Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Association between circulating zinc/ferritin levels and parent Conner’s scores in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

  • Farida M. El-Baz (a1), Azza M. Youssef (a1), Eman khairy (a2), Dina Ramadan (a3) and Walaa Y. Youssef (a1)...

Abstract

ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders among children and adolescents. In this prospective study, we aimed to measure circulating zinc and ferritin levels in children with ADHD, pick up the deficient ones to give zinc and iron supplements then compare before and after treatment according to their Conner’s scores and Wecsler IQ test. Current study included fifty children diagnosed as having ADHD by DSMV criteria, their zinc and ferritin levels were measured by Colorimetric method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. They were divided into: group I (zinc only deficient),group II (zinc and ferritin deficient),group III (non-deficient), cases with mineral deficiency received zinc (55 mg/day) and/or iron (6 mg/kg/day) for 6 months then reassessed by parent Conner’s rating scale. In group 1, there was no significant difference between the Wecsler verbal and non-verbal IQ scores and oppositional and cognitive problems in Conner’s scores before and after zinc supplements, although there was significant improvement in attention, hyperactivity, emotional liability and impulsivity. In group II, there was significant improvement in verbal and total IQ but not in performance IQ, also there was significant improvement in hyperactivity, emotional liability and impulsivity with no significant difference in oppositional, cognitive problems and inattention before and after zinc/ iron supplements. In Conclusion, Zinc supplements in adjuvant to the main treatment significantly improved symptoms of ADHD children. However, a combined zinc and iron supplements was superior to zinc alone in alleviating ADHD symptoms as well as IQ improvement.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Association between circulating zinc/ferritin levels and parent Conner’s scores in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Association between circulating zinc/ferritin levels and parent Conner’s scores in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Association between circulating zinc/ferritin levels and parent Conner’s scores in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. E-mail address: dreman_khairy@med.asu.edu.eg (E. khairy).

References

Hide All
[1]Ghirardi, L., Brikell, I., Kuja-Halkola, R., Freitag, C.M., Franke, B., Asherson, P., 2018: The familial co-aggregation of ASD and ADHD: a register-based cohort study. Mol Psychiatry, 23(2): 257.
[9]Bloch, M.H., Mulqueen, J., Nutritional supplements for the treatment of ADHD. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am, 2014; 23: 883897.
[11]Mahmoud, M.M., El-Mazary, A.A.M., Maher, R.M., Saber, M.M., Zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper in a group of Egyptian children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Ital J Pediatr, 2011; 37(1): 60.
[12]Cortese, S., Moreira-Maia, C.R., St. Fleur, D., Morcillo-Peñalver, C., Rohde, L.A., Faraone, S.V., Association between ADHD and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry, 2015; 173(1): 3443.
[14]Conners, C.K., Epstein, J.N., March, J.S., Multimodal treatment of ADHD in the MTA: an alternative outcome analysis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 2001; 40: 159167.
[15]Teitz, N.W., Clinical guide to laboratory tests 1983 W Saunders Co..
[16]ElBaz, M.F., Kamal, T.M., Zahra, S.S., Khfagy, M.A.H., Youssef, A.M., Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene Polymorphism in a Sample of Egyptian Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). J Child Neurol, 2017; 32(2): 188193.
[17]Martin, J., Walters, R.K., Demontis, D., Mattheisen, M., Lee, S.H., Robinson, E., et al., A genetic investigation of sex bias in the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry, 2017; 83(12): 10441053.
[18]Mueller, A.K., Fuermaier, A.B., Koerts, J., Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Atten Defic Hyperact Disord, 2012; 4(3): 101114.
[19]Hergüner, S., Hergüner, A., Psychiatric comorbidity in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Arch Neuropsychiatry, 2012; 49: 114118.
[20]Khoushabi, K., Setareh-Forouzan, A., Moradi, S., Mohammadkhani, P., Risk factors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. Am Arch Rehabil Ther, 2006; 7(3), 6-0.
[21]Bener, A., Higher prevalence of Iron deficiency as strong predictor of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. European Psychiatry; 2015: 30 691.
[22]Hasan, C.M.M., Islam, M.M., Mahib, M.M.R., Arju, M.A.C., Prevalence and assessment of biochemical parameters of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder children in Bangladesh. J Basic Clin Pharm, 2016; 7(3): 70.
[23]Amiri, S., Malek, A., Sadegfard, M., Abdi, S., Pregnancy-related maternal risk factors of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: a case-control study. ISRN Pediatr, 2012, 15.
[24]Curran, E.A., Cryan, J.F., Kenny, L.C., Dinan, T.G., Kearney, P.M., Khashan, A.S., Obstetrical mode of delivery and childhood behavior and psychological development in a British cohort. J Autism Dev Disord, 2016; 46(2): 603614.
[25]Adesman, A., Soled, D., Rosen, L., Formula feeding as a risk factor for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: is bisphenol a exposure a smoking gun?. J Dev Behav Pediatr, 2017; 38(7): 545551.
[26]Mimouni-Bloch, A., Kachevanskaya, A., Mimouni, F.B., Shuper, A., Raveh, E., Linder, N., Breastfeeding may protect from developing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Breastfeed Med, 2013; 8(4): 363367.
[27]Elkins, I.J., Saunders, G.R., Malone, S.M., Keyes, M.A., McGue, M., Iacono, W.G., Associations between childhood ADHD, gender, and adolescent alcohol and marijuana involvement: A causally informative design. Drug Alcohol Depend, 2018; 184: 3341.
[28]Amor, L.B., Grizenko, N., Schwartz, G., Lageix, P., Baron, C., Ter-Stepanian, M., 2005: Perinatal complications in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and their unaffected siblings. J Psychiatry Neurosci, 30(2): 120.
[29]Arpino, C., Marzio, M., D’Argenzio, L., Longo, B., Curatolo, P., Exanthematic diseases during pregnancy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Eur J Paediatr Neurol, 2005; 9(5): 363365.
[30]Pongcharoen, T., DiGirolamo, A.M., Ramakrishnan, U., Winichagoon, P., Flores, R., Martorell, R., Long-term effects of iron and zinc supplementation during infancy on cognitive function at 9 y of age in northeast Thai children: a follow-up study. Am J Clin Nutr, 2011; 93(3): 636643.
[31]Rico, J.A., Kordas, K., López, P., Rosado, J.L., Vargas, G.G., Ronquillo, D., et al., Efficacy of iron and/or zinc supplementation on cognitive performance of lead-exposed Mexican schoolchildren: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatrics, 2006; 117(3): 518527.
[32]De Moura, J.E., de Moura, E.N.O., Alves, C.X., de Lima Vale, S.H., Dantas, M.M.G., de Araújo Silva, A., et al., Oral zinc supplementation may improve cognitive function in schoolchildren. Biol Trace Elem Res, 2013; 155(1): 2328.
[33]Üçkardeş, Y., Özmert, E.N., Ünal, F., Yurdakök, K., Effects of zinc supplementation on parent and teacher behaviour rating scores in low socioeconomic level Turkish primary school children. Acta Paediatr, 2009; 98(4): 731736.
[34]Kordas, K., Stoltzfus, R.J., López, P., Rico, J.A., Rosado, J.L., Iron and zinc supplementation does not improve parent or teacher ratings of behavior in first grade Mexican children exposed to lead. J Pediatr, 2005; 147(5): 632639.
[35]Bilici, M., Yıldırım, F., Kandil, S., Bekaroğlu, M., Yıldırmış, S., Değer, O., et al., Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of zinc sulfate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry, 2004; 28(1): 181190.
[36]Brown, K.H., Wuehler, S.E., Peerson, J.M., The importance of zinc in human nutrition and estimation of the global prevalence of zinc deficiency. Food Nutr Bull, 2001; 22(2): 113125.
[37]Akhondzadeh, S., Mohammadi, M.R., Khademi, M., Zinc sulfate as an adjunct to methylphenidate for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: a double blind and randomized trial. BMC Psychiatry, 2004; 4(1): 9.
[38]Hermoso, M., Vucic, V., Vollhardt, C., Arsic, A., Roman-Viñas, B., Iglesia-Altaba, I., The effect of iron on cognitive development and function in infants, children and adolescents: a systematic review. Ann Nutr Metab. 2011 2 59(4): 154165.
[39]Yang, R., Gao, W., Li, R., Zhao, Z., Effect of Atomoxetine on the cognitive functions in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with congenital hypothyroidism: a pilot study. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol, 2015; 18(8).
[40]Weiss, M., Tannock, R., Kratochvil, C., Dunn, D., Velez-Borras, J., Thomason, C., et al., A randomized, placebo-controlled study of once-daily atomoxetine in the school setting in children with ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 2005; 44(7): 647655.
[41]Kilincaslan, A., Mutluer, T.D., Pasabeyoglu, B., Tutkunkardas, M.D., Mukaddes, N.M., Effects of atomoxetine in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and low-functioning autism spectrum disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol, 2016; 26(9): 798806.
[42]Fujioka, T., Takiguchi, S., Yatsuga, C., Hiratani, M., Hong, K.E.M., Shin, M.S., 2016: Advanced test of attention in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Japan for evaluation of methylphenidate and atomoxetine effects. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci, 14(1): 79.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Association between circulating zinc/ferritin levels and parent Conner’s scores in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

  • Farida M. El-Baz (a1), Azza M. Youssef (a1), Eman khairy (a2), Dina Ramadan (a3) and Walaa Y. Youssef (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.

Association between circulating zinc/ferritin levels and parent Conner’s scores in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

  • Farida M. El-Baz (a1), Azza M. Youssef (a1), Eman khairy (a2), Dina Ramadan (a3) and Walaa Y. Youssef (a1)...
Submit a response

Comments

No Comments have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *