We present an overview of all known fossil scombroid fishes (Scombroidei, Perciformes) of the former USSR, many taxa of which are described in a language other than Russian for the first time. Also new is the application of a cladistic framework for these taxa. For each taxon, short taxonomic synopses with the most relevant characteristics (synapomorphies, meristic counts) are presented in a form useful for future cladistic analysis. As an exception, we present an extensive systematic description of the billfish †Hemingwaya sarissa Sytchevskaya & Prokofiev, because we disagree with earlier interpretations. The ‘gempylid’ †Hemithyrsites maicopicus Daniltshenko retains its generic name, which is considered the valid name of what is also known as Promethichthys Gill. A new tribe, †Eocoelopomini, is erected to contain the genera †Eocoelopoma Woodward, †Palaeothunnus Bannikov, and †Micrornatus Monsch. It is questioned whether species previously described as belonging to Thunnus South should be classified in that genus. A new species of tribe Scomberomorini, †Neocybium parvidentatum, is described from the Bartonian of W Kazakhstan. A specimen of †Auxides (questionably Maastrichthian, Iran), also reported here, possibly extends the radiation of †Auxides, and scombroids as a whole, further back in time. The fossil record of the Blochiidae is probably extended downwards to the Thanetian.