Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Linkage between solid-phase apportionment and bioaccessible arsenic, chromium and lead in soil from Glasgow, Scotland, UK

  • Joanna Wragg (a1), Andrew Broadway (a2), Mark R. Cave (a1), Fiona M. Fordyce (a3), Barbara Palumbo-Roe (a1), Darren J. Beriro (a1), John G. Farmer (a2), Margaret C. Graham (a2), Bryne T. Ngwenya (a2) and Richard J. F. Bewley (a4)...

Abstract

The chemical composition of soil from the Glasgow (UK) urban area was used to identify the controls on the availability of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) in soil to humans. Total and bioaccessible concentrations of arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) in 27 soil samples, collected from different land uses, were coupled to information on their solid-phase partitioning derived from sequential extraction data. The total element concentrations in the soils were in the range <0.1–135mgkg–1 for As; 65–3680mgkg–1 for Cr and 126–2160mgkg–1 for Pb, with bioaccessible concentrations averaging 27, 5 and 27% of the total values, respectively. Land use does not appear to be a predictor of contamination; however, the history of the contamination is critically important. The Chemometric Identification of Substrates and Element Distribution (CISED) sequential chemical extraction and associated self-modelling mixture resolution analysis identified three sample groupings and 16 geochemically distinct phases (substrates). These were related to iron (n=3), aluminium–silicon (Al–Si; n=2), calcium (n=3), phosphorus (n=1), magnesium (Mg; n=3), manganese (n=1) and easily extractable (n=3), which was predominantly made up of sodium and sulphur. As, Cr and Pb were respectively found in 9, 10 and 12 of the identified phases, with bioaccessible As predominantly associated with easily extractable phases, bioaccessible Cr with the Mg-dominated phases and bioaccessible Pb with both the Mg-dominated and Al–Si phases. Using a combination of the Unified Barge Method to measure the bioaccessibility of PHEs and CISED to identify the geochemical sources has allowed a much better understanding of the complexity of PHE mobility in the Glasgow urban environment. This approach can be applied to other urban environments and cases of soil contamination, and made part of land-use planning.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Ajmone-Marsan, F., Biasioli, M., Kralj, T., Grčman, H., Davidson, C. M., Hursthouse, A. S., Madrid, L. & Rodrigues, S. 2008. Metals in particle-size fractions of the soils of five European cities. Environmental Pollution 152, 7381.
Appleton, J. D., Cave, M. R. & Wragg, J. 2012a. Anthropogenic and geogenic impacts on arsenic bioaccessibility in UK topsoils. Science of the Total Environment 435, 2129.
Appleton, J. D., Cave, M. R. & Wragg, J. 2012b. Modelling lead bioaccessibility in urban topsoils based on data from Glasgow, London, Northampton and Swansea, UK. Environmental Pollution 171, 265272.
Appleton, J. D., Cave, M. R., Palumbo-Roe, B. & Wragg, J. 2013. Lead bioaccessibility in topsoils from lead mineralisation and urban domains, UK. Environmental Pollution 178, 278287.
ATSDR. 2012. Toxicological Profile for Chromium. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp7.pdf.
Bacon, J. R. & Davidson, C. M. 2008. Is there a future for sequential chemical extraction? The Analyst 133, 2546.
Bewley, R. J. F., Jeffries, R., Watson, S. & Granger, D. 2001. An overview of chromium contamination issues in the South-East of Glasgow and the potential for remediation. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 23, 267271.
Broadway, A. 2008. Development of methodologies for determination of the human bioaccessibility of chromium and other elements in Glasgow soil. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh.
Broadway, A., Cave, M. R., Wragg, J., Fordyce, F. M., Bewley, R. J. F., Graham, M. C., Ngwenya, B. T. & Farmer, J. G. 2010. Determination of the bioaccessibility of chromium in Glasgow soil and the implications for human health risk assessment. Science of the Total Environment 409, 267277.
Cave, M. R. 2008. The use of self modelling mixture resolution methods for the interpretation of geochemical data sets. British Geological Survey IR/08/035.
Cave, M. R., Milodowski, A. E. & Friel, E. N. 2004. Evaluation of a method for identification of host physico-chemical phases for trace metals and measurement of their solid-phase partitioning in soil samples by nitric acid extraction and chemometric mixture resolution. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis 4, 7186.
Cave, M. R., Wragg, J., Gowing, C. & Gardner, A. 2015. Measuring the solid-phase fractionation of lead in urban and rural soils using a combination of geochemical survey data and chemical extractions. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 37(4), 779790.
Chen, C.-L., Chiou, H.-Y., Hsu, L.-I., Hsueh, Y.-M., Wu, M.-M. & Chen, C.-J. 2010. Ingested arsenic, characteristics of well water consumption and risk of different histological types of lung cancer in northeastern Taiwan. Environmental Research 110, 455462.
CIEH. 2009. Professional practice note: reviewing human health risk assessment reports invoking contaminant oral bioavailability measurements or estimates. http://www.iaeg.info/portals/0/Content/Commissions/Comm20/CIEH_PPN_Bioavailability_Final_June09.pdf.
Cox, S., Chelliah, M. M., McKinley, J., Palmer, S., Ofterdinger, U., Young, M., Cave, M. R. & Wragg, J. 2013. The importance of solid-phase distribution on the oral bioaccessibility of Ni and Cr in soils overlying Palaeogene basalt lavas, Northern Ireland. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 35(5), 553567.
Davidson, C. M., Urquhart, G. J., Ajmone-Marsan, F., Biasioli, M., da Costa Duarte, A., Díaz-Barrientos, E., Grčman, H., Hossack, I., Hursthouse, A. S., Madrid, L., Rodrigues, S. & Zupan, M. 2006. Fractionation of potentially toxic elements in urban soils from five European cities by means of a harmonised sequential extraction procedure. Analytica Chimica Acta 565, 6372.
DEFRA. 2014. Development of Category 4 Screening Levels for Assessment of Land Affected by Contamination. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Policy Companion Document SP1010 (London).
Denys, S., Caboche, J., Tack, K., Rychen, G., Wragg, J., Cave, M. R., Jondreville, C. & Feidt, C. 2012. In vivo validation of the unified BARGE method to assess the bioaccessibility of arsenic, antimony, cadmium, and lead in soils. Environmental Science & Technology 46, 62526260.
Environment Agency. 2004. Model procedures for the management of land contamination, CLR 11. Bristol: Environment Agency.
Environment Agency. 2009a. Contaminated land exposure assessment soil guideline values. Bristol: Environment Agency.
Environment agency. 2009b. Updated technical background to the CLEA model. Environment Agency (England and Wales), SC050021/SR3 (Bristol). http://publications.environment-agency.gov.uk/pdf/SCHO0508BNQW-e-e.pdf.
Farmer, J. G., Graham, M. C., Thomas, R. P., Licona-Manzur, C., Paterson, E., Campbell, C. D., Geelhoed, J. S., Lumsdon, D. G., Meeussen, J. C. L., Roe, M. J., Conner, A., Fallick, A. E. & Bewley, R. J. F. 1999. Assessment and modelling of the environmental chemistry and potential for remediative treatment of chromium-contaminated land. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 21, 331337.
Farmer, J. G., Broadway, A., Cave, M. R., Wragg, J., Fordyce, F. M., Graham, M. C., Ngwenya, B. T. & Bewley, R. J. F. 2011. A lead isotopic study of the human bioaccessibility of lead in urban soils from Glasgow, Scotland. Science of the Total Environment 409, 49584965.
Farmer, J. G. & Jarvis, R. 2009. Strategies for improving human health in contaminated situations: a review of past, present and possible future approaches. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 31, 227238.
Farmer, J. G. & Lyon, T. D. B. 1977. Lead in Glasgow street dirt and soul. Science of the Total Environment 8, 8993.
Fordyce, F. M., Brown, S. E., Ander, E. L., Rawlins, B. G., O'Donnell, K. E., Lister, T. R., Breward, N. & Johnson, C. C. 2005. GSUE: urban geochemical mapping in Great Britain. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis 5, 325336.
Fordyce, F. M., Nice, S. E., Lister, T. R., Dochartaigh, B. O. E., Cooper, R., Allen, M., Ingham, M., Gowing, C., Vickers, B. P. & Scheib, A. 2012. Urban Soil Geochemistry of Glasgow – Main Report. Land Use Planning and Development Programme Open Report OR/08/002. British Geological Survey, Edinburgh.
Fordyce, F. M., Everett, P. A., Bearcock, J. M. & Lister, T. R. 2018. Soil metal/metalloid concentrations in the Clyde Basin, Scotland, UK: implications for land quality. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. DOI: 10.1017/S1755691018000282.
Gal, J., Hursthouse, A. S. & Cuthbert, S. J. 2006. Chemical availability of arsenic and antimony in industrial soils. Environmental Chemistry Letters 3, 149153.
Gal, J., Hursthouse, A. & Cuthbert, S. 2007. Bioavailability of arsenic and antimony in soils from an abandoned mining area, Glendinning (SW Scotland). Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A 42, 12631274.
Giacomino, A., Abollino, O., Malandrino, M. & Mentasti, E. 2011. The role of chemometrics in single and sequential extraction assays: a Review. Part II. Cluster analysis, multiple linear regression, mixture resolution, experimental design and other techniques. Analytica Chimica Acta 688, 122139.
Gibson, M. J. & Farmer, J. G. 1983 A survey of trace metal contamination in Glasgow urban soils. Heavy Metals in the Environment 2, 11411144.
Gibson, M. J. & Farmer, J. G. 1986. Multi-step sequential chemical extraction of heavy metals from urban soils. Environmental Pollution Series B, Chemical and Physical 11, 117135.
Johnson, C. C., Demetriades, A., Locutura, J. & Ottesen, R. T. 2011. Mapping the chemical environment of urban areas. Oxford: Wiley.
Madrid, L., Diaz-Barrientos, E., Ruiz-Cortes, E., Reinoso, R., Biasioli, M., Davidson, C. M., Duarte, A. C., Grcman, H., Hossack, I., Hursthouse, A. S., Kralj, T., Ljung, K., Otabbong, E., Rodrigues, S., Urquhart, G. J. & Ajmone-Marsan, F. 2006. Variability in concentrations of potentially toxic elements in urban parks from six European cities. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 8, 11581165.
Nathanail, P., McCaffrey, C., Earl, N., Foster, N. D., Gillett, A. G. & Ogden, R. 2005. A deterministic method for deriving site-specific human health assessment criteria for contaminants in soil. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 11, 389410.
National Records Scotland. 2016. Glasgow City Council Area – demographic factsheet. https://www.nrscotland.gov.uk/files/statistics/council-area-data-sheets/glasgow-city-factsheet.pdf
Okorie, A., Entwistle, J. & Dean, J. R. 2011. The application of in vitro gastrointestinal extraction to assess oral bioaccessibility of potentially toxic elements from an urban recreational site. Applied Geochemistry 26, 789796.
Palumbo-Roe, B., Cave, M. R., Klinck, B. A., Wragg, J., Taylor, H., O'Donnell, K. & Shaw, R. A. 2005. Bioaccessibility of arsenic in soils developed over Jurassic ironstones in eastern England. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 27, 121130.
Paterson, E. 2011. Geochemical atlas for Scottish topsoils. Aberdeen: Macauley Land Use Research Institute.
Pelfrene, A., Waterlot, C., Mazzuca, M., Nisse, C., Bidar, G. & Francis, D. 2011. Assessing Cd, Pb, Zn human bioaccessibility in smelter contaminated agricultural topsoils (northern France). Environmental Geochemistry and Health 33, 477493.
Pfeifer, H., Gueye-Girardet, A., Reymond, D., Schlegel, C., Temgoua, E., Hesterberg, D. L. & Weiqing Chou, J. 2004. Dispersion of natural arsenic in the Malcantone watershed, Southern Switzerland: field evidence for repeated sorption–desorption and oxidation–reduction processes. Geoderma 122, 205234.
R Core Team. 2016. A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.R-project.org/.
Reis, A. P., Patinha, C., Wragg, J., Dias, A. C., Cave, M. R., Sousa, A. J., Batista, M. J., Prazeres, C., Costa, C., Ferreira da Silva, E. & Rocha, F. 2014. Urban geochemistry of lead in gardens, playgrounds and schoolyards of Lisbon, Portugal: assessing exposure and risk to human health. Applied Geochemistry 44, 4553.
Roussel, H., Waterlot, C., Pelfrene, A., Pruvot, C., Mazzuca, M. & Douay, F. 2010. Cd, Pb and Zn oral bioaccessibility of urban soils contaminated in the past by atmospheric emissions from two lead and zinc smelters. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 58, 945954.
Sharma, K., Basta, N. T. & Grewal, P. S. 2015. Soil heavy metal contamination in residential neighborhoods in post-industrial cities and its potential human exposure risk. Urban Ecosystems 18, 115132.
Sialelli, J., Urquhart, G. J., Davidson, C. M. & Hursthouse, A. S. 2010. Use of a physiologically based extraction test to estimate the human bioaccessibility of potentially toxic elements in urban soils from the city of Glasgow, UK. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 32, 517527.
Stockburger, D. W. 2001. Introductory statistics: concepts, models and applications. Cincinnati, OH: Missouri State University Ohio, Atomic Dog Publishing.
USEPA. 1995. Method 3052: microwave assisted acid digestion of siliceous and organically based matrices. Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, United States Environmental Protection Agency.
Wragg, J., Cave, M. R. & Gregory, S. 2007. A study of the relationship between arsenic, bioaccessibility of arsenic, chromium, and nickel in natural ironstone soils in the UK. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A 42, 13031315.
Wragg, J., Cave, M. R., Basta, N., Brandon, E., Casteel, S., Denys, S., Gron, C., Oomen, A., Reimer, K., Tack, K. & Van de Wiele, T. 2011. An inter-laboratory trial of the unified BARGE bioaccessibility method for arsenic, cadmium and lead in soil. Science of the Total Environment 409, 40164030.
Wragg, J., Cave, M. R. & Gregory, S. 2014. The solid phase distribution and bioaccessibility of arsenic, chromium, and nickel in natural ironstone soils in the UK. Applied and Environmental Soil Science 2014, 12.
Wragg, J. & Cave, M. R. 2012. Assessment of a geochemical extraction procedure to determine the solid phase fractionation and bioaccessibility of potentially harmful elements in soils: a case study using the NIST 2710 reference soil. Analytica Chimica Acta 722, 4354.
Wright, J. P., Dietrich, K. N., Ris, M. D., Hornung, R. W., Wessel, S. D., Lanphear, B. P., Ho, M. & Rae, M. N. 2008. Association of prenatal and childhood blood lead concentrations with criminal arrests in early adulthood. PLoS Medicine 5(5), e101, 732740.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Wragg et al. supplementary material
Wragg et al. supplementary material 1

 Word (25 KB)
25 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed