Abidin, R. (1983). The Parenting Stress Index manual. Charlottesville, VA: Pediatric Psychology Press.
Achenbach, T. (1991). Integrative guide for the 1991 CBCL/4–18, YSR, and TRF Profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
Anderson, P. (2002). Assessment and development of executive function (EF) during childhood. Child Neuropsychology, 8, 71–82.
Anderson, V. A., Anderson, P., Northam, E., Jacobs, R., & Catroppa, C. (2001). Development of executive functions through late childhood and adolescence in an Australian sample. Developmental Neuropsychology, 20, 385–406.
Bagner, D. M., Sheinkopf, S. J., Miller-Loncar, C., LaGasse, L. L., Lester, B. M., Liu, J., et al. (2009). The effect of parenting stress on child behavior problems in high-risk children with prenatal drug exposure. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 40, 73–84.
Bauer, C. R., Langer, J. C., Shankaran, S., Bada, H. S., Lester, B., Wright, L. L., et al. (2005). Acute neonatal effects of cocaine exposure during pregnancy. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 159, 824–834.
Bauer, C. R., Shankaran, S., Bada, H. S., Lester, B., Wright, L. L., Krause-Steinrauf, H., et al. (2002). The Maternal Lifestyle Study: Drug exposure during pregnancy and short-term maternal outcomes. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 186, 487–495.
Beck, A., Steer, R., & Brown, G. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Biederman, J., Monuteaux, M. S., Doyble, A. E., Seidman, L. J., Wilens, T. E., Ferrero, F., et al. (2004). Impact of executive function deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on academic outcomes in children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 757–766.
Blair, C., Granger, D. A., Willoughby, M., Mills-Koonce, R., Cox, M., Greenberg, M. T., et al. (2011). Salivary cortisol mediates effects of poverty and parenting on executive functions in early childhood. Child Development, 82, 1970–1978
Blair, C., Raver, C. C., Berry, D. J., & Family Life Project Investigators (2014). Two approaches to estimating the effect of parenting on the development of executive function in early childhood. Developmental Psychology, 50, 554–565.
Bridgett, D. J., Burt, N. M., Laake, L. M., & Oddi, K. B. (2013). Maternal self-regulation, relationship adjustment, and home chaos: Contributions to infant negative emotionality. Infant Behavior and Development, 36, 534–547.
Bridgett, D. J., Oddi, K. B., Laake, L. M., Murdock, K. W., & Bachmann, M. N. (2013). Integrating and differentiating aspects of self-regulation: Effortful control, executive functioning, and links to negative affectivity. Emotion, 13, 47–63.
Brooks-Gunn, J., & Duncan, G. J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. Future Child, 7, 55–71.
Brown, C. H., Wang, W., Kellam, S. G., Methen, B. O., Petras, H., Toyinbo, P., et al. (2008). Methods for testing theory and evaluating impact in randomized field trials: Intent-to-treat analyses for integrating the perspectives of person, place and time. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 95(Suppl. 1), S74–S104.
Calkins, S. D., Blandon, A. Y., Williford, A. P., & Keane, S. P. (2007). Biological, behavioral, and relational levels of resilience in the context of risk for early childhood behavior problems. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 675–700.
Carlson, S. M. (2005) Developmentally sensitive measures of executive function in preschool children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28, 595–616.
Carlson, S. M., & Moses, L. J. (2001). Individual differences in inhibitory control and children's theory of mind. Child Development, 72, 1032–1053.
Chambers, R., Lo, B. C. Y., & Allen, N. B. (2008). The impact of intensive mindfulness training on attentional control, cognitive style, and affect. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 303–322.
Choe, D. E., Olson, S. L., & Sameroff, A. J. (2013). Effects of early maternal distress and parenting on the development of children's self-regulation and externalizing behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 437–453.
Combs-Ronto, L. A., Olson, S. L., Lunkenheimer, E. S., & Sameroff, A. J. (2009). Interactions between maternal parenting and children's early disruptive behavior: Bidirectional associations across the transition from preschool to school entry. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 1151–1163.
Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1992). A developmental and clinical model for the prevention of conduct disorder: The FAST Track Program. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 509–527.
Conradt, E., Sheinkopf, S. J., Lester, B. M., Tronick, E., LaGasse, L. L., Shankaran, S., et al. (2013). Prenatal substance exposure: Neurobiologic organization at 1 month. Journal of Pediatrics, 163, 989–994.
Cragg, L., & Nation, K. (2009). Shifting development in mid-childhood: The influence of between-task interference. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1465–1479.
Crone, E. A., Wendelken, C., Donohue, S., van Leijenhorst, L., & Bunge, S. A. (2006). Neurocognitive development of the ability to manipulate information in working memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 9315–9320.
De Luca, C. R., Wood, S. J., Blair, V., Buchanan, J. A., Proffitt, T. M., Mahony, K., et al. (2003). Normative data from the CANTAB: I. Development of executive function over the lifespan. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25, 242–254.
Derogatis, L. (1993). Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI): Administration, scoring and procedures manual (3rd ed.). Minneapolis, MN: National Computer Systems.
Derryberry, D. (2002). Attention and voluntary self-control. Self and Identity, 1, 105–111.
Dishion, T. J., Patterson, G. R., & Kavanagh, K. (1992). An experimental test of the coercion model: Linking theory, measurement, and intervention. In McCord, J. & Tremblay, R. (Eds.), Preventing antisocial behavior: Interventions from birth through adolescence (pp. 253–282). New York: Guilford Press.
Eigsti, I. M., Zayas, V., Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., Ayduk, O., Dadlani, M. B., et al. (2006). Predicting cognitive control from preschool to late adolescence and young adulthood. Psychological Science, 17, 478–484.
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Shepard, S. A., Guthrie, I. K., Murphy, B. C., & Reiser, M. (1999). Parental reactions to children's negative emotions: Longitudinal relations to quality of children's social functioning. Child Development, 70, 513–534.
Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C., Spinrad, T. L., Liew, J., Zhou, Q., Losoya, S. H., et al. (2009). Longitudinal relations of children's effortful control, impulsivity, and negative emotionality to their externalizing, internalizing, and co-occurring behavior problems. Developmental Psychology, 45, 988–1008.
Eysenck, M. W., Derakshan, N., Santos, R., & Calvo, M. G. (2007). Anxiety and cognitive performance: Attentional control theory. Emotion, 7, 336–353.
Fanti, K. A., & Henrich, C. C. (2010). Trajectories of pure and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems from age 2 to age 12: Findings from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1159–1175.
Fisher, P. A., Lester, B. M., DeGarmo, D. S., Lagasse, L. L., Lin, H., Shankaran, S., et al. (2011). The combined effects of prenatal drug exposure and early adversity on neurobehavioral disinhibition in childhood and adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 777–788.
Fray, P., Robbins, T., & Sahakian, B. (1996). Neuorpsychiatric applications of CANTAB. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 11, 329–336.
Fried, P. A., James, D. S., & Watkinson, B. (2001) Growth and pubertal milestones during adolescence in offspring prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marijuana. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 23, 431–436.
Friedman, N. P., Miyake, A., Robinson, J. L., & Hewitt, J. K. (2011). Developmental trajectories in toddlers’ self-restraint predict individual differences in executive functions 14 years later: A behavioral genetic analysis. Developmental Psychology, 47, 1410–1430.
Garon, N., Bryson, S. E., & Smith, I. M. (2008). Executive function in preschoolers: A review using an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 31–60.
Goodman, S. H., & Gotlib, I. H. (1999). Risk for psychopathology in the children of depressed mothers: A developmental model for understanding mechanisms of transmission. Psychological Review, 106, 458–490.
Granic, I., & Patterson, G. R. (2006). Toward a comprehensive model of antisocial development: A dynamic systems approach. Psychological Review, 113, 101–131.
Green, M. F., Nuechterlein, K. H., Gold, J. M., Barch, D. M., Cohen, J., Essock, S., et al. (2004). Approaching a consensus cognitive battery for clinical trials in schizophrenia: The NIMH-Matrics conferences to select cognitive domains and test criteria. Biological Psychiatry, 56, 201–207.
Hofmann, W., Friese, M., Schmeichel, B. J., & Baddeley, A. D. (2011). Working memory and self-regulation. In Vohs, K. D. & Baumeister, R. F. (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (2nd ed., pp. 204–225). New York: Guilford Press.
Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four-Factor Index of Social Status. Unpublished manuscript, Yale University.
Hughes, C., & Ensor, R. (2011). Individual differences in growth in executive function across the transition to school predict externalizing and internalizing behaviors and self-perceived academic success at 6 years of age. Journal of Experimental & Child Psychology, 108, 663–676.
Joormann, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2008). Updating the contents of working memory in depression: Interference from irrelevant negative material. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 182–192.
Kalkut, E. L., Han, S. D., Lansing, A. E., Holdnack, J. A., & Delis, D. C. (2009). Development of set-shifting ability from late childhood through early adulthood. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 24, 565–574.
Kendler, K. S., & Neale, M. C. (2010). Endophenotype: A conceptual analysis. Molecular Psychiatry, 15, 789–797.
Kishiyama, M. M., Boyce, W. T., Jimenez, A. M., Perry, L. M., & Knight, R. T. (2009). Socioeconomic disparities affect prefrontal function in children. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 1106–1115.
Klimes-Dougan, B., Lee, C. Y., Ronsaville, D., & Martinez, P. (2008). Suicidal risk in young adult offspring of mothers with bipolar or major depressive disorder: A longitudinal family risk study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64, 531–540.
Kochanska, G. (1997). Mutually responsive orientation between mothers and their young children: Implications for early socialization. Child Development, 68, 94–112.
Kochanska, G., Murray, K. T., & Harlan, E. T. (2000). Effortful control in early childhood: Continuity and change, antecedents, and implications for social development. Developmental Psychology, 36, 220–32.
Kochanska, G., Murray, K. T., Jacques, T. Y., Koenig, A. L., & Vandegeest, K. A. (1996). Inhibitory control in young children and its role in emerging internalization. Child Development, 67, 490–507.
Kuntsi, J., Neale, B. M., Chen, W., Faraone, S. V., & Asherson, P. (2006). The IMAGE project: Methodological issues for the molecular genetic analysis of ADHD. Behavioral Brain Functions, 2, 27.
LaGasse, L., Seifer, R., Wright, L., Lester, B., Tronick, E., Bauer, C., et al. (1999). The Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS): The caretaking environment of infants exposed to cocaine/opiates. Pediatric Research, 45, 247A.
Leark, R., Dupuy, T., Greenberg, L., Corman, C., & Kindschi, C. (1996). T.O.V.A. professional manual (Version 7.0). Los Alamitos, CA: Universal Attention Disorders.
Lee, K., Bull, R., & Ho, R. M. (2013). Developmental changes in executive functioning. Child Development, 84, 1933–1953.
Lehto, J., Juujärvi, P., Kooistra, L., & Pulkkinen, L. (2003). Dimensions of executive functioning: Evidence from children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 21, 59–80.
Lester, B., Bada, H., Bauer, C., Shankaran, S., Whitaker, T., LaGasse, L., et al. (2014). Maternal Lifestyle Study in four sites in the United States, 1993–2011 (ICPSR34312-v2). Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR34312.v2
Lester, B., Bagner, D., Liu, J., LaGasse, L., Seifer, R., Bauer, C., et al. (2009). Infant neurobehavioral dysregulation: Behavior problems in children with prenatal substance exposure. Pediatrics, 124, 1354–1361.
Little, R. J. A. (1998). A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83, 1198–1202.
Loe, I. M., Feldman, H. M., & Huffman, L. C. (2014). Executive function mediates effects of gestational age on functional outcomes and behavior in preschoolers. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 35, 323–333.
Luciana, M., Conklin, H. M., Hooper, C. J., & Yarger, R. S. (2005). The development of nonverbal working memory and executive control processes in adolescents. Child Development, 76, 697–712.
Luthar, S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71, 543–562.
Martel, M. M., Nigg, J. T., Wong, M. M., Fitzgerald, H. E., Jester, J. M., Puttler, L. I., et al. (2007). Childhood and adolescent resiliency, regulation, and executive functioning in relation to adolescent problems and competence in a high-risk sample. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 541–563.
Masten, A. S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56, 227–238.
McDonald, R. P., & Ho, M. H. (2002). Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses. Psycholological Methods, 7, 64–82.
Messinger, D., & Lester, B. M. (2005) Prenatal substance exposure and human development. In Fogel, A. & Shanker, S. (Eds.), Human development in the 21st century: Visionary policy ideas from systems scientists. Bethesda, MD: Council on Human Development.
Miller, M., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2010). Does childhood executive function predict adolescent functional outcomes in girls with ADHD?
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 315–326.
Miller, M., Loya, F., & Hinshaw, W. P. (2013). Executive functions in girls with and without childhood ADHD: Developmental trajectories and associations with symptom change. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 1005–1015.
Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 49–100.
Murray, K. T., & Kochanska, G. (2002). Effortful control: Factor structure and relation to externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 503–514.
Muthen, B., & Muthen, L. (2012). Mplus user's guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles: Author.
Nigg, J. T. (2006). Temperament and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 395–422.
Ochsner, K. N., & Gross, J. J. (2005). The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 242–249.
Ochsner, K. N., Silvers, J. A., & Buhle, J. T. (2012). Functional imaging studies of emotion regulation: A synthetic review and evolving model of the cognitive control of emotion. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1251, E1–E24.
Ornstein, T. J., Iddon, J. L., Baldacchino, A. M., Sahakian, B. J., London, M., Everitt, B. J., et al. (2000). Profiles of cognitive dysfunction in chronic amphetamine and heroin abusers. Neuropsychopharmacology, 23, 113–126.
Petersen, S. E., & Posner, M. I. (2012). The attention system of the human brain: 20 years after. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 35, 73–89.
Reitz, E., Dekovic, M., & Meijer, A. M. (2006). Relations between parenting and externalizing and internalizing problem behaviour in early adolescence: Child behaviour as moderator and predictor. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 419–436.
Rhoades, B. L., Greenberg, M. T., & Domitrovich, C. E. (2009). The contribution of inhibitory control to preschoolers’ social-emotional competence. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30, 310–320.
Romer, D., Betancourt, L., Giannetta, J., Broadsky, N., Farah, M., & Hurt, H. (2009). Executive cognitive functions and impulsivity as correlates of risk taking and problem behavior in preadolescents. Neuropsychologia, 47, 2916–2926.
Rothbart, M. K., Sheese, B. E., Rueda, M. R., & Posner, M. I. (2011). Developing mechanisms of self-regulation in early life. Emotion Review, 3, 207–213.
Rueda, M. R., Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2005). The development of executive attention: Contributions to the emergence of self-regulation. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28, 573–594.
Sahker, E., McCabe, J. E., & Arndt, S. (2015). Differences in successful treatment completion among pregnant and non-pregnant American women. Archives of Women's Mental Health. Advance online publication.
Schoemaker, K., Mulder, H., Dekovic, M., & Matthys, W. (2013). Executive functions in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 457–471.
Shankaran, S., Bauer, C., Bada, H., Lester, B., Wright, L., & Katsikiotis, V. (1996). Maternal Lifestyle Study: Patterns of cocaine use in term pregnancy and effect on birth weight. Pediatric Research, 39, 279A.
Sheinkopf, S. J., LaGasse, L. L., Lester, B. M., Liu, J., Seifer, R., Bauer, C. R., et al. (2007). Vagal tone as a resilience factor in children with prenatal cocaine exposure. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 649–673.
Shing, Y. L., Lindenberger, U., Diamond, A., Li, S. C., & Davidson, M. C. (2010). Memory maintenance and inhibitory control differentiate from early childhood to adolescence. Developmental Neuropsychology, 35, 679–697.
Stoolmiller, M. (2001). Synergistic interaction of child manageability problems and parent-discipline tactics in predicting future growth in externalizing behavior for boys. Developmental Psychology, 37, 814–825.
Stormshak, E. A., Bierman, K. L., McMahon, R. J., & Lengua, L. J. (2000). Parenting practices and child disruptive behavior problems in early elementary school. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 17–29.
Sulik, M. J., Blair, C., Mills-Koonce, R., Berry, D., Greenberg, M., & Family Life Project, I. (2015). Early parenting and the development of externalizing behavior problems: Longitudinal mediation through children's executive function. Child Development, 86, 1588–1603.
Thorell, L. B. (2007). Do delay aversion and executive function deficits make distinct contributions to the functional impact of ADHD symptoms? A study of early academic skill deficits. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 1061–1070.
Wagner, N. J., Propper, C., Gueron-Sela, N., & Mills-Koonce, W. R. (2015). Dimensions of maternal parenting and infants’ autonomic functioning interactively predict early internalizing behavior problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. Advance online publication.
Whitmer, A. J., & Banich, M. T. (2007). Inhibition versus switching deficits in different forms of rumination. Psychological Science, 18, 546–553.
Willams, B. R., Ponesse, J. S., Schachar, R. J., Logan, G. D., & Tannock, R. (1999). Development of inhibitory control across the life span. Developmental Psychology, 35, 205–213.
Williams, P. G., Suchy, Y., & Kraybill, M. L. (2010). Five-factor model personality traits and executive functioning among older adults. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 485–491.
Zelazo, P. D. (2004). The development of conscious control in childhood. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 12–17.
Zelazo, P. D., Muller, U., Frye, D., & Marcovitch, S. (2003). The development of executive function. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 68, 11–27.
Zhou, Q., Chen, S., & Main, A. (2012). Commonalities and differences in the research on children's effortful control and executive function: A call for an integrated model of self-regulation. Child Development Perspectives, 6, 112–121.