Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Translational research on early language development: Current challenges and future directions

  • MARJORIE BEEGHLY (a1)

Abstract

There is a pressing need for the early and accurate identification of young children at risk for language and other developmental disabilities and the provision of timely, age-appropriate intervention, as mandated by Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Research has shown that early intervention is effective for many language impaired children in different etiological groups, and can reduce the functional impact of persistent disorders on children and their families. Yet, the accurate identification of infants and toddlers at risk for language impairment remains elusive, especially for late-talking children without obvious genetic or neurological conditions. In this paper, the need for translational research on basic processes in early language development in typical and atypical populations and the contextual factors that affect them are discussed, along with current challenges and future directions for its successful implementation. Implications of this research for clinical evidence-based practice are also considered.Partial support during the writing of this paper was provided by NIH Grant RO1HD044068. I am grateful to Dante Cicchetti for his thoughtful feedback on a prior version of this paper.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Marjorie Beeghly, Child Development Unit, Children's Hospital, 1295 Boylston Street, Suite 320, Boston, MA 02215; E-mail: marjorie.beeghly@childrens.harvard.edu

References

Hide All

REFERENCES

Abbeduto, L., & Hagerman, R. J. (1997). Language and communication in fragile X syndrome. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 3, 313322.
Abbeduto, L., & Murphy, M. M. (2004). Language, social cognition, maladaptive behavior, and communication in Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome. In M. L. Rice & S. F. Warren (Eds.), Developmental language disorders: From phenotypes to etiologies (pp. 7797). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Children with Disabilities. (2001). Developmental surveillance and screening of infants and young children. Pediatrics, 108, 192196.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Baron-Cohen, S. (1987). Autism and symbolic play. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 5, 139148.
Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Baron-Cohen, S., Allen, J., & Gillberg, C. (1992). Can autism be detected at 18 months? The needle, the haystack, and the CHAT. British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 839843.
Bates, E. (2003). Explaining and interpreting deficits in language development across clinical groups: Where do we go from here? Brain and Language, 88, 248253.
Bates, E., Bretherton, I., Beeghly, M., & McNew, S. (1982). Social bases of language development: A reassessment. In H. Reese & L. Lipsitt (Eds.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 16, pp. 775). New York: Academic Press.
Bates, E., Bretherton, I., & Snyder, L. (1988). From first words to grammar: Individual differences and dissociable mechanisms. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bates, E., Marchman, V., Thal, D. J., Fenson, L., Dale, P. S., Reznick, J. S., et al. (1994). Developmental and stylistic variation in the composition of early vocabulary. Journal of Child Language, 21, 85124.
Baumwell, L., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., & Bornstein, M. H. (1997). Maternal verbal sensitivity and child language comprehension. Infant Behavior and Development, 20, 247258.
Beeghly, M. (1997). Emergence of symbolic play: Perspectives from typical and atypical development. In J. Burack, R. Hodapp, & E. Zigler (Eds.), Handbook of mental retardation and development (pp. 240289). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Beeghly, M., & Cicchetti, D. (1994). Child maltreatment, attachment, and the self system: Emergence of an internal state lexicon in toddlers at high social risk. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 530.
Beeghly, M., & Cicchetti, D. (1997). Talking about self and other: Emergence of an internal state lexicon in young children with Down syndrome. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 729748.
Beeghly, M., Martin, B., Rose-Jacobs, R., Cabral, H., Heeren, T., Augustyn, M., et al. (2006). Prenatal cocaine exposure and children's language functioning at 6 and 9.5 years: Moderating effects of child age, birthweight, and gender. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31, 98115.
Beeghly, M., Perry, B. W., & Cicchetti, D. (1989). Structural and affective dimensions of play development in young children with Down syndrome. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 12, 257277.
Beeghly, M., Weiss-Perry, B., & Cicchetti, D. (1990). Beyond sensorimotor functioning: Early communicative and play development of children with Down syndrome. In D. Cicchetti & M. Beeghly (Eds.), Children with Down syndrome: A developmental perspective (pp. 329368). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bellugi, U., Wang, P. P., & Jernigan, T. L. (1994). Williams syndrome: An unusual neuropsychological profile. In S. H. Broman & J. Grafman (Eds.), Atypical cognitive deficits in developmental disorders (pp. 2356). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Berko Gleason, J. (2005). The development of language (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Billingsley-Marshall, R. L., Simos, P. G., & Papanicolaou, A. C. (2004). Reliability and validity of functional neuroimaging techniques for identifying language—Critical areas in children and adults. Developmental Neuropsychology, 26, 541563.
Bishop, D. V. M. (1994). Grammatical errors in specific language impairment: Competence or performance limitations. Applied Psycholinguistics, 15, 507550.
Bishop, D. V. M., Chan, J., Adams, C., Hartley, J., & Weir, F. (2000). Conversational responsiveness in specific language impairment: Evidence of disproportionate pragmatic difficulties in a subset of children. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 177199.
Blacher, J., Kraemer, B., & Schalow, M. (2003). Asperger syndrome and high functioning autism: Research concerns and emerging foci. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 16, 535542.
Bornstein, M. (1998). Sources of child vocabulary competence: A multivariate model. Journal of Child Language, 25, 367393.
Briscoe, J., Gathercole, S. E., & Marlow, N. (1998). Short-term memory and language outcomes after extreme prematurity at birth. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 41, 654666.
Carpenter, P. A., Just, M. A., Keller, T., Cherkassky, V., Roth, J. K., & Minshew, N. (2001). Dynamic cortical systems subserving cognition: fMRI studies with typical and atypical individuals. In J. L. McClelland & R. Siegler (Eds.), Mechanisms of cognitive development: Behavioral and neural perspectives (pp. 353383). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Catts, H. W. (1993). The relationship between speech–language impairments and reading disabilities. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 36, 948958.
Chapman, R. S. (2003). Language and communication in individuals with Down syndrome. In L. Abbeduto (Ed.), International review of research in mental retardation (Vol. 27, pp. 134). New York: Academic Press.
Chapman, R. S., & Hesketh, L. (2001). Language, cognition, and short-term memory in individuals with Down syndrome. Down Syndrome: Research and Practice, 7, 17.
Charman, T. (1997). The relationship between joint attention and pretend play in autism. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 116.
Charman, T., Baron-Cohen, S., Swettenham, J., Baird, G., Cox, A., & Drew, A. (2000). Testing joint attention, imitation, and play as precursors to language and theory of mind. Cognitive Development, 15, 481498.
Charman, T., Drew, A., Baird, C., & Baird, G. (2003). Measuring early language development in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (Infant Form). Journal of Child Language, 30, 213236.
Cicchetti, D. (1984). The emergence of developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 17.
Cicchetti, D., & Beeghly, M. (1990). An organizational approach to the study of Down syndrome: Contributions to an integrative theory of development. In D. Cicchetti & M. Beeghly (Eds.), Down syndrome: A developmental perspective (pp. 2962). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cicchetti, D., Beeghly, M., Carlson, V., Coster, W., Gersten, M., Rieder, C., et al. (1991). Development and psychopathology: Lessons from the study of maltreated children. In D. P. Keating & H. Rosen (Eds.), Constructivist perspectives on developmental psychopathology and atypical development. The Jean Piaget symposium series (pp. 69102). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Cicchetti, D., Beeghly, M., & Weiss-Perry, B. (1994). Symbolic development in children with Down syndrome and in children with autism: An organizational, developmental psychopathology perspective. In A. Slade & D. P. Wolf (Eds.), Children at play: Clinical and Developmental approaches to meaning and representation (pp. 206237). New York: Oxford University Press.
Cielinski, K. L., Vaughn, B. E., Seifer, R., & Contreras, J. (1995). Relations among sustained engagement during play, quality of play, and mother–child interaction in samples of children with Down syndrome and normally developing toddlers. Infant Behavior and Development, 18, 163176.
Clahsen, H., & Almazan, M. (1998). Syntax and morphology in Williams syndrome. Cognition, 68, 167198.
Cohen, N. J., Davine, M., Horodezky, N., Lipsett, L., & Isaacson, L. (1993). Unsuspected language impairment in psychiatrically disturbed children: Prevalence and language and behavioral characteristics. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 1103.
Conti-Ramsden, G., Botting, N., & Faragher, B. (2001). Psycholinguistic markers for specific language impairment (SLI). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 741748.
Coster, W., Gersten, M., Beeghly, M., & Cicchetti, D. (1989). Communicative functioning in maltreated toddlers. Developmental Psychology, 25, 10201029.
Dale, P., Greenberg, M., & Crnic, K. A. (1987). The multiple determinants of symbolic development: Evidence from preterm children. New Directions for Child Development, 36, 6986.
Dale, P. S., Price, T. S., Bishop, D. V. M., & Plomin, R. (2003). Outcomes of early language delay: I. Predicting persistent and transient language difficulties at 3 and 4 years. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 46, 544560.
Dawson, G., & Castelloe, P. (1992). Autism. In D. E. Walker & M. C. Roberts (Eds.), Handbook of child clinical psychology (2nd ed., pp. 375397). New York: Wiley.
Dionne, G., Dale, P. S., Boivin, M., & Plomin, R. (2003). Genetic evidence for bidirectional effects of early lexical and grammatical development. Child Development, 74, 394412.
Dunham, P., & Dunham, F. (1992). Lexical development during middle infancy: A mutually driven infant–caregiver process. Developmental Psychology, 28, 414420.
Dunst, C. J. (2000). Revisiting “rethinking early intervention.” Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 20, 95104.
Dykens, E., Hodapp, R., & Finucane, B. M. (Eds.). (2000). Genetics and mental retardation syndromes: A new look at behavior and interventions. Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes.
Dykens, E. M. (2003). The Williams syndrome behavioral phenotype: The “whole person” is missing. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 16, 523528.
Eigsti, I. M., & Cicchetti, D. (2004). The impact of child maltreatment on expressive syntax at 60 months. Developmental Science, 7, 88102.
Elman, J. L., Bates, E. A., Johnson, M. H., Karmiloff-Smith, A., Parisi, D., & Plunkett, K. (1996). Rethinking innateness: A connectionist perspective on development. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Feldman, H. M. (2005). Evaluation and management of language and speech disorders in preschool children. Pediatrics in Review, 26, 131141.
Fenson, L., Dale, P. S., Reznick, J. S., Bates, E., Thal, D. J., & Pethick, S. J. (1994). Variability in early communicative development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(5, Series no. 242).
Fowler, A. E. (1990). Language abilities in children with Down syndrome: Evidence for a specific syntactic delay. In D. Cicchetti & M. Beeghly (Eds.), Children with Down syndrome: A developmental perspective (pp. 302328). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Goldfield, B. A., & Snow, C. E. (2005). Individual differences: Implications for the study of language acquisition. In J. Berko Gleason (Ed.), The development of language (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Grizzle, K. L., & Simms, M. D. (2005). Early language development and language learning disabilities. Pediatrics in Review, 26, 274283.
Guralnick, M. J. (1997). The effectiveness of early intervention. Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes.
Happe, F. (1995). Autism: An introduction to psychological theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Happe, F., & Frith, U. (1996). The neuropsychology of autism. Brain, 119, 13771400.
Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
Hauser-Cram, P., Warfield, M. E., Shonkoff, J. P., & Krauss, M. W. (2001). Children with disabilities: A longitudinal study of child development and parent well-being. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 66, 1131.
Hodapp, R. M. (1997). Direct and indirect behavioral effects of different genetic disorders on mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 102, 6780.
Hodapp, R. M. (2004). Studying interactions, reactions, and perceptions: Can genetic disorders serve as behavioral proxies? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 2934.
Joseph, R. M. (1999). Neuropsychological frameworks for understanding autism. International Review of Psychiatry, 11, 309325.
Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2001). Development itself is the key to understanding developmental disorders. In M. Tomasello & E. Bates (Eds.), Language development: The essential readings (pp. 331350). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Karmiloff-Smith, A., & Thomas, M. (2003). What can developmental disorders tell us about the neurocomputational constraints that shape development? The case of Williams syndrome. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 969990.
Kennedy, M. D., Sheridan, M. K., Radlinsky, S. H., & Beeghly, M. (1991). Play–language relationships in young children with development delays: Implications on assessment. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 34, 112122.
Laing, E., Butterworth, G., Ansari, D., Gsodl, M., Longhi, E., Panagiotaki, G., et al. (2002). Atypical development of language and social communication in toddlers with Williams syndrome. Developmental Science, 5, 233246.
Landry, S. H., Miller-Loncar, C. L., & Smith, K. E. (2002). Individual differences in the development of social communication competency in very low birthweight children. In D. L. Molfese & V. J. Molfese (Eds.), Developmental variations in learning: Applications to social, executive function, language, and reading skills (pp. 81112). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Landry, S. H., Smith, K. E., Miller-Loncar, C. L., & Swank, P. R. (1997). Predicting cognitive–language and social growth curves from early maternal behaviors in children at varying degrees of biological risk. Developmental Psychology, 33, 10401053.
Law, J., Boyle, J., Harris, F., Harkness, A., & Nye, C. (2000). Prevalence and natural history of primary speech and language delay: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Langauge and Communication Disorders, 35, 165188.
Leonard, L. (1998). Children with specific language impairment. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Lord, C., & Paul, R. (1997). Language and communication in autism. In D. J. Cohen & F. R. Volkmar (Eds.), Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Lord, C., Risi, S., & Pickles, A. (2004). Trajectory of language development in autistic spectrum disorders. In M. L. Rice & S. F. Warren (Eds.), Developmental language disorders: From phenotypes to etiologies (pp. 729). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Lord, C., & Rutter, M. (1994). Autism and pervasive development disorders. In E. Taylor (Ed.), Child and adolescent psychiatry: Modern approaches (Vol. 3, pp. 569593). Oxford: Blackwell.
Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71, 543562.
Marchman, V. A., Saccuman, C., & Wulfeck, B. (2003). Productive use of the English past tense in children with focal brain injury and specific language impairment. Brain and Language, 88, 202214.
Massey, A. E. (1996). Cultural effects on language: Implications for assessing African American children. In A. Kamhi & K. Pollock (Eds.), Communication development and disorders in African American children: Research, assessment, and intervention (pp. 285306). Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes.
McCardle, P., Cooper, J., & Freund, L. (2005). Language and genetics: Needs and opportunities. Applied Psycholinguistics, 26, 129135.
Mervis, C. B. (2003). Williams syndrome: 15 years of psychological research. Developmental Neuropsychology, 23, 112.
Mervis, C. B., & Klein-Tasman, B. (2004). Methodological issues in group matching designs: Alpha levels for control variable comparisons and measurement characteristics of control and target variables. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 717.
Mervis, C. B., Morris, C. A., Klein-Tasman, B., Bertrand, J., Kwitny, S., Abbelbaum, L. G., et al. (2003). Attentional characteristics of infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome during triadic interactions. Developmental Neuropsychology, 23, 243268.
Mervis, C. B., & Robinson, B. F. (2000). Expressive vocabulary ability of toddlers with Williams syndrome or Down syndrome: A comparison. Developmental Neuropsychology, 17, 111126.
Mervis, C. B., & Robinson, B. F. (2005). Designing measures for profiling and genotype/phenotype studies of individuals with genetic syndromes or developmental language disorders. Applied Psycholinguistics, 26, 4164.
Messer, D. J. (1994). The development of communication: From social interaction to language. Chicester: Wiley.
Miller, J. (1990). The developmental asynchrony of language development in children with Down syndrome. In L. Nadel (Ed.), The psychobiology of Down syndrome. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Morisset, C. E., Barnard, K. E., & Booth, C. L. (1995). Toddlers' language development: Sex differences within social risk. Developmental Psychology, 31, 851865.
Morris, C. A. (2004). Genotype-phenotype correlations: Lessons from Williams syndrome research. In M. L. Rice & S. F. Warren (Eds.), Developmental language disorders: From phenotypes to etiologies (pp. 355369). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Muller, R. A. (2005). Neurocognitive studies of language impairments: The bottom-up approach. Applied Psycholinguistics, 26, 6578.
Mundy, P., Sigman, M., & Kasari, C. (1990). A longitudinal study of joint attention and language development in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 20, 115128.
Mundy, P., Sigman, M. D., & Kasari, C. (1993). The theory of mind and joint-attention deficits in autism. In S. Baron-Cohen, H. Tager-Flusberg, & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Understanding other minds: Perspectives from autism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mundy, P., Sigman, M. D., & Kasari, C. (1994). Joint attention, developmental level, and symptom presentation in autism. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 389401.
Murray, A. D., & Yingling, J. L. (2000). Competence in language at 24 months: Relations with attachment security and home stimulation. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 161, 133140.
Nelson, C. A., Bloom, F. E., Cameron, J. L., Amaral, D., Dahl, R. E., & Pine, D. (2002). An integrative, multidisciplinary approach to the study of brain–behavior relations in the context of typical and atypical development. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 499520.
Newschaffer, C. J., Falb, M. D., & Gurney, J. G. (2005). National autism prevalence trends from United States special education data. Pediatrics, 115, 277282.
NICHD Early Child Care Reseach Network. (1999). Chronicity of maternal depressive symptoms, maternal sensitivity, and child functioning at 36 months. Developmental Psychology, 35, 12971310.
Olds, D. L. (2006). The nurse-based partnership: An evidence-based preventive intervention. Infant Mental Health Journal, 27, 525.
Pan, B. A., Rowe, M. L., Singer, J. D., & Snow, C. E. (2005). Maternal correlates of growth in toddler vocabulary production in low-income families. Child Development, 76, 763782.
Paul, R. (1996). Clinical implications of the natural history of slow expressive language development. American Journal of Speech–Language Pathology, 5, 521.
Phillips, C. (2005). Electrophysiology in the study of developmental language impairments: Prospects and challenges for a top-down approach. Applied Psycholinguistics, 26, 7996.
Phillips, W., Baron-Cohen, S., & Rutter, M. (1992). The role of eye contact in goal detection: Evidence from normal infants and children with autism or mental handicap. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 375383.
Pressman, L. J., Pipp-Siegel, S., Yoshinaga-Ito, C., & Deas, A. (1999). Maternal sensitivity predicts language gain in preschool children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 4, 294304.
Ramey, C. T., Campbell, F. A., & Ramey, S. L. (1999). Early intervention: Successful pathways to improving intellectual development. Developmental Neuropsychology, 16, 385392.
Reilly, J., Klima, E. S., & Bellugi, U. (1991). Once more with feeling: Affect and language in atypical populations. Development and Psychopathology, 2, 367391.
Reilly, J., Losh, M., Bellugi, U., & Wulfeck, B. (2004). “Frog, where are you?” Narratives in children with specific language impairment, early focal brain injury, and Williams syndrome. Brain and Language, 88, 229247.
Rescorla, L. (2002). Language and reading outcomes at age 9 in late-talking toddlers. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 45, 360371.
Rice, M. L. (2003). A unified model of specific and general language delay: Grammatical tense as a clinical marker of unexpected variation. In Y. Levy & J. Schaeffer (Eds.), Language competence across populations: Toward a definition of specific language impairment (pp. 6395). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Rice, M. L. (2004). Growth models of developmental language disorders. In M. L. Rice & S. F. Warren (Eds.), Developmental language disorders: From phenotypes to etiologies (pp. 207240). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Rice, M. L., Hadley, P. A., & Alexander, A. (1993). Social biases toward children with speech and language impairments: A correlative causal model of language limitations. Applied Psycholinguistics, 14, 443471.
Rice, M. L., & Warren, S. F. (2004). Developmental language disorders: From phenotypes to etiologies. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Rice, M. L., & Warren, S. F. (2005a). Developmental language disorders: From phenotypes to etiologies. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Rice, M. L., & Warren, S. F. (2005b). Moving toward a unified effort to understand the nature and causes of language disorders. Applied Psycholinguistics, 26, 36.
Rice, M. L., Warren, S. F., & Betz, S. K. (2005). Language symptoms of developmental language disorders: An overview of autism, Down syndrome, fragile X, specific language impairment, and Williams syndrome. Applied Psycholinguistics, 26, 727.
Rice, M. L., Wexler, K., Marquis, J., & Hershberger, S. (2000). Acquisition of irregular past tense by children with SLI. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 43, 11261145.
Roberts, J., Jurgens, J., & Burchinal, M. R. (2005). The role of home literacy practices in preschool children's language and emergent literacy skills. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 48, 345359.
Robinson, B. F., Mervis, C. B., & Robinson, B. W. (2003). The roles of verbal short-term memory and working memory in the acquisition of grammar by children with Williams syndrome. Developmental Neuropsychology, 23, 1231.
Roeyers, H., VanOost, P., & Bothuyne, S. (1998). Immediate imitation and joint attention in young children with autism. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 441450.
Rozien, N. J. (1997). Down syndrome. In M. L. Batshaw (Ed.), Children with disabilities (pp. 361376). Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes.
Sameroff, A. J., & Fiese, B. H. (1990). Transactional regulation and early intervention. In S. J. Meisels & J. P. Shonkoff (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood intervention (pp. 119149). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Shore, C. M. (1995). Individual differences in language development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Sigman, M. (1994). What are the core deficits in autism? In S. H. Broman & J. Grafman (Eds.), Atypical cognitive deficits in developmental disorders (pp. 139158). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Sigman, M. (2005). Improvement in cognitive and language skills from preschool to adolescence in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 1523.
Singer, N. G., Bellugi, U., Bates, E., Jones, W., & Rossen, M. (1994). Contrasting profiles of language development in children with Williams and Down syndromes, Project in cognitive and neural development technical report. La Jolla, CA: University of California, San Diego.
Smith, S. D., & Morris, C. A. (2005). Planning studies of etiology. Applied Psycholinguistics, 26, 97110.
Spiker, D., Boyce, G. C., & Boyce, L. K. (2002). Parent–child interactions when young children have disabilities. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation, 25, 3570.
Spinath, F., Price, T., Dale, P. S., & Plomin, R. (2004). The genetic and environmental origins of language disability and ability. Child Development, 75, 445454.
Stone, W. L., Ousley, O. Y., Yoder, P. J., Hogan, K. L., & Hepburn, S. L. (1997). Nonverbal communication in two- and three-year-old children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 27, 677696.
Tager-Flusberg, H. (2004a). Do autism and specific language impairment represent overlapping language disorders? In M. L. Rice & S. F. Warren (Eds.), Developmental language disorders: From phenotypes to etiologies (pp. 3152). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Tager-Flusberg, H. (2004b). Strategies for conducting research on language in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 7580.
Tallal, P., & Benasich, A. A. (2002). Developmental language learning impairments. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 559579.
Tallal, P., Merzenich, M. M., Miller, S., & Jenkins, W. (1998). Language learning impairments: Integrating basic science, technology, and remediation. Experimental Brain Research, 123, 210219.
Thal, D., & Katich, J. (1996). Predicaments in early identification of specific language impairment: Does the early bird always catch the worm? In K. N. Cole, P. S. Dale,., & D. J. Thal (Eds.), Assessment of communication and language (Vol. 6, pp. 128). Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes.
Thal, D., Reilly, J., Seibert, L., Jeffries, R., & Fenson, J. (2004). Language development in children at risk for language impairment: Cross-population comparisons. Brain and Language, 88, 167179.
Thelen, E., & Bates, E. (2003). Connectionism and dynamic systems: Are they really different? Developmental Science, 6, 378391.
Thorpe, K., Rutter, M., & Greenwood, R. (2003). Twins as a natural experiment to study causes of mild language delay. II. Family interaction risk factors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 342355.
Tomasello, M., & Bates, E. (2001). Language development: The essential readings. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Tomblin, J. B., Hardy, J. C., & Hein, H. A. (1991). Predicting poor communication status in preschool children using risk factors present at birth. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 34, 10961105.
Tomblin, J. B., Smith, E., & Zhang, X. (1997). Epidemiology of specific language impairment: Prenatal and perinatal risk factors. Journal of Communication Disorders, 30, 325344.
Tomblin, J. B., Zhang, X., Weiss, A., Catts, H. W., & Weismer, S. E. (2004). Dimensions of individual differences in communication skills among primary grade children. In M. L. Rice & S. F. Warren (Eds.), Developmental language disorders: From phenotypes to etiologies (pp. 5376). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbuam.
Torr, J. (2003). Personality disorder in intellectual disability. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 15, 517521.
Tronick, E. Z., & Beeghly, M. (1999). Prenatal cocaine exposure, child development, and the compromising effects of cumulative risk. Clinics in Perinatology, 26, 151171.
Van Ijzendoorn, M. H., Dijkstra, J., & Bus, A. G. (1995). Attachment, intelligence, and language: A meta-analysis. Social Development, 4, 115128.
Warfield, M. E., Hauser-Cram, P., Krauss, M. W., & Upshur, C. C. (2000). The effect of early intervention services on maternal well-being. Early Education and Development, 11, 499517.
Weckerly, J., Wulfeck, B., & Reilly, J. (2003). The development of morphosyntactic ability in atypical populations: The acquisition of tag questions in children with early focal lesions and children with specific language impairment. Brain and Language, 88, 190121.
Wulfeck, B., Bates, E., Krupa-Kwiatkowski, M., & Saltzman, D. (2004). Grammaticality sensitivity in children with early focal brain injury and children with specific language impairment. Brain and Language, 88, 215228.
Yirmiya, N., Pilowsky, T., Solomonica-Levy, D., & Shulman, C. (1999). Gaze behavior and theory of mind abilities in individuals with autism, Down syndrome, and mental retardation of unknown etiology. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 333341.
Yoder, P. J., Hooshyar, N., Klee, T., & Shaffer, M. (1996). Comparisons of the types of child utterances mothers expand with children with language delays and with Down syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 40, 557567.
Yoder, P. J., & Warren, S. F. (1999). Maternal responsivity mediates the relationship between prelinguistic intentional communication and later language. Journal of Early Intervention, 22, 126136.
Yoder, P. J., & Warren, S. F. (2004). Early predictors of language in children with and without Down syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 109, 285300.
Zigler, E. (1971). The retarded child as a whole person. In H. E. Adams & W. K. Boardman (Eds.), Advances in experimental clinical psychology (pp. 47121). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Zukowski, A. (2004). Investigating knowledge of complex syntax: Insights from experimental studies of Williams syndrome. In M. L. Rice & S. F. Warren (Eds.), Developmental language disorders: From phenotypes to etiologies. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Translational research on early language development: Current challenges and future directions

  • MARJORIE BEEGHLY (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.