Allen, J. R. L. 1979. Old Red Sandstone fades in external basins, with particular reference to southern Britain. In House, M. R., Scrutton, C. T. & Bassett, M. G. (eds) The Devonian System, 65–80. SPEC PAP PALAEONTOL 23, 65–80.
Anderson, R. V. & Kirkland, D. W. 1960. Origin, varves and cycles of Jurassic Todilto Formation, New Mexico. BULL AM ASSOC PET GEOL 44, 37–52.
Armstrong, M. 1977. The Old Red Sandstone of Easter Ross and the Black Isle. In Gill, G. (ed.) The Moray Firth area geological studies, 25–34. Inverness Field Club.
Beadle, L. C. 1981. The inland waters of tropical Africa. An introduction to tropical limnology, 2nd. edn. London: Longman.
Béland, P. & Arsenault, M. 1985. Scauménellisation de l'Acanthodii Trazeugacanthus affinis (Whiteaves) de la formation d'Escuminac (Dévonian supérieur de Miguasha, Québec): révision du Scaumanella mesacanthi Graham-Smith. CAN J EARTH SCI 22, 514–24.
Bradley, W. H. 1929. The varves and climate of the Green River epoch. PROF PAP U S GEOL SURV 168.
Chaloner, W. G. & Macdonald, P. 1980. Plants invade the land. London: HMSO.
Crampton, C. B. & Carruthers, R. G. 1914. The geology of Caithness. MEM GEOL SURV SCOTLAND.
Donovan, R. N. 1971. The geology of the coastal tract near Wick, Caithness. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis Newcastle upon Tyne University.
Donovan, R. N. 1973. Basin margin deposits of the Middle Old Red Sandstone at Dirlot, Caithness. SCOTT J GEOL 9, 203–11.
Donovan, R. N. 1975. Devonian lacustrine limestones at the margin of the Orcadian Basin, Scotland. J GEOL SOC 131, 489–510.
Donovan, R. N. 1980. Lacustrine cycles, fish ecology and stratigraphic zonation in the Middle Devonian of Caithness. SCOTT J GEOL 16, 35–50.
Donovan, R. N. & Collins, A. 1978. Mound structures from the Caithness Flagstones (Mid. Dev.) northern Scotland. J SEDIMENT PETROL 48, 171–4.
Donovan, R. N. & Foster, R. J. 1972. Subaqueous shrinkage cracks from the Caithness Flagstone Series (Middle Devonian) of north east Scotland. J SEDIMENT PETROL 42, 309–17.
Donovan, R. N., Foster, R. J. & Westoll, T. S. 1974. A stratigraphical revision of the Old Red Sandstone of north-eastern Caithness. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH 69, 167–201.
Fannin, N. G. T. 1969. Stromatolites from the Middle Old Red Sandstone of western Orkney. GEOL MAG 106, 77–88.
Forey, P. L. & Gardiner, B. G. 1981. J. A. Moy-Thomas and his association with the British Museum (Natural History). BULL BR MUS NAT HIST (GEOL) 35, 131–44.
Forster-Cooper, C. 1937. The Middle Devonian fish fauna of Achanarras. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH 59, 223–39.
Fouch, T. D. & Dean, W. E. 1982. Lacustrine and associated clastic depositional environments. In Scholle, P. A. & Spearing, D. (eds) Sandstone Depositional Environments, 87–113. AM ASSOC PET GEOL MEM 31.
Friend, P. F. 1969. Tectonic features of Old Red Sandstone sedimentation in North Atlantic borders. AM ASSOC PET GEOL MEM 12, 707–10.
Friend, P. F. 1981. Devonian sedimentary basins and deep faults of the northernmost Atlantic borderlands. MEM CAN SOC PET GEOL 7, 149–65.
Graham-Smith, W. 1935. Scaumanella mesacanthi, gen. et sp. n., a peculiar organism from the Upper Devonian of Scaumenac Bay, P.Q., Canada. ANN MAG NAT HIST (10) 15, 473–6.
Grande, L. 1980. Paleontology of the Green River Formation, with a review of the fish fauna. BULL GEOL SURV WYOMING 63.
Hamilton, R. F. M. & Trewin, N. H. 1985. Excursion guide to the Devonian of Caithness, 1–36. Petroleum Exploration Society of Great Britain, Aberdeen Branch.
Hemmings, S. K. & Rostron, J. 1972. A multivariate analysis of measurements on the Scottish Middle Old Red Sandstone antiarch fish genus Pterichthyodes Bleeker. BIOL J LINN SOC 4, 15–28.
Hesselbo, S. & Trewin, N. H. 1984. Deposition, diagenesis and structures of the Cheese Bay shrimp bed, Lower Carboniferous, East Lothian. SCOTT J GEOL 20, 281–96.
House, M. R., Richardson, J. B., Chaloner, W. G., Allen, J. R. L., Holland, C. H. & Westoll, T. S. 1977. A correlation of Devonian rocks of the British Isles. GEOL SOC LOND SPEC REP 8.
Hsu, K. J. & Kelts, K. 1978. Late Neogene chemical sedimentation in the Black Sea. In Matter, A. & Tucker, M. E. (eds) Modern and ancient lake sediments, 129–45. SPEC PUBL INT ASSOC SEDIMENTOL 2.
Jarvik, E. 1948. On the morphology and taxonomy of the Middle Devonian osteolepid fishes of Scotland. K SVENSKA VETENSKAKAD HANDL (3) 25, 1–301.
Jarvik, E. 1980. Basic structure and evolution of the vertebrates, vol. 1. London: Academic Press.
Kevan, P. G., Chaloner, W. G. & Savile, D. B. O. 1975. Interrelationships of early terrestrial arthropods and plants. PALAEONTOLOGY 18, 391–417.
Miles, R. S. 1967. The acanthodian fishes of the Devonian Plattenkalk of the Paffrath Trough in the Rhineland. ARK FOR ZOOL 19 (9), 147–94.
Miles, R. S. 1969. Features of placoderm diversification and the evolution of the arthrodire feeding mechanism. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH 68, 123–70.
Miles, R. S. 1976. Observations on the ptyctodont fish, Rhamphodopsis Watson. J LINN SOC (ZOOL) 47, 99–120.
Miles, R. S. & Westoll, T. S. 1968. The placoderm fish Coccosteus cuspidatus Miller ex Agassiz from the Middle Old Red Sandstone of Scotland. Pt. 1. Descriptive morphology. TRANS R SOC EDINBURGH 67, 373–476.
Moy-Thomas, J. A. & Miles, R. S. 1971. Palaeozoic Fishes, 2nd edn. (revised by R. S. Miles). London: Chapman and Hall.
Müller, G. & Wagner, F. 1978. Holocene carbonate evolution in Lake Balaton (Hungary): a response to climate and impact of man. In Matter, A. & Tucker, M. E. (eds) Modern and ancient lake sediments, 57–81. SPEC PUBL INT ASSOC SEDIMENTOL 2.
Mykura, W. 1976. British Regional Geology. Orkney and Shetland. Edinburgh: HMSO.
Mykura, W. 1983. Old Red Sandstone. In Craig, G. Y. (ed.) Geology of Scotland, 205–51. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press.
Olsen, P. E., Remington, C. L., Cornet, B. & Thomson, K. S. 1978. Cyclic change in Late Triassic lacustrine communities. SCIENCE 201, 729–33.
Ørvig, T. 1960, 1961. New finds of Acanthodians, Arthrodires, Crossopterygians, Ganoids and Dipnoans in the Upper Middle Devonian Calcareous Flags (Oberer Plattenkalk) of the Bergisch Gladbach–Paffrath Trough. PALAONTOL Z 34, 295–335 & 35, 10–27.
Pennington, J. J. 1975. The geology of the Argyll field. In Woodland, A. W. (ed.) Petroleum and the continental shelf of north-west Europe, vol. 1, Geology, 285–91. Barking, Essex: Applied Science Publishers.
Pollard, J. E., Steel, R. J. & Undersrud, E. 1982. Facies sequences and trace fossils in lacustrine/fan delta deposits, Hornelen Basin (M. Devonian), Western Norway. SEDIMENT GEOL 32, 63–87.
Rayner, D. H. 1963. The Achanarras limestone of the Middle Old Red Sandstone, Caithness. PROC YORKSHIRE GEOL SOC 34, 117–38.
Read, H. H. 1923. The geology of the country around Banff, Huntly and Turriff. MEM GEOL SURV SCOTLAND.
Richardson, J. B. 1965. Middle Old Red Sandstone spore assemblages from the Orcadian Basin, north-east Scotland. PALAEONTOLOGY 7, 559–605.
Rolfe, W. D. I. 1980. Early terrestrial vertebrate faunas. In Panchen, A. L. (ed.) The terrestrial environment and the origin of land vertebrates, 117–157. London: Academic Press.
Saxon, J. 1975. The fossil fishes of the North of Scotland, 2nd edn. Thurso: John Humphries, Caithness Books.
Schafer, W. 1972. Ecology and palaeoecology of marine environments. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd.
Smith, A. G., Briden, J. C. & Drewry, G. E. 1973. Phanerozoic world maps. In Hughes, N. F. (ed.) Organisms and continents through time, 1–42. SPEC PAP PALAEONTOL 12.
Smith, J. 1909. Upland fauna of the Old Red Sandstone of Carrick, Ayrshire. Kilwinning: A. W. Cross.
Sturm, M. & Matter, A. 1978. Turbidites and varves in Lake Brienz (Switzerland): deposition of clastic detritus by density currents. In Matter, A. & Tucker, M. E. (eds) Modern and ancient lake sediments, 147–68. SPEC PUBL INT ASSOC SEDIMENTOL 2.
Thomson, G. 1896. The Enzie–a field for the geologist. TRANS NORTHERN ASSOC LIT SCI SOC 2, 54–9.
Thomson, K. S. 1969. The biology of the lobe-finned fishes. BIOL REV 44, 91–154.
Thomson, K. S. 1975. On the biology of cosmine. PEABODY MUS NAT HIST BULL 40, 1–59.
Thomson, K. S. 1980. The ecology of Devonian lobe-finned fishes In Panchen, A. L. (ed.) The terrestrial environment and the origin of land vertebrates, 187–222. SYST ASSOC SPEC VOL 15.
Traquair, R. H. 1888. Notes on the nomenclature of the fishes of the Old Red Sandstone of Great Britain. GEOL MAG 5, 507–17.
Traquair, R. H. 1890. On the fossil fishes at Achanarras Quarry, Caithness. ANN MAG NAT HIST (6) 6, 479–86.
Traquair, R. H. 1892. On the British species of Asterolepidae. PROC R PHYS SOC EDINBURGH 11, 283–6.
Traquair, R. H. 1894. Achanarras revisited. PROC R PHYS SOC EDINBURGH 12, 279–86.
Traquair, R. H. 1894–1914. A monograph of the fishes of the Old Red Sandstone of Britain. PALAEONTOGR SOC MONOGR 1904 (2), 91–118.
Traquair, R. H. 1909. Note on the fossil fishes from the Niandt limestone, one-eighth of a mile S. W. of the mouth of Forse Burn. MEM GEOL SURV SUMM PROG 1908, 92–3.
Trewin, N. H. 1976a. Isopodichnus in a trace fossil assemblage from the Old Red Sandstone. LETHAIA 9, 29–37.
Trewin, N. H. 1976b. Correlation of the Achanarras and Sandwick fish beds, Middle Old Red Sandstone, Scotland, SCOTT J GEOL 12, 205–8.
Van Houten, F. B. 1962. Cyclic sedimentation and the origin of analcime-rich upper Triassic Lockatong Formation, westcentral New Jersey and adjacent Pennsylvania. AM J SCI 260, 561–76.
Vincent, C. E., Davies, T. D. & Beresford, A. K. C. 1979. Recent changes in the level of Lake Naivasha, Kenya, as an indicator of equatorial westerlies over East Africa. CLIM CHANGE 2, 175–89.
von, Wahlert G. 1965. The role of ecological factors in the origin of higher levels of organisation. SYST ZOOL 14, 288–300.
Waldman, M. 1971. Fish from the freshwater Lower Cretaceous of Victoria, Australia, with comments on the palaeo-environment. SPEC PAP PALAEONTOL 9, 1–124.
Watson, D. M. S. 1937. The acanthodian fishes. PHIL TRANS R SOC LONDON B228, 49–146.
Westoll, T. S. 1936. On the structure of the dermal ethmoid shield of Osteolepis. GEOL MAG 73, 157–71.
Westoll, T. S. 1951. The vertebrate-bearing strata of Scotland. In Swinton, H. E. (ed.) The correlation of continental vertebrate-bearing rocks, 5–21. PROC 18TH INT GEOL CONGR LONDON 1948, 11.
Westoll, T. S. 1958. The origin of continental vertebrate faunas. TRANS GEOL SOC GLASGOW 23, 1–27.
Wilson, M. V. H. 1980. Eocene lake environments; depth and distance-from-shore variation in fish, insect and plant assemblages. PALAEOGEOGR PALAEOCLIMATOL PALAEOECOL 32, 21–44.