 2233–46.Google Scholar
Hanchar, JM and Rudnick, RL (1995) Revealing hidden structures: the application of cathodoluminescence and back-scattered electron imaging to dating zircons from lower crustal xenoliths. Lithos 36, 289303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heumann, MJ, Johnson, CL, Webb, LE, Taylor, JP, Jalbaa, U and Minjin, C (2012) Paleogeographic reconstruction of a late Paleozoic arc collision zone, southern Mongolia. Geological Society of America Bulletin 124, 1514–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Irvine, TN and Baragar, WRA (1971) A guide to the chemical classification of the common volcanic rocks. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 8, 523–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jahn, BM, Wu, FY and Chen, B (2000) Granitoids of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and continental growth in the Phanerozoic. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 91, 181–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jia, XH, Wang, Q and Tang, GJ (2009) A-type granites: research progress and implications. Geotectonica et Metallogenia 33, 465–80.Google Scholar
Jochum, KP, Arndt, NT and Hofmann, AW (1991) Nb–Th–La in komatiites and basalts: constraints on komatiite petrogenesis and mantle evolution. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 107, 272–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, C, Amory, J, Zinniker, D, Lamb, M, Graham, SA, Affolter, M and Badarch, G (2008) Sedimentary response to arc-continent collision, Permian, southern Mongolia. In Formation and Applications of the Sedimentary Record in Arc Collision Zones (eds Draut, AE, Clift, PD and Scholl, DW), pp. 363–90. Geological Society of America, Special Paper no. 436. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lei, WY, Shi, GH and Liu, YX (2013) Research progress on trace element characteristics of zircons of different origins. Earth Science Frontiers 20, 273–84.Google Scholar
Li, S, Wang, T, Wilde, SA and Tong, Y (2013) Evolution, source and tectonic significance of Early Mesozoic granitoid magmatism in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (central segment). Earth-Science Reviews 126, 206–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Li, S, Wang, T, Wilde, SA, Tong, Y, Hong, DW and Guo, QQ (2012) Geochronology, petrogenesis and tectonic implications of Triassic granitoids from Beishan, NW China. Lithos 134, 123–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, QF (2015) Petrogenesis, geochemistry and tectonic implication of Guaizihu composite rock body in Alxa of Inner Mongolia. M.Sc. thesis, Chang’an University, Xian, China. Published thesis.Google Scholar
Liu, Q, Zhao, GC, Han, YG, Eizenhöfer, PR, Zhu, YL, Hou, WZ, Zhang, XR and Wang, B (2017) Geochronology and geochemistry of Permian to Early Triassic granitoids in the Alxa Terrane: constraints on the final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Lithosphere 9, 665–80.Google Scholar
Liu, Q, Zhao, GC, Han, YG, Li, XP, Zhu, YL, Eizenhöfer, PR, Zhang, XR, Wang, B and Tsui, RW (2018) Geochronology and geochemistry of Paleozoic to Mesozoic granitoids in Western Inner Mongolia, China: implications for the tectonic evolution of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The Journal of Geology 126, 451–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, Q, Zhao, GC, Sun, M, Han, YG, Eizenhöfer, PR, Hou, WZ, Zhang, XR, Zhu, YL, Wang, B, Liu, DX and Xu, B (2016) Early Paleozoic subduction processes of the Paleo-Asian Ocean: insights from geochronology and geochemistry of Paleozoic plutons in the Alxa Terrane. Lithos 262, 546–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ludwig, KR (2003) User’s Manual for Isoplot 3.00: A Geochronological Toolkit for Microsoft Excel. Berkeley Geochronology Center, Special Publication no. 4.Google Scholar
Macdonald, R, Rogera, NW, Fitton, JG, Black, S and Smith, M (2001) Plume–lithosphere interactions in the generation of the basalts of the Kenya Rift, East Africa. Journal of Petrology 42, 877900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maniar, PD and Piccoli, PM (1989) Tectonic discrimination of granitoids. Geological Society of America Bulletin 101, 635–43.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, H (1999) Adakitic magmas: modern analogues of Archaean granitoids. Lithos 46, 411–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Middlemost, EAK (1994) Naming materials in the magma/igneous rock system. Earth-Science Reviews 37, 215–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, CF, McDowell, SM and Mapes, RW (2003) Hot and cold granites? Implications of zircon saturation temperatures and preservation of inheritance. Geology 31, 529–32.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pearce, J (1996a) A user’s guide to basalt discrimination diagrams. In Trace Element Geochemistry of Volcanic Rocks: Applications for Massive Sulphide Exploration (ed. Wyman, DA), pp. 79–113. Geological Association of Canada, Short Course Notes 12.Google Scholar
Pearce, J (1996b) Sources and settings of granitic rocks. International Union of Geological Sciences 19, 120–25.Google Scholar
Pearce, JA and Norry, MJ (1979) Petrogenetic implications of Ti, Zr, Y, and Nb variations in volcanic rocks. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 69, 3347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pearce, NJG, Perkins, WT, Westgate, JA, Gorton, MP, Jackson, SE, Neal, CR and Chenery, SP (1997) A compilation of new and published major and trace element data for NIST SRM 610 and NIST SRM 612 glass reference materials. Geostandards Newsletter 21, 115–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ren, JM (2015) Study on Permian granitoids in Dazhaganaobao, Ejinaqi, Inner Mongolia. M.Sc. thesis, Chang’an University, Xian, China. Published thesis.Google Scholar
Rickwood, PC (1989) Boundary lines within petrologic diagrams which use oxides of major and minor elements. Lithos 22, 247–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rudnick, R and Gao, S (2003) Composition of the continental crust. Treatise on Geochemistry 3, 164.Google Scholar
Sengör, AMC, Natalin, BA and Burtman, VS (1993) Evolution of the Altaid tectonic collage and Palaeozoic crustal growth in Eurasia. Nature 364, 299307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shervais, JW (1982) Ti–V plots and the petrogenesis of modern and ophiolitic lavas. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 59, 101–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Song, DF, Xiao, WJ, Collins, AS, Glorie, S, Han, CM and Li, Y C (2018) Final subduction processes of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in the Alxa tectonic belt (NW China): constraints from field and chronological data of Permian arc-related volcano-sedimentary rocks. Tectonics 37, 1658–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sun, SS and McDonough, WF (1989) Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implications for mantle composition and processes. In Magmatism in the Ocean Basins (eds Saunders, AD and Norry, MJ), pp. 313–45. Geological Society of London, Special Publication no. 42. Google Scholar
Vavra, G, Gebauer, D, Schmid, R and Compston, W (1996) Multiple zircon growth and recrystallization during polyphase Late Carboniferous to Triassic metamorphism in granulites of the Ivrea Zone (Southern Alps): an ion microprobe (SHRIMP) study. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 122, 337–58.Google Scholar
Wan, B, Li, SH, Xiao, WJ and Windley, BF (2018) Where and when did the Paleo-Asian ocean form? Precambrian Research 317, 241–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, TY, Liu, JK, Wang, SZ and Wu, JH (1993) Late Paleozoic extension and tectono-magmatic evolution in the Sino-Mongolia border region in the northern part of Alxa. Regional Geology of China (4), 317–27 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Wang, TY, Wang, SZ and Wang, JR (1994) The Formation and Evolution of Paleozoic Continental Crust in Alaxa Region. Lanzhou: Lanzhou University Press.Google Scholar
Wang, XC, Wilde, SA, Xu, B and Pang, CJ (2016) Origin of arc-like continental basalts: implications for deep-Earth fluid cycling and tectonic discrimination. Lithos 261, 545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, T and Zheng, YD (2002) Mesozoic progressive transition from overthrusting to extension in the Sino-Mongolian border region and crustal-scale tangential shear. Geological Bulletin of China 21, 232–7 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Wang, T, Zheng, YD, Gehrels, GE and Mu, ZG (2001) Geochronological evidence for existence of South Mongolian microcontinent—a zircon U–Pb age of granitoid gneisses from the Yagan-Onch Hayrhan metamorphic core complex. Chinese Science Bulletin 46, 2005–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, T, Zheng, YD, Li, TB and Gao, YJ (2004) Mesozoic granitic magmatism in extensional tectonics near the Mongolian border in China and its implications for crustal growth. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 23, 715–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, T, Zheng, YD, Liu, SW, Li, TB and Ma, MB (2002) Mylonitic potassic granitoids from the Yagan metamorphic core complex on Sino-Mongolian border: a mark of transition from contractile to extensional tectonic regime. Acta Petrologica Sinica 18, 177–86 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Webb, LE, Graham, SA, Johnson, CL, Badarch, G and Hendrix, MS (1999) Occurrence, age, and implications of the Yagan-Onch Hayrhan metamorphic core complex, southern Mongolia. Geology 27, 143–6.2.3.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whalen, JB, Currie, KL and Chappell, BW (1987) A-type granites: geochemical characteristics, discrimination and petrogenesis. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 95, 407–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wiedenbeck, M, Alle, P, Corfu, F, Griffin, WL, Meier, M, Oberli, F, Quadt, AV, Roddick, JC and Spiegel, W (1995) Three natural zircon standards for U–Th–Pb, Lu–Hf, trace element and REE analyses. Geostandards Newsletter 19, 123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Windley, BF, Alexeiev, D, Xiao, WJ, Kroener, A and Badarch, G (2007) Tectonic models for accretion of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Journal of the Geological Society, London 164, 3147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woodhead, JD, Eggins, SM and Johnson, RW (1998) Magma genesis in the New Britain island arc: further insights into melting and mass transfer processes. Journal of Petrology 39, 1641–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wu, GY (2014) Palinspastic reconstruction and geological evolution of Permian residual marine basins bordering China and Mongolia. Journal of Palaeogeography 3, 219–32.Google Scholar
Wu, TR and He, GQ (1993) Tectonic units and their fundamental characteristics on the northern margin of the Alxa Block. Acta Geologica Sinica 67, 97108 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Wu, TR, He, GQ and Zhang, C (1998) On Palaeozoic tectonics in the Alxa region, Inner Mongolia, China. Acta Geologica Sinica 72, 256–63.Google Scholar
Wu, FY, Li, XH, Zheng, YF and Gao, S (2007) Lu–Hf isotopic systematics and their application in petrology. Acta Petrologica Sinica 23, 185220.Google Scholar
Xia, LQ, Xia, ZC, Xu, XY, Li, XM and Ma, ZP (2007) The discrimination between continental basalt and island arc basalt based on geochemical method. Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 26, 7789.Google Scholar
Xiao, WJ, Song, DF, Windley, BF, Li, JL, Han, CM, Wan, B, Zhang, JE, Ao, SJ and Zhang, ZY (2019) Research progresses of the accretionary processes and metallogenesis of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Science China Earth Sciences 11, 1419.Google Scholar
Xiao, WJ, Windley, BF, Hao, J and Zhai, MG (2003) Accretion leading to collision and the Permian Solonker suture, Inner Mongolia, China: termination of the central Asian orogenic belt. Tectonics 22, doi: 10.1029/2002TC001484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xiao, WJ, Windley, BF, Huang, BC, Han, CM, Yuan, C, Chen, HL, Sun, M, Sun, S and Li, JL (2009) End-Permian to mid-Triassic termination of the accretionary processes of the southern Altaids: implications for the geodynamic evolution, Phanerozoic continental growth, and metallogeny of Central Asia. International Journal of Earth Sciences 98, 1189–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xiao, WJ, Windley, BF, Sun, S, Li, JL, Huang, BC, Han, CM, Yuan, C, Sun, M and Chen, HL (2015) A tale of amalgamation of three Permo-Triassic collage systems in Central Asia: oroclines, sutures, and terminal accretion. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 43, 477507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xiao, WJ, Zhang, LC, Qin, KZ, Sun, S and Li, JL (2004) Paleozoic accretionary and collisional tectonics of the eastern Tianshan (China): implications for the continental growth of central Asia. American Journal of Science 304, 370–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xu, B, Charvet, J, Chen, Y, Zhao, P and Shi, G Z (2013) Middle Paleozoic convergent orogenic belts in western Inner Mongolia (China): framework, kinematics, geochronology and implications for tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Gondwana Research 23, 1342–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yan, HQ, Chen, Y, Fan, MC, Ren, JM, Jiang, S, Lv, JL, Zhao, SX and Fan, CF (2015) Geochemical features and geological significance of granitoid rocks in Guaizihu, Ejinaqi, Inner Mongolia. Strategic Study of CAE 17, 97105 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Zhang, W, Pease, V, Meng, QP, Zheng, RG, Wu, TR, Chen, Y and Gan, LS (2017) Age and petrogenesis of late Paleozoic granites from the northernmost Alxa region, northwest China, and implications for the tectonic evolution of the region. International Journal of Earth Sciences 106, 7996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zheng, YD, Wang, SZ and Wang, YF (1991) An enormous thrust nappe and extensional metamorphic core complex newly discovered in Sino-Mongolian boundary area. Science in China, Series B 34, 1145–54.Google Scholar
Zheng, RG, Wu, TR, Zhang, W, Feng, JC, Xu, C, Meng, QP and Zhang, ZY (2013) Geochronology and geochemistry of the Yagan granite in the northern margin of the Alxa block: constraints on the tectonic evolution of the southern Altaids. Acta Petrologica Sinica 29, 2665–75 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Zheng, RG, Wu, TR, Zhang, W, Xu, C, Meng, QP and Zhang, ZY (2014) Late Paleozoic subduction system in the northern margin of the Alxa block, Altaids: geochronological and geochemical evidences from ophiolites. Gondwana Research 25, 842–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zheng, YD and Zhang, Q (1994) The Yagan metamorphic core complex and extensional detachment fault in Inner Mongolia, China. Acta Geologica Sinica 7, 125–35.Google Scholar
Zhou, CY, Wu, FY, Ge, WC, Sun, DY, Abdel-Rahman, AA, Zhang, JH and Cheng, RY (2005) Age, geochemistry and petrogenesis of the cumulate gabbro in Tahe, northern Da Hinggan Mountain. Acta Petrologica Sinica 21, 763–75 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Zhu, Q, Zeng, ZX, Li, TB, Wang, C and Liu, GS (2018) Response of the North China Craton to the Rodinia supercontinent breakup: new evidence from petrochemistry, chronology and Hf isotope of the gabbro in Xiaosongshan area of northern Helan Mountain. Geological Bulletin of China 37, 1075–86 (in Chinese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Zuo, GC, Zhang, SL, He, GQ and Zhang, Y (1990) Early Paleozoic tectonics in Beishan Area. Chinese Journal of Geology 4, 305–14 (in Chinese).Google Scholar