Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Hikikomori: Clinical and Psychopathological Issues

  • F. Sarchione (a1), R. Santacroce (a1), M. Corbo (a1), M. Lupi (a1), G. Martinotti (a1) and M. Di Giannantonio (a1)...

Abstract

Introduction

Hikikomori: Japanese term which means 'being confined, pulled inward”, translated as 'social withdrawal” in Western cultures. Cultural, social, familiar and educational features predispose to it. Diagnostic criteria include home-centred lifestyle, refusal to attend school or work, symptoms persistence for at least six months, exclusion of schizophrenia, mental retardation or other mental disorders and lack of personal relationships.

Material and Methods

We searched 'hikikomori” keyword on Pubmed and Scopus, and selected papers written in English, Italian or Spanish. We found 54 results:14 articles were excluded for being written in Japanese or French, and one paper for being unrelated to the topic. We also searched Google Scholar and PsychInfo, founding one additional relevant study.

Results

Generally, hikikomori is an Asiatic, and specifically Japanese, phenomenon. Nevertheless, social withdrawal cases similar to hikikomori have been recently described in Western Countries (United States, Australia, Spain, Italy)

Typically, the hikikomori subject is male, described as apathetic, nihilistic, disillusioned, estranged from school and society, the young adult eldest son of a family with a good socioeconomic background. The low rate of suicidality among hikikomoris needs to be emphasized.

Internet represents an “emergency exit” to the difficulties that adolescents and young adults face: therefore, they choose social withdrawal to preserve themselves from the risk of being ashamed by their own inadequacy.

Conclusions

Hikikomori is more than a medical and psychiatric disease. Scientific literature regarding both epidemiological and psychopathological issues is still lacking and more scientific researches are required.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Hikikomori: Clinical and Psychopathological Issues
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Hikikomori: Clinical and Psychopathological Issues
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Hikikomori: Clinical and Psychopathological Issues
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Hikikomori: Clinical and Psychopathological Issues

  • F. Sarchione (a1), R. Santacroce (a1), M. Corbo (a1), M. Lupi (a1), G. Martinotti (a1) and M. Di Giannantonio (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.

Hikikomori: Clinical and Psychopathological Issues

  • F. Sarchione (a1), R. Santacroce (a1), M. Corbo (a1), M. Lupi (a1), G. Martinotti (a1) and M. Di Giannantonio (a1)...
Submit a response

Comments

No Comments have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *