Skip to main content Accessibility help

Grenvillian magmatism of western and central Nordaustlandet, northeastern Svalbard

  • Åke Johansson (a1), Alexander N. Larionov (a2), Alexander M. Tebenkov (a3), David G. Gee (a4), Martin J. Whitehouse (a5) and Jessica Vestin (a6)...


The basement of the island of Nordaustlandet, northeastern Svalbard, consists of a complex of metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks, granites and augen gneisses, unconformably overlain by the Neoproterozoic Murchisonfjorden Supergroup. Earlier U-Pb dating of the Laponiafjellet and Kontaktberget granites has shown them to be late Grenvillian, with ages of c. 960 Ma and 940 Ma, respectively. Here, we present conventional U-Pb zircon and monazite data, single zircon Pb-evaporation data and ion microprobe data from the Kapp Hansteen Group and Svartrabbane Formation volcanic and subvolcanic rocks, and from the Fonndalen and Ringåsvatnet augen gneisses of central Nordaustlandet. The combined evidence suggests late Grenvillian magmatic ages of 940–970 Ma for all these rocks, with inherited zircons ranging in age from c. 1200 Ma to 2600 Ma. The investigated rocks vary in chemical composition from andesites to rhyolites and granites, and show generally similar trace and rare earth element patterns, with trace element compositions suggesting a volcanic arc or syn-collisional tectonic setting, and major element compositions suggesting a large sedimentary input to the magmas. Contributions from older crustal material are also supported by Nd isotope data and the presence of inherited zircons.

The Grenvillian magmatic rocks thus originated in a series of magmatic events along a continental margin over a time span not longer than 30 Ma. The volcanic rocks were extruded onto folded strata of the Brennevinsfjorden Group–Helvetesflya Formation, which must have been deposited in the time interval 1200–960 Ma. Folding of the metasediments preceded the volcanism, but was synchronous with intrusion of the augen gneiss protolith, and was followed by crustal stabilisation, uplift and erosion. This newly formed Grenvillian crust then served as basement for the deposition of the Neoproterozoic Murchisonfjorden Supergroup. The present outcrop pattern of the Grenvillian rocks is largely the result of large-scale Caledonian folding and doming.



Hide All
Balasov, Ju. A., Tebenkov, A. M., Ohta, Y., Larionov, A. N., Sirotkin, A. N., Cannibal, L. F. & Ryungenen, G. I. 1995. Grenvillian U-Pb zircon ages of quartz porphyry and rhyolite clasts in a metaconglomerate at Vimsodden, southwestern Spitsbergen. Polar Research 14, 291302.
Carlsson, P., Johansson, Å. & Gee, D. G. 1995. Geochemistry of the Palaeoproterozoic Bangenhuk granitoids, Ny Friesland, Svalbard. GFF 117, 107–19.
Chappel, B. W. & White, A. J. R. 1974. Two contrasting granite types. Pacific Geology 8, 173–4.
Debon, F. & Le Fort, P. 1983. A chemical–mineralogical classification of common plutonic rocks and associations. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 73 (for 1982), 135–50.
De Paolo, D. J. 1981. Neodymium isotopes in the Colorado Front Range and crust-mantle evolution in the Proterozoic. Nature 291, 193–6.
Flood, B., Gee, D. G., Hjelle, A., Siggerud, T. & Winsnes, T. S. 1969. The geology of Nordaustlandet, northern and central parts. Norsk Polarinstitutt Skrifter 146, 139 pp + 1 map 1:250 000.
Gayer, R. A., Gee, D. G., Harland, W. B., Miller, J. A., Spall, H. R., Wallis, R. H. & Winsnes, T. S. 1966. Radiometric age determinations on rocks from Spitsbergen. Norsk Polarinstutt Skrifter 137.
Gee, D. G. 1986. Svalbard's Caledonian terranes reviewed. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Forhandlingar 108, 284–6.
Gee, D. G., Schouenborg, B., Peucat, J. J., Abakumov, S. A., Krasil'scikov, A. A. & Tebenkov, A. M. 1992. New evidence of basement in the Svalbard Caledonides: early Proterozoic zircon ages from Ny Friesland granites. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 72, 181–90.
Gee, D. G., Johansson, Å., Ohta, Y., Tebenkov, A. M., Krasil'scikov, A. A., Balashov, Yu. A., Larionov, A. N., Gannibal, L. F. & Ryungenen, G. F. 1995. Grenvillian basement and a major unconformity within the Caledonides of Nordaustlandet, Svalbard. Precambrian Research 70, 215–34.
Gee, D. G., Johansson, Å., Larionov, A. N. & Tebenkov, A. M., 1999. A Caledonian granitoid pluton at Djupkilsodden, central Nordaustlandet, Svalbard: age, magnetic signature and tectonic significance. Polarforschung 66 (for 1996), 1932.
Gee, D. G. & Hellman, F. J. 1996. Zircon Pb-evaporation ages from the Smutsbreen Formation, southern Ny Friesland: new evidence for Caledonian thrusting in Svalbard's Eastern Terrane. Zeitschrift fur Geologische Wissenschaffen 24, 429–39.
Gee, D. G. & Tebenkov, A. M. 1996. Two major unconformities beneath the Neoproterozoic Murchisonfjorden Supergroup in the Caledonides of central Nordaustlandet, Svalbard. Polar Research 15, 8191.
Golovanov, N. P. & Raaben, M. E. 1967. Analogi verhnego rifeja na arhipelage Shpitsbergen [Analogues of the Upper Riphean on the Spitsbergen archipelago]. Doklady Akademii Nauk USSR 173 (5), 1123–7 [in Russian].
Gorochov, I. M., Krasil'scikov, A. A., Mel'nikov, N. N. & Varsavskaja, E. S. 1977. Rb/Sr vozrast kvarcevyh porfirov serii Kap Hansteen [Rb/Sr age of quartz porphyries in the Kapp Hansteen series]. Problemy Geochronologii i Geochimii Izotopov, 5161. Leningrad: Nauka [in Russian].
Harland, W. B. 1985. Caledonide Svalbard. In Gee, D. G. & Sturt, B. A. (eds) The Caledonide Orogen—Scandinavia and Related Areas, 9991016. Chichester: Wiley.
Harland, W. B. 1997. The Geology of Svalbard. Geological Society Memoir 17. London: The Geological Society.
Hellman, F. J., Gee, D. G., Johansson, Å. & Witt-Nilsson, P. 1997. Single-zircon Pb-evaporation geochronology constrains basement-cover relationships in the Lower Hecla Hoek Complex of northern Ny Friesland, Svalbard. Chemical Geology 137, 117–34.
Hjelle, A. 1966. The composition of some granitic rocks from Svalbard. Norsk Polarinstitutt Årbok 1965, 730.
Hjelle, A. 1978. An outline of the pre-Carboniferous geology of Nordaustlandet. Polarforschung 48, 6277.
Hjelle, A. & Lauritzen, Ø. 1982. Geological map of Svalbard 1: 500000. Sheet 3G, Spitsbergen northern part. Norsk Polarinstitutt Skrifter 154C, 15 pp + 1 map 1: 500 000.
Jacobsen, S. B. & Wasserburg, G. J. 1984. Sm-Nd isotopic evolution of chondrites and achondrites. II. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 67, 137–50.
Johansson, Å., Gee, D. G., Björklund, L. & Witt-Nilsson, P. 1995. Isotope studies of granitoids from the Bangenhuk Formation, Ny Friesland Caledonides, Svalbard. Geological Magazine 132, 303–20.
Johansson, Å. & Gee, D. G., 1999. The late Palaeoproterozic Eskolabreen granitoids of southern Ny Friesland, Svalbard Caledonides—geochemistry, age and origin. GFF 121, 113–26.
Johansson, Å. & Larionov, A. N. 1996. U-Pb ages from the Eastern Terrane of the Svalbard Caledonides—Evidence for Palaeoproterozoic, Grenvillian and Caledonian tectonism (extended abstract). GFF 118 (Jubilee Issue), A38–A39.
Knoll, A. H. 1982. Microfossil-based biostratigraphy of the Precambrian Hecla Hoek sequence, Nordaustlandet, Svalbard. Geological Magazine 119, 269–79.
Knoll, A. H. & Swett, K. 1990. Carbonate deposition during the Late Proterozoic era: an example from Spitsbergen. In Knoll, A. H. & Ostrom, J. H. (eds) Proterozoic Evolution and Environment, American Journal of Science 290–A, 104–32.
Kober, B. 1986. Whole grain evaporation for 207Pb/206Pb age investigations on single zircons using a double filament thermal ion source. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 93, 482–90.
Kober, B. 1987. Single-zircon evaporation combined with Pb+ emitter bedding for 207Pb/206Pb-age investigation using thermal ion mass spectrometry, and implications to zirconology. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 96, 6371.
Krasil'scikov, A. A. 1973. Stratigrafija i paleotectonika dokembrija— rannego paleozoja Shpitsbergena [Stratigraphy and paleotectonics of the Precambrian—Early Palaeozoic of Spitsbergen]. Leningrad: Nauchno Issledovatelsky Institut Geologii Arktiki 172, 120 pp [in Russian].
Kulling, O. 1934. Scientific results of the Swedish-Norwegian Arctic Expedition in the summer of 1931, Part XI. The 'Hecla Hoek Formation' round Hinlopenstredet. Geografiska Annaler 16, 161254.
Larionov, A. N., Johansson, Å., Tebenkov, A. M. & Sirotkin, A. N. 1995. U-Pb zircon ages from the Eskolabreen Formation, southern Ny Friesland, Svalbard. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 75, 247–57.
Larionov, A. N., Tebenkov, A. M. & Gee, D. G. 1998. Pb-Pb single-zircon ages of granitoid boulders from the Vendian tillite of Wahlenbergfjorden, Nordaustlandet, Svalbard. Polar Research 17, 7180.
Lauritzen, Ø. & Ohta, Y. 1984. Geological map of Svalbard 1:500 000. Sheet 4G, Nordaustlandet. Norsk Polarinstitutt Skrifter 154D, 14 pp. + 1 map 1: 500 000.
Le Maitre, R. W. 1989. A Classification of Igneous Rocks and Glossary of Terms. Oxford: Blackwell.
Ludwig, K. R. 1991. ISOPLOT—a plotting and regression program for radiogenic-isotope data, version 2.56. US Geological Survey Open File Report 91—445. Denver: US Geological Survey.
Maniar, P. D. & Piccoli, P. M. 1989. Tectonic discrimination of granitoids. Geological Society of America Bulletin 101, 635–43.
Nilsson, J. 1997. The Brennevinsfjorden Group of southern Botniahalvoya, Nordaustlandet, Svalbard—structure, stratigra-phy and depositional environment (Unpublished undergraduate thesis, Department of Geology, Lund University).
Nilsson, P. W. 1998. The West Ny Friesland Terrane: An Exhumed Mid-Crustal Obliquely Convergent Orogen (Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University).
Ohta, Y. 1982a. Relation between the Kapp Hansteen Formation and the Brennevinsfjorden Formation in Botniahalvoya, Nordaustlandet, Svalbard. Norsk Polarinstitutt Skrifter 178, 518.
Ohta, Y. 1982b. Lithostratigraphy of the Hecla Hoek rocks in central Nord aust landet and their relationships to the Caledonian granitic-migmatitic rocks. Norsk Polarinstitutt Skrifter 178, 4160.
Ohta, Y. 1985. Geochemistry of the late Proterozoic Kapp Hansteen igneous rocks of Nordaustlandet, Svalbard. Polar Research 3, 6992.
Ohta, Y. 1992. Recent understanding of the Svalbard basement in the light of new radiometric age determinations. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 72, 15.
Ohta, Y., Dallmeyer, R. D. & Peucat, J. J. 1989. Caledonian terranes in Svalbard. Geological Society of America Special Paper 230, 115.
Ohta, Y., Larionov, A. N. & Tebenkov, A. M. 1998a. Proterozoic zircon single-grain ages from the gneiss-migmatite area of NW Spitsbergen. 23 Nordiske Geologiske Vintermøde, Århus 1998, Abstract Volume, p. 222.
Ohta, Y., Larionov, A. N. & Tebenkov, A. M. 1998b. Single-grain zircon ages from the crystalline rocks of NW Spitsbergen. ICAM III (3rd International Conference on Arctic Margins), Celle, Germany, 12–16 October 1998, Abstracts, pp. 133–4.
Okulitch, A. V. 1998. The Caledonian Pearya Terrane of northern Ellesmere Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. ICAM III (3rd International Conference on Arctic Margins), Celle, Germany, 12–16 October 1998, Abstracts, pp. 134–5.
Pearce, J. A, Harris, N. B. W. & Tindle, A. G. 1984. Trace element discrimination diagrams for the tectonic interpretation of granitic rocks. Journal of Petrology 25, 956–83.
Peucat, J. J., Ohta, Y., Gee, D. G. & Bernard-Griffiths, J. 1989. U-Pb, Sr and Nd evidence for Grenvillian and latest Proterozoic tectonothermal activity in the Spitsbergen Caledonides, Arctic Ocean. Lithos 22, 275–85.
Sandford, K. S. 1926. The geology of North-East Land (Spitsbergen). Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 82, 615–65.
Sandford, K. S. 1956. The stratigraphy and structure of the Hecla Hoek Formation and its relationship to a subjacent metamorphic complex in North-East Land (Spitsbergen). Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 111, 339–62.
Stacey, J. S. & Kramers, J. D. 1975. Approximation of terrestrial lead isotope evolution by a two-stage model. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 26, 207–21.
Steiger, R. H., Bickel, R. A. & Meier, M. 1993. Conventional U-Pb dating of single fragments of zircon for petrogenetic studies of Phanerozoic granitoids. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 115, 197209.
Strachan, R. A., Nutman, A. P. & Friderichsen, J. D. 1995. SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology and metamorphic history of the Smallefjord sequence, NE Greenland Caledonides. Journal of the Geological Society 152, 779–84.
Stratigraphical Dictionary for Svalbard, 1991, Dallmann, W. K. and Mork, A. (eds), translated from Russian: Stratigraficeskij Slovar' Spicbergena, Gramberg, I. S., Krasil'scikov, A. A. and Semevskij, D. V. (eds), Norsk Polaristitutt Rapportserie 74, Oslo 1991.
Tebenkov, A. M. 1983. Poznedokembrijskie magmaticheskie formacii Severo-Vostochnoj Zemli [Late Precambrian magmatic forma- tions of Nordaustlandet]. Geologija Shpitsbergena, 7486Leningrad: PGO Sevmorgeologija [in Russian].
Trettin, H. P. 1987. Pearya: A composite terrane with Caledonian affinities in northern Ellesmere Island. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 24, 224–45.
Trettin, H. P., Parrish, R. & Loveridge, W. D. 1987. U-Pb age determinations on Proterozoic to Devonian rocks from northern Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 24, 246–56.
Whitehouse, M. J., Claesson, S., Sunde, T. & Vestin, J. 1997. Ion microprobe U-Pb zircon geochronology and correlation of Archaean gneisses from the Lewisian Complex of Gruinard Bay, northwestern Scotland. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Ada 61, 4429–38.
Wiedenbeck, M., Alle, P., Corfu, F., Griffin, W. L., Meier, M., Oberli, F., von Quadt, A., Roddick, J. C. & Spiegel, W. 1995. Three natural zircon standards for U-Th-Pb, Lu-Hf, trace element and REE analysis. Geostandards Newsletter 19, 123.
Zeck, H. P. & Whitehouse, M. J. 1999. Hercynian, Pan-African, Proterozoic and Archean ion-microprobe zircon ages for a Betic- Rif core complex, Alpine belt, W Mediterranean—consequences for its P-T-t path. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 134, 134–49.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Grenvillian magmatism of western and central Nordaustlandet, northeastern Svalbard

  • Åke Johansson (a1), Alexander N. Larionov (a2), Alexander M. Tebenkov (a3), David G. Gee (a4), Martin J. Whitehouse (a5) and Jessica Vestin (a6)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.