Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The Young Adolescent Project: A longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development

  • Sonya Negriff (a1), Elana B. Gordis (a2), Elizabeth J. Susman (a3), Kihyun Kim (a4), Melissa K. Peckins (a5), Janet U. Schneiderman (a6) and Ferol E. Mennen (a7)...

Abstract

The Young Adolescent Project (YAP) is an ongoing longitudinal study investigating the effects of abuse and neglect on adolescent development. It is a multidisciplinary study guided by a developmental, ecological perspective, and designed to consider the physical, social, and psychological effects of childhood maltreatment through the transition from childhood to adolescence. Four waves of data collection have been completed, ranging from early (Mean age = 10.95) to late adolescence (Mean age = 18.24). Members of the maltreated group (n = 303) were selected from new cases that had been opened by the Department of Child and Family Services, whereas the comparison group (n = 151) were not involved with child welfare but lived in the same neighborhoods as the maltreated group. The study assessed a wide variety of domains including physical development (e.g., height, weight, body mass, pubertal development); physiological reactivity (e.g., cortisol); cognitive abilities; mental health (e.g., symptoms of depression, anxiety, trauma, and aggression); risk behavior (e.g., sexual activity, delinquency, or substance use); social development (e.g., self-esteem, competence, and social support); family environment; and exposure to community violence. Overall, our findings demonstrated the pervasive and persistent adverse effects of child maltreatment both within and across domains, but they also identified maltreated youth with positive functioning. Our hope is that this work will help move us toward identifying targets for intervention to cultivate resilience and positive adaptation after early maltreatment experiences.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for Correspondence: Sonya Negriff, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, 100 S. Los Robles Ave, Pasadena, CA, 91101, USA. E-mail: sonya.x.negriff@kp.org

References

Hide All
Afifi, T. O., MacMillan, H. L., Boyle, M., Cheung, K., Taillieu, T., Turner, S., & Sareen, J. (2016). Child abuse and physical health in adulthood. Statistics Canada Health Reports, 27, 1018.
Aisenberg, E., Garcia, A., Ayon, C., Trickett, P. K., & Mennen, F. E. (2008). The co-occurrence of community violence and child maltreatment among racially diverse adolescents: Assessing risk for mental health and behavior problems. Protecting Children, 22, 2031.
Annerbäck, E. M., Sahlqvist, L., Svedin, C. G., Wingren, G., & Gustafsson, P. A. (2012). Child physical abuse and concurrence of other types of child abuse in Sweden—Associations with health and risk behaviors. Child Abuse & Neglect, 36, 585595.
Baer, J. C., & Martinez, C. D. (2006). Child maltreatment and insecure attachment: A meta-analysis. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 24, 187197.
Barnett, D., Manly, J. T., & Cicchetti, D. (1993). Defining child maltreatment: The interface between policy and research. Child Abuse, Child Development, and Social Policy, 8, 773.
Bauer, A. M., Quas, J. A., & Boyce, W. T. (2002). Associations between physiological reactivity and children's behavior: Advantages of a multisystem approach. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 23, 102113.
Bell-Dolan, D. J., Reaven, N. M., & Peterson, L. (1993). Depression and social functioning: A multidimensional study of the linkages. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22, 306315.
Bernard, K., Frost, A., Bennett, C. B., & Lindhiem, O. (2017). Maltreatment and diurnal cortisol regulation: A meta-analysis. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 78, 5767.
Bunea, I. M., Szentágotai-Tătar, A., & Miu, A. C. (2017). Early-life adversity and cortisol response to social stress: A meta-analysis. Translational Psychiatry, 7, 1274.
Buske-Kirschbaum, A., Jobst, S., Psych, D., Wustmans, A., & Kirschbaum, C. (1997). Attenuated free cortisol response to psychosocial stress in children with atopic dermatitis. Psychosomatic Medicine, 59, 419426.
Charuvastra, A., & Cloitre, M. (2009). Safe enough to sleep: sleep disruptions associated with trauma, posttraumatic stress, and anxiety in children and adolescents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 18, 877891.
Chrousos, G. P., & Gold, P. W. (1992). The concepts of stress and stress system disorders. Overview of physical and behavioral homeostasis. JAMA, 267, 12441252.
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (1995). A developmental psychopathology perspective on child abuse and neglect. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 541565.
Danese, A., Pariante, C. M., Caspi, A., Taylor, A., & Poulton, R. (2007). Childhood maltreatment predicts adult inflammation in a life-course study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 13191324.
Danese, A., & Tan, M. (2014). Childhood maltreatment and obesity: systematic review and meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry, 19, 544554.
Drake, B. (1996). Unraveling unsubstantiated. Child Maltreatment, 1, 261271.
English, D. J., & the LONGSCAN Investigators. (1997). Modified Maltreatment Classification System (MMCS). Retrieved from http://www.iprc.unc.edu/longscan/
Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R. K., & Turner, H. A. (2007). Poly-victimization: A neglected component in child victimization. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 726.
Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R., Turner, H., & Hamby, S. L. (2005). The victimization of children and youth: A comprehensive, national survey. Child Maltreatment, 10, 525.
Fowler, P. J., Henry, D. B., Schoeny, M., Landsverk, J., Chavira, D., & Taylor, J. J. (2013). Inadequate housing among families under investigation for child abuse and neglect: Prevalence from a national probability sample. American Journal of Community Psychology, 52, 106114.
Franzini, L., Caughy, M., Spears, W., & Esquer, M. E. F. (2005). Neighborhood economic conditions, social processes, and self-rated health in low-income neighborhoods in Texas: A multilevel latent variables model. Social Science & Medicine, 61, 11351150.
Gordis, E. B., Feres, N., Olezeski, C. L., Rabkin, A. N., & Trickett, P. K. (2009). Skin conductance reactivity and respiratory sinus arrhythmia among maltreated and comparison youth: Relations with aggressive behavior. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35, 547558.
Gordis, E. B., Granger, D. A., Susman, E. J., & Trickett, P. K. (2006). Asymmetry between salivary cortisol and α-amylase reactivity to stress: Relation to aggressive behavior in adolescents. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31, 976987.
Gordis, E. B., Granger, D. A., Susman, E. J., & Trickett, P. K. (2008). Salivary alpha amylase-cortisol asymmetry in maltreated youth. Hormones and Behavior, 53, 96103.
Gregory, A. M., & Sadeh, A. (2012). Sleep, emotional and behavioral difficulties in children and adolescents. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 16, 129136.
Hales, C. M., Carroll, M. D., Fryar, C. D., & Ogden, C. L. (2017). Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States 2015–2016. NCHS data brief no 288. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2017.
Hussey, J. M., Marshall, J. M., English, D. J., Knight, E. D., Lau, A. S., Dubowitz, H., & Kotch, J. B. (2005). Defining maltreatment according to substantiation: Distinction without a difference? Child Abuse & Neglect, 29, 479492.
Incollingo Rodriguez, A. C., Epel, E. S., White, M. L., Standen, E. C., Seckl, J. R., & Tomiyama, A. J. (2015). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation and cortisol activity in obesity: A systematic review. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 62, 301318.
Kim, K., Mennen, F. E., & Trickett, P. K. (2017). Patterns and correlates of co-occurrence among multiple types of child maltreatment. Child and Family Social Work, 22, 492502.
Koss, K. J., & Gunnar, M. R. (2018). Annual research review: Early adversity, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and child psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 59, 327346.
Lanier, P., Jonson-Reid, M., Stahlschmidt, M. J., Drake, B., & Constatino, J. (2009). Child maltreatment and pediatric health outcomes: A longitudinal study of low-income children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35, 511522.
Leslie, L. K., James, S., Monn, A., Kauten, M., Zhang, J., & Aarons, G. (2010). Health-risk behaviors in young adolescents in the child welfare system. Journal of Adolescent Health, 47, 2634.
MacMillan, H. L. (2010). Commentary: Child maltreatmetn and physcial health: A call to action. Journal of Pediatric Pscyhology, 35, 533535.
McEwen, B. S., & Seeman, T. (1999). Protective and damaging effects of mediators of stress: Elaborating and testing the concepts of allostasis and allostatic load. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 896, 3047.
McLaughlin, K. A., & Sheridan, M. A. (2016). Beyond Cumulative Risk: A dimensional approach to childhood adversity. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 25, 239245.
Mennen, F. E., Brensilver, M., & Trickett, P. K. (2010). Do maltreated children who remain at home function better than those who are placed? Children and Youth Services, 32, 16751682.
Mennen, F. E., Kim, K., Sang, J., & Trickett, P. K. (2010). Child neglect: Definition and identification of youth's experiences in official reports of maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 34, 647658.
Mennen, F. E., Negriff, S., Schneiderman, J. U., & Trickett, P. K. (2018). Longitudinal associations of maternal depression and adolescents' depression and behaviors: Moderation by maltreatment and sex. Journal of Family Psychology, 32, 240250.
Mennen, F. E., & Trickett, P. K. (2007). Mental health needs of urban children. Children and Youth Services Review, 29, 12201234.
Mennen, F. E., & Trickett, P. K. (2011). Parenting attitudes, family environments, depression, and anxiety in caregivers of maltreated chidlren. Family Relations, 60, 259271.
National Research Council. (2009). Depression in parents, parenting, and children: Opportunities to improve identification, treatment, and prevention: Washington DC: National Academies Press.
Negriff, S. (2018). Developmental pathways from maltreatment to risk behavior: Sexual behavior as a catalyst. Development & Psychopathology, 30, 683693.
Negriff, S. (2019a). Depressive symptoms predict characteristics of online social networks. Journal of Adoelscent Health, 65, 101106.
Negriff, S. (2019b). The influence of online-only friends on the substance use of young adults. Substance Use and Misuse, 51, 120129.
Negriff, S., Blankson, A. N., & Trickett, P. K. (2015). Pubertal timing and tempo: Associations with childhood maltreatment. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 25, 201213.
Negriff, S., Cederbaum, J., & Lee, D. (2019). Does social support mediate the association between maltreatment experiences and depressive symptoms in adolescence. Child Maltreatment, 24, 203212.
Negriff, S., Fung, M. T., & Trickett, P. K. (2008). Self-rated pubertal development, depressive symptoms and delinquency: Measurement issues and moderation by gender and maltreatment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 736746.
Negriff, S., James, A., & Trickett, P. K. (2015). Characteristics of the social support networks of maltreated youth: Exploring the effects of maltreatment experience and foster placement. Social Development, 24, 483500.
Negriff, S., Ji, J., & Trickett, P. K. (2011). Exposure to peer delinquency as a mediator between self-report pubertal timing and delinquency: A longitudinal study of mediation. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 293304.
Negriff, S., Saxbe, D. E., & Trickett, P. K. (2015). Childhood maltreatment, pubertal development, HPA axis functioning, and psychosocial outcomes: An integrative biopsychosocial model. Developmental Psychobiology, 57, 984993.
Negriff, S., Schneiderman, J. U., Smith, C., Schreyer, J. K., & Trickett, P. K. (2014). Characterizing the sexual abuse experiences of young adolescents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38, 261270.
Negriff, S., Schneiderman, J. U., & Trickett, P. K. (2015). Child maltreatment and sexual risk behavior: Maltratment types and gender differences. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 36, 708716.
Negriff, S., Schneiderman, J. U., & Trickett, P. K. (2017). Concordance between self-reported childhood maltreatment versus case record reviews for child welfare-affiliated adolescents. Child Maltreatment, 22, 3444.
Negriff, S., Susman, E. J., & Trickett, P. K. (2011). The developmental pathway from pubertal timing to delinquency and sexual activity from early to late adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 13431356.
Negriff, S., & Trickett, P. K. (2010). The relationship between pubertal timing and delinquent behavior in maltreated male and female adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 30, 518542.
Negriff, S., & Trickett, P. K. (2012). Peer substance use as a mediator between early pubertal timing and adolescent substance use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 126, 95101.
Negriff, S., & Valente, T. W. (2018). Structural characteristics of the online social networks of maltreated youth and offline sexual risk behavior. Child Abuse & Neglect, 85, 209219.
Noll, J. G., Shenk, C. E., & Putnam, K. T. (2009). Childhood sexual abuse and adolescent pregnancy: A meta-analytic update. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34, 366378.
Noll, J. G., Trickett, P. K., Long, J. D., Negriff, S., Susman, E. J., Shalev, I., … Putnam, F. W. (2017). Childhood sexual abuse and early timing of puberty. Journal of Adolescent Health, 60, 6571.
Noll, J. G., Trickett, P. K., Susman, E. J., & Putnam, F. W. (2006). Sleep disturbances and childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31, 469480.
Outlaw, M., Ruback, B., & Britt, C. (2002). Repeat and multiple victimizations: The role of individual and contextual factors. Violence and Victims, 17, 187.
Peckins, M. K., Negriff, S., Schneiderman, J. U., Gordis, E. B., & Susman, E. J. (in press). The moderating role of cortisol reactivity on the link between maltreatment and BMI trajectory across adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health.
Peckins, M. K., Susman, E. J., Negriff, S., Noll, J. G., & Trickett, P. K. (2015). Cortisol profiles: A test for the adaptive calibration of the stress response system in maltreated and nonmaltreated youth. Development & Pscyhopathlogy, 27, 14611470.
Rugulies, R. (2002). Depression as a predictor for coronary heart disease: A review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23, 5161.
Runyan, D. K., Cox, C. E., Dubowitz, H., Newton, R. R., Upadhyaya, M., Kotch, J. B., … Knight, E. D. (2005). Describing maltreatment: Do child protective service reports and research definitions agree? Child Abuse & Neglect, 29, 461477.
Saxbe, D. E., Negriff, S., Susman, E. J., & Trickett, P. K. (2015). Attenuated HPA axis functioning predicts accelerated pubertal development in girls one year later. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 819828.
Schaie, K. W. (1965). A general model for the study of developmental problems. Psychological Bulletin, 64, 92107.
Schneiderman, J. U., Ji, J., Mennen, F. E., & Negriff, S. (2018). Longitudinal relationship between mental health symptoms and sleep disturbances and duration in maltreated and comparison adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 63, 7480.
Schneiderman, J. U., Kennedy, A., Negriff, S., Jones, J., & Trickett, P. K. (2016). Maltreated and comparison adolescents’ recollections of lifetime residences: Relationship to delinquency and marijuana use. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 34813487.
Schneiderman, J. U., Kennedy, A. K., & Negriff, S. (2019). Predictors and correlates of unstable housing experiences across a child welfare-involved sample. Journal of Public Child Welfare. doi:10.1080/15548732.2019.1590288.
Schneiderman, J. U., Kools, S., Negriff, S., Smith, S., & Trickett, P. K. (2015). Differences in caregiver-reported health problems and health care use in maltreated adolescent and a comparison group from the same urban environment. Research in Nursing and Health, 38, 6070.
Schneiderman, J. U., Mennen, F. E., Negriff, S., & Trickett, P. K. (2012). Overweight and obesity in maltreated young adolescents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 36, 370378.
Schneiderman, J. U., Negriff, S., Peckins, M., Mennen, F. E., & Trickett, P. K. (2015). Body Mass Index trajectory throughout adolescence: A comparison of maltreated adolescents by maltreatment type to a community sample. Pediatric Obesity, 10, 296304.
Schneiderman, J. U., Negriff, S., & Trickett, P. K. (2016). Self-report of health problems and health care use among maltreated and comparison adolescents. Children & Youth Services Review, 61, 15.
Shochat, T., Cohen-Zion, M., & Tzischinsky, O. (2014). Functional consequences of inadequate sleep in adolescents: A systematic review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 18, 7587.
Starr, L. R., & Davila, J. (2008). Excessive reassurance seeking, depression, and interpersonal rejection: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 762775.
Stein, R. E. K., Hurlburt, M. S., Heneghan, A. M., Zhang, J., Rolls-Reutz, J., Silver, E. J., … Horwitz, S. M. (2013). Chronic conditions among children investigated by child welfare: a national sample. Pediatrics, 131, 455462.
Stevens, K. I., Schneiderman, J. U., Negriff, S., Brinkman, A., & Trickett, P. K. (2015). The whole picture: Child maltreatment experiences of young adolescents who were physically abused. Child Abuse & Neglect, 43, 3041.
Susman, E. J. (2006). Psychobiology of persistent antisocial behavior: Stress, early vulnerabilities and the attenuation hypothesis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 376389.
Tarullo, A. R., & Gunnar, M. R. (2006). Child maltreatment and the developing HPA axis. Hormones and Behavior, 50, 632639.
Trickett, P. K., Gordis, E., Peckins, M. K., & Susman, E. J. (2014). Stress reactivity in maltreated and comparison male and female young adolescents. Child Maltreatment, 19, 2737.
Trickett, P. K., Kim, K., & Prindle, J. (2011). Variations in emotional abuse experiences among multiply maltreated young adolescents and relations with developmental outcomes. Child Abuse & Neglect, 35, 876886.
Trickett, P. K., Mennen, F. E., Kim, K., & Sang, J. (2009). Emotional abuse in a sample of multiply maltreated, urban young adolescents: Issues of definition and identification. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 2735.
Trickett, P. K., & Negriff, S. (2011). Child maltreatment and interpersonal relationships. In Underwood, M. K. & Rosen, L. H. (Eds.), Social development: Relationships in infancy, childhood, and adolescence (pp. 403426). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Trickett, P. K., Negriff, S., Ji, J., & Peckins, M. (2011). Child maltreatment and adolescent development. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 320.
Trickett, P. K., Noll, J. G., & Putnam, F. W. (2011). The impact of sexual abuse on females development: Lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 453476.
Trickett, P. K., & Putnam, F. W. (1993). Impact of child sexual abuse on females: Toward a developmental, psychobiological integration. Psychological Science, 4, 8187.

Keywords

The Young Adolescent Project: A longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development

  • Sonya Negriff (a1), Elana B. Gordis (a2), Elizabeth J. Susman (a3), Kihyun Kim (a4), Melissa K. Peckins (a5), Janet U. Schneiderman (a6) and Ferol E. Mennen (a7)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.