Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Stress perception following childhood adversity: Unique associations with adversity type and sex

  • Allison M. LoPilato (a1), Jean Addington (a2), Carrie E. Bearden (a3), Kristin S. Cadenhead (a4), Tyrone D. Cannon (a5) (a6), Barbara A. Cornblatt (a7), Daniel H. Mathalon (a8) (a9), Thomas H. McGlashan (a5), Diana O. Perkins (a10), Ming T. Tsuang (a4), Scott W. Woods (a5) and Elaine F. Walker (a1) (a11)...

Abstract

Childhood adversity is associated with poor mental and physical health outcomes across the life span. Alterations in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis are considered a key mechanism underlying these associations, although findings have been mixed. These inconsistencies suggest that other aspects of stress processing may underlie variations in this these associations, and that differences in adversity type, sex, and age may be relevant. The current study investigated the relationship between childhood adversity, stress perception, and morning cortisol, and examined whether differences in adversity type (generalized vs. threat and deprivation), sex, and age had distinct effects on these associations. Salivary cortisol samples, daily hassle stress ratings, and retrospective measures of childhood adversity were collected from a large sample of youth at risk for serious mental illness including psychoses (n = 605, mean age = 19.3). Results indicated that childhood adversity was associated with increased stress perception, which subsequently predicted higher morning cortisol levels; however, these associations were specific to threat exposures in females. These findings highlight the role of stress perception in stress vulnerability following childhood adversity and highlight potential sex differences in the impact of threat exposures.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for Correspondence: Allison M. LoPilato, Emory School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, 12 Executive Park, Atlanta, GA 30329; E-mail: allison.lopilato@emory.edu.

References

Hide All
Addington, J., Cadenhead, K. S., Cornblatt, B. A., Mathalon, D. H., McGlashan, T. H., Perkins, D. O., … Addington, J. A. (2012). North American prodrome longitudinal study (NAPLS 2): Overview and recruitment. Schizophrenia Research, 142, 7782. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2012.09.012
Addington, J., Piskulic, D., Liu, L., Lockwood, J., Cadenhead, K. S., Cannon, T. D., … Tsuang, M. T. (2017). Comorbid diagnoses for youth at clinical high risk of psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, 190, 9095. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2017.03.043
Aldwin, C. M., & Yancura, L. A. (2004). Coping and health: A comparison of the stress and trauma literatures. In Schurr, P. P. & Green, B. L. (Eds.), Trauma and health: Physical health consequences of exposure to extreme stress (pp. 99125). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Allwood, M., Gaffey, A., Vergara-Lopez, C., & Stroud, L. (2017). Stress through the mind of the beholder: Preliminary differences in child and maternal perceptions of stress in relation to child cortisol and cardiovascular reactivity. International Journal on the Biology of Stress, 20, 341349. doi:10.1080/10253890.2017.1336617
Almeida, D. M., & Kessler, R. C. (1998). Everyday stressors and gender differences in daily stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 670680. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.75.3.670
Andersen, S. L., & Teicher, M. H. (2008). Stress, sensitive periods and maturational events in adolescent depression. Trends in Neurosciences, 31, 183191. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2008.01.004
Bale, T. L., & Epperson, C. N. (2015). Sex differences and stress across the lifespan. Nature Neuroscience, 18, 1413. doi:10.1038/nn.4112
Bangasser, D. A., & Valentino, R. J. (2014). Sex differences in stress-related psychiatric disorders: Neurobiological perspectives. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 35, 303319. doi:10.1016/j.yfrne.2014.03.008
Bendall, S., Jackson, H. J., Hulbert, C. A., & McGorry, P. D. (2007). Childhood trauma and psychotic disorders: A systematic, critical review of the evidence. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34, 568579. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbm121
Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2012). Child development in the context of adversity: Experiential canalization of brain and behavior. American Psychologist, 67, 309. doi:10.1037/a0027493
Bosch, N. M., Riese, H., Reijneveld, S. A., Bakker, M. P., Verhulst, F. C., Ormel, J., & Oldehinkel, A. J. (2012). Timing matters: Long term effects of adversities from prenatal period up to adolescence on adolescents’ cortisol stress response. The TRAILS study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37, 14391447. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.01.013
Boyce, W. T., & Ellis, B. J. (2005). Biological sensitivity to context: I. An evolutionary–developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 271301.
Busso, D. S., McLaughlin, K. A., Brueck, S., Peverill, M., Gold, A. L., & Sheridan, M. A. (2017). Child abuse, neural structure, and adolescent psychopathology: A longitudinal study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 56, 321328. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2017.01.013
Busso, D. S., McLaughlin, K. A., & Sheridan, M. A. (2017). Dimensions of adversity, physiological reactivity, and externalizing psychopathology in adolescence: Deprivation and threat. Psychosomatic Medicine, 79, 162171. doi:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000369
Cannon-Spoor, H. E., Potkin, S. G., & Wyatt, R. J. (1982). Measurement of premorbid adjustment in chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 8, 470. doi:10.1093/schbul/8.3.470
Chen, Y., & Baram, T. Z. (2016). Toward understanding how early-life stress reprograms cognitive and emotional brain networks. Neuropsychopharmacology, 41, 197206. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.181
Chorpita, B. F., & Barlow, D. H. (1998). The development of anxiety: The role of control in the early environment. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 3. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.124.1.3
Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., & Oshri, A. (2011). Interactive effects of corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1, serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region, and child maltreatment on diurnal cortisol regulation and internalizing symptomatology. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 11251138. doi:10.1017/S0954579411000599
Collishaw, S., Pickles, A., Messer, J., Rutter, M., Shearer, C., & Maughan, B. (2007). Resilience to adult psychopathology following childhood maltreatment: Evidence from a community sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 211229. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.02.004
Compas, B. E., Connor, J. K., Saltzman, H., Thomsen, A. H., & Wadsworth, M. (1999). Getting specific about coping: Effortful and involuntary responses to stress in development. In Lewis, M. & Ramsay, D. S. (Eds.), Soothing and stress (pp. 229256). London: Psychology Press.
Cramer, P. (2003). Defense mechanisms and physiological reactivity to stress. Journal of Personality, 71, 221244. doi:10.1111/1467-6494.7102001
Danese, A., Moffitt, T. E., Harrington, H., Milne, B. J., Polanczyk, G., Pariante, C. M., … Caspi, A. (2009). Adverse childhood experiences and adult risk factors for age-related disease: Depression, inflammation, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 163, 11351143. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.214
Davis, M. C., Matthews, K. A., & Twamley, E. W. (1999). Is life more difficult on Mars or Venus? A meta-analytic review of sex differences in major and minor life events. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 21, 8397. doi:10.1007/BF02895038
Del Giudice, M., Ellis, B. J., & Shirtcliff, E. A. (2011). The adaptive calibration model of stress responsivity. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 15621592. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.11.007
Dennison, M. J., Rosen, M. L., Sambrook, K. A., Jenness, J. L., Sheridan, M. A., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2017). Differential associations of distinct forms of childhood adversity with neurobehavioral measures of reward processing: A developmental pathway to depression. Child Development, 90, 96113. doi:10.1111/cdev.13011
Dickerson, S. S., & Kemeny, M. E. (2004). Acute stressors and cortisol responses: A theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 355. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.130.3.355
Domes, G., Schulze, L., Böttger, M., Grossmann, A., Hauenstein, K., Wirtz, P. H., … Herpertz, S. C. (2010). The neural correlates of sex differences in emotional reactivity and emotion regulation. Human Brain Mapping, 31, 758769. doi:10.1002/hbm.20903
Ellis, B. J., Boyce, W. T., Belsky, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2011). Differential susceptibility to the environment: An evolutionary–neurodevelopmental theory. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 728. doi:10.1017/S0954579410000611
Evans, G. W., Li, D., & Whipple, S. S. (2013). Cumulative risk and child development. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 13421396. doi:10.1037/a0031808
Folkman, S., Lazarus, R. S., Dunkel-Schetter, C., DeLongis, A., & Gruen, R. J. (1986). Dynamics of a stressful encounter: Cognitive appraisal, coping, and encounter outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 992. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.50.5.992
Fusar-Poli, P., Nelson, B., Valmaggia, L., Yung, A. R., & McGuire, P. K. (2014). Comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders in 509 individuals with an at-risk mental state: Impact on psychopathology and transition to psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 40, 120131. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbs136
Gaab, J., Blättler, N., Menzi, T., Pabst, B., Stoyer, S., & Ehlert, U. (2003). Randomized controlled evaluation of the effects of cognitive–behavioral stress management on cortisol responses to acute stress in healthy subjects. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 28, 767779. doi:10.1016/S0306-4530(02)00069-0
Gaab, J., Rohleder, N., Nater, U. M., & Ehlert, U. (2005). Psychological determinants of the cortisol stress response: The role of anticipatory cognitive appraisal. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30, 599610. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2005.02.001
Gamwell, K., Nylocks, M., Cross, D., Bradley, B., Norrholm, S. D., & Jovanovic, T. (2015). Fear conditioned responses and PTSD symptoms in children: Sex differences in fear-related symptoms. Developmental Psychobiology, 57, 799808. doi:10.1002/dev.21313
Gartland, N., O'Connor, D. B., Lawton, R., & Bristow, M. (2014). Exploring day-to-day dynamics of daily stressor appraisals, physical symptoms and the cortisol awakening response. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 50, 130138. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.08.006
Gibson, L. E., Anglin, D. M., Klugman, J. T., Reeves, L. E., Fineberg, A. M., Maxwell, S. D., … Ellman, L. M. (2014). Stress sensitivity mediates the relationship between traumatic life events and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms differentially by gender in a college population sample. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 53, 111118. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.02.020
Glaser, J. P., van Os, J., Portegijs, P. J., & Myin-Germeys, I. (2006). Childhood trauma and emotional reactivity to daily life stress in adult frequent attenders of general practitioners. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 61, 229236. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2006.04.014
Glover, E. M., Jovanovic, T., Mercer, K. B., Kerley, K., Bradley, B., Ressler, K. J., & Norrholm, S. D. (2012). Estrogen levels are associated with extinction deficits in women with posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 72, 1924. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.02.031
Green, J. G., McLaughlin, K. A., Berglund, P. A., Gruber, M. J., Sampson, N. A., Zaslavsky, A. M., & Kessler, R. C. (2010). Childhood adversities and adult psychiatric disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication: I. Associations with first onset of DSM-IV disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 113123. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.186
Gunnar, M., & Quevedo, K. (2007a). The neurobiology of stress and development. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 145173. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085605
Gunnar, M. R., & Quevedo, K. M. (2007b). Early care experiences and HPA axis regulation in children: A mechanism for later trauma vulnerability. Progress in Brain Research, 167, 137149. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(07)67010-1
Gunnar, M. R., & Vazquez, D. (2006). Stress neurobiology and developmental psychopathology. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 2. Developmental neuroscience (pp. 533577). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Gunnar, M. R., Wewerka, S., Frenn, K., Long, J. D., & Griggs, C. (2009). Developmental changes in hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal activity over the transition to adolescence: Normative changes and associations with puberty. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 6985. doi:10.1017/S0954579409000054
Hamman, C., Henry, R., & Daley, S. E. (2000). Depression and sensitization to stressors among young women as a function of childhood adversity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 782787. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.68.5.782
Hammerfald, K., Eberle, C., Grau, M., Kinsperger, A., Zimmermann, A., Ehlert, U., & Gaab, J. (2006). Persistent effects of cognitive-behavioral stress management on cortisol responses to acute stress in healthy subjects—A randomized controlled trial. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31, 333339. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2005.08.007
Harkness, K. L., Hayden, E. P., & Lopez-Duran, N. L. (2015). Stress sensitivity and stress sensitization in psychopathology: An introduction to the special section. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124, 13. doi:10.1037/abn0000041
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.
Heim, C., Bradley, B., Mletzko, T., Deveau, T. C., Musselmann, D. L., Nemeroff, C. B., … Binder, E. B. (2009). Effect of childhood trauma on adult depression and neuroendocrine function: Sex-specific moderation by CRH receptor 1 gene. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 3, 41. doi:10.3389/neuro.08.041.2009
Hellhammer, J., Fries, E., Schweisthal, O. W., Schlotz, W., Stone, A. A., & Hagemann, D. (2007). Several daily measurements are necessary to reliably assess the cortisol rise after awakening: State-and trait components. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32, 8086. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2006.10.005
Hunter, A. L., Minnis, H., & Wilson, P. (2011). Altered stress responses in children exposed to early adversity: A systematic review of salivary cortisol studies. Stress, 14, 614626. doi:10.3109/10253890.2011.577848
Jaffee, S. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Polo-Tomas, M., & Taylor, A. (2007). Individual, family, and neighborhood factors distinguish resilient from non-resilient maltreated children: A cumulative stressors model. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 231253. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.03.011
Jerusalem, M., & Schwarzer, R. (1992). Self-efficacy as a resource factor in stress appraisal processes. In Schwarzer, R. (Ed.), Self-efficacy: Thought control of action (pp. 195213). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.
Juster, R. P., Perna, A., Marin, M. F., Sindi, S., & Lupien, S. J. (2012). Timing is everything: Anticipatory stress dynamics among cortisol and blood pressure reactivity and recovery in healthy adults. Stress, 15, 569577. doi:10.3109/10253890.2012.661494
Kelleher, I., Harley, M., Lynch, F., Arseneault, L., Fitzpatrick, C., & Cannon, M. (2008). Associations between childhood trauma, bullying and psychotic symptoms among a school-based adolescent sample. British Journal of Psychiatry, 193, 378382. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.108.049536
Kessler, R. C., Green, J. G., Gruber, M. J., Sampson, N. A., Bromet, E., Cuitan, M., … Lara, C. (2010). Screening for serious mental illness in the general population with the K6 screening scale: Results from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 19(Suppl. 1), 4–22. doi:10.1002/mpr.310
Koenen, K. C., & Widom, C. S. (2009). A prospective study of sex differences in the lifetime risk of posttraumatic stress disorder among abused and neglected children grown up. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22, 566574. doi:10.1002/jts.20478
Kudielka, B. M., Hellhammer, D. H., & Wüst, S. (2009). Why do we respond so differently? Reviewing determinants of human salivary cortisol responses to challenge. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34, 218. doi:10.1016/j/psyneuen.2008.10.004
Kudielka, B. M., & Kirschbaum, C. (2005). Sex differences in HPA axis responses to stress: A review. Biological Psychology, 69, 113132. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2004.11.009
Kudielka, B. M., Schommer, N. C., Hellhammer, D. H., & Kirschbaum, C. (2004). Acute HPA axis responses, heart rate, and mood changes to psychosocial stress (TSST) in humans at different times of day. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29, 983992. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2003.08.009
Kuhlman, K. R., Geiss, E. G., Vargas, I., & Lopez-Duran, N. L. (2015). Differential associations between childhood trauma subtypes and adolescent HPA-axis functioning. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 54, 103114. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.01.020
Lambert, H. K., King, K. M., Monahan, K. C., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2017). Differential associations of threat and deprivation with emotion regulation and cognitive control in adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 29, 929940. doi:10.1017/S0954579416000584
Lardinois, M., Lataster, T., Mengelers, R., van Os, J., & Myin-Germeys, I. (2011). Childhood trauma and increased stress sensitivity in psychosis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 123, 2835. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2010.01594.x
Larsson, S., Andreassen, O. A., Aas, M., Røssberg, J. I., Mork, E., Steen, N. E., … Melle, I. (2013). High prevalence of childhood trauma in patients with schizophrenia spectrum and affective disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 54, 123127. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2012.06.009
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Coping and adaptation. In Gentry, W. D. (Ed.), The handbook of behavioral medicine (pp. 282325). New York: Guilford Press.
Lebron-Milad, K., Abbs, B., Milad, M. R., Linnman, C., Rougemount-Bücking, A., Zeidan, M. A., … Goldstein, J. M. (2012). Sex differences in the neurobiology of fear conditioning and extinction: A preliminary fMRI study of shared sex differences with stress-arousal circuitry. Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders, 2, 7. doi:10.1186/2045-5380-2-7
Lengua, L. J., & Long, A. C. (2002). The role of emotionality and self-regulation in the appraisal–coping process: Tests of direct and moderating effects. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 23, 471493. doi:10.1016/S0193-3973(02)00129-6
Lupien, S. J., McEwen, B. S., Gunnar, M. R., & Heim, C. (2009). Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, 434445. doi:10.1038/nrn2639
Lupien, S. J., Ouellet-Morin, I., Herba, C. M., Juster, R., & McEwen, B. S. (2016). From vulnerability to neurotoxicity: A developmental approach to the effects of stress on the brain and behavior. In Epigenetics and neuroendocrinology (pp. 348). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
Maier, S. F., Amat, J., Baratta, M. V., Paul, E., & Watkins, L. R. (2006). Behavioral control, the medial prefrontal cortex, and resilience. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 8, 397.
Mandelli, L., Petrelli, C., & Serretti, A. (2015). The role of specific early trauma in adult depression: A meta-analysis of published literature. Childhood trauma and adult depression. European Psychiatry, 30, 665680. doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2015.04.007
Maniam, J., Antoniadis, C., & Morris, M. J. (2014). Early-life stress, HPA axis adaptation, and mechanisms contributing to later health outcomes. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 5, 73. doi:10.3389/fendo.2014.00073
Masten, A. S., & Cicchetti, D. (2010). Developmental cascades. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 491495. doi:10.1017/S0954579410000222
Matheson, S. L., Shepherd, A. M., Pinchbeck, R. M., Laurens, K. R., & Carr, V. J. (2013). Childhood adversity in schizophrenia: A systematic meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, 43, 225238. doi:10.1017/S0033291712000785
McLaughlin, K. A., Conron, K. J., Koenen, K. C., & Gilman, S. E. (2010). Childhood adversity, adult stressful life events, and risk of past-year psychiatric disorder: A test of the stress sensitization hypothesis in a population-based sample of adults. Psychological Medicine, 40, 16471658. doi:10.1017/S0033291709992121
McLaughlin, K. A., Sheridan, M. A., & Lambert, H. K. (2014). Childhood adversity and neural development: Deprivation and threat as distinct dimensions of early experience. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 47, 578591. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.10.012
Miller, G. E., Chen, E., & Zhou, E. S. (2007). If it goes up, must it come down? Chronic stress and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in humans. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 25. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.25
Miller, R., & Plessow, F. (2013). Transformation techniques for cross-sectional and longitudinal endocrine data: Application to salivary cortisol concentrations. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38, 941946. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.09.013
Mittal, C., & Griskevicius, V. (2014). Sense of control under uncertainty depends on people's childhood environment: A life history theory approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107, 621637. doi:10.1037/a0037398
Muthen, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2010). Mplus user's guide (version 6.1). Los Angeles: Author.
Myin-Germeys, I., Krabbendam, L., Delespaul, P. A. E. G., & van Os, J. (2004). Sex differences in emotional reactivity to daily life stress in psychosis. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65, 805809.
Olff, M., Langeland, W., & Gersons, B. P. (2005). Effects of appraisal and coping on the neuroendocrine response to extreme stress. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 29, 457467. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2004.12.006
Palmier-Claus, J., Berry, K., Darrell-Berry, H., Emsley, R., Parker, S., Drake, R., & Bucci, S. (2016). Childhood adversity and social functioning in psychosis: Exploring clinical and cognitive mediators. Psychiatry Research, 238, 2532. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2016.02.004
Paris, J. J., Franco, C., Sodano, R., Freidenberg, B., Gordis, E., Anderson, D. A., … Frye, C. A. (2010). Sex differences in salivary cortisol in response to acute stressors among healthy participants, in recreational or pathological gamblers, and in those with posttraumatic stress disorder. Hormones and Behavior, 57, 3545. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2009.06.003
Pechtel, P., & Pizzagalli, D. A. (2011). Effects of early life stress on cognitive and affective function: An integrated review of human literature. Psychopharmacology, 214, 5570. doi:10.1007/s00213-010-2009-2
Pesonen, A. K., Räikkönen, K., Feldt, K., Heinonen, K., Osmond, C., Phillips, D. I., … Kajantie, E. (2010). Childhood separation experience predicts HPA axis hormonal responses in late adulthood: A natural experiment of World War II. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 758767. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.10.017
Pluess, M. (2015). Individual differences in environmental sensitivity. Child Development Perspectives, 9, 138143. doi:10.1111/cdep.12120
Pluess, M., & Belsky, J. (2011). Prenatal programming of postnatal plasticity? Development and Psychopathology, 23, 2938. doi:10.1017/S0954579410000623
Pluess, M., Stevens, S., & Belsky, J. (2013). Differential susceptibility: Developmental and evolutionary mechanisms of gene-environment interactions. In Legestee, M. L., Haley, D. W., & Bornstein, M. H. (Ed.), The infant mind: Origins of the social brain (pp. 7796). New York: Guilford Press.
Price, L. H., Kao, H. T., Burgers, D. E., Carpenter, L. L., & Tyrka, A. R. (2013). Telomeres and early-life stress: An overview. Biological Psychiatry, 73, 1523. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.06.025
Pruessner, J. C., Wolf, O. T., Hellhammer, D. H., Buske-Kirschbaum, A., Von Auer, K., Jobst, S., … Kirschbaum, C. (1997). Free cortisol levels after awakening: A reliable biological marker for the assessment of adrenocortical activity. Life Sciences, 61, 25392549. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(97)01008-4
Read, J., van Os, J., Morrison, A. P., & Ross, C. A. (2005). Childhood trauma, psychosis and schizophrenia: A literature review with theoretical and clinical implications. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 112, 330350. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2005.00634.x
Repetti, R. L., Robles, T. F., & Reynolds, B. (2011). Allostatic processes in the family. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 921938. doi:10.1017/S095457941100040X
Repetti, R. L., Taylor, S. E., & Seeman, T. E. (2002). Risky families: Family social environments and the mental and physical health of offspring. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 330366. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.128.2.330
Romeo, R. D., & McEwen, B. S. (2006). Stress and the adolescent brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 202214. doi:10.1196/annals.1376.022
Rössler, W., Ajdacic-Gross, V., Rodgers, S., Haker, H., & Müller, M. (2016). Childhood trauma as a risk factor for the onset of subclinical psychotic experiences: Exploring the mediating effect of stress sensitivity in a cross-sectional epidemiological community study. Schizophrenia Research, 172, 4653. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2016.02.006
Ruby, E., Polito, S., McMahon, K., Gorovitz, M., Corcoran, C., & Malaspina, D. (2014). Pathways associating childhood trauma to the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Frontiers in Psychological and Behavioral Science, 3, 117.
Rutten, B. P., Hammels, C., Geschwind, N., Menne-Lothmann, C., Pishva, E., Schruers, K., … Wichers, M. (2013). Resilience in mental health: Linking psychological and neurobiological perspectives. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 128, 320. doi:10.1111/acps.12095
Schlotz, W., Kumsta, R., Layes, I., Entringer, S., Jones, A., & Wüst, S. (2008). Covariance between psychological and endocrine responses to pharmacological challenge and psychosocial stress: A question of timing. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70, 787796. doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181810658
Seery, M. D. (2011). Challenge or threat? Cardiovascular indexes of resilience and vulnerability to potential stress in humans. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 16031610. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2011.03.003
Seery, M. D., Weisbuch, M., & Blascovich, J. (2009). Something to gain, something to lose: The cardiovascular consequences of outcome framing. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 73, 308312. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2009.05.006
Seiffge-Krenke, I., Aunola, K., & Nurmi, J. E. (2009). Changes in stress perception and coping during adolescence: The role of situational and personal factors. Child Development, 80, 259279. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01258.x
Sheridan, M. A., McLaughlin, K. A., Winter, W., Fox, N., Zeanah, C., & Nelson, C. A. (2018). Early deprivation disruption of associative learning is a developmental pathway to depression and social problems. Nature Communications, 9, 2216. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04381-8
Sladek, M. R., Doane, L. D., Luecken, L. J., & Eisenberg, N. (2016). Perceived stress, coping, and cortisol reactivity in daily life: A study of adolescents during the first year of college. Biological Psychology, 117, 815. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2016.02.003
Slattery, M. J., Grieve, A. J., Ames, M. E., Armstrong, J. M., & Essex, M. J. (2013). Neurocognitive function and state cognitive stress appraisal predict cortisol reactivity to an acute psychosocial stressor in adolescents. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38, 13181327. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.11.017
Spear, L. P. (2009). Heightened stress responsivity and emotional reactivity during pubertal maturation: Implications for psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 8797.
Stevens, J. S., & Hamann, S. (2012). Sex differences in brain activation to emotional stimuli: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Neuropsychologia, 50, 15781593. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.03.011
Stroud, L. R., Salovey, P., & Epel, E. S. (2002). Sex differences in stress responses: Social rejection versus achievement stress. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 318327. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(02)01333-1
Suzuki, A., Poon, L., Papadopoulos, A. S., Kumari, V., & Cleare, A. J. (2014). Long term effects of childhood trauma on cortisol stress reactivity in adulthood and relationship to the occurrence of depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 50, 289299. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.09.007
Tarullo, A. R., & Gunnar, M. R. (2006). Child maltreatment and the developing HPA axis. Hormones and Behavior, 50, 632639. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2006.06.010
Tolin, D. F., & Foa, E. B. (2006). Sex differences in trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: A quantitative review of 25 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 959. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.132.6.959
Trotman, H. D., Holtzman, C. W., Walker, E. F., Addington, J. M., Bearden, C. E., Cadenhead, K. S., … Tsuang, M. T. (2014). Stress exposure and sensitivity in the clinical high-risk syndrome: Initial findings from the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS). Schizophrenia Research, 160, 104109. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2014.09.017
Turner, M. J., Jones, M. V., Sheffield, D., Barker, J. B., & Coffee, P. (2014). Manipulating cardiovascular indices of challenge and threat using resource appraisals. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 94, 918. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2014.07.004
Tyrka, A. R., Price, L. H., Gelernter, J., Schepker, C., Anderson, G. M., & Carpenter, L. L. (2009). Interaction of childhood maltreatment with the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene: Effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. Biological Psychiatry, 66, 681685. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.05.012
Tyrka, A. R., Wier, L., Price, L. H., Ross, N., Anderson, G. M., Wilkinson, C. W., & Carpenter, L. L. (2008). Childhood parental loss and adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. Biological Psychiatry, 63, 11471154. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.01.011
Ullman, S. E., & Peter-Hagene, L. (2014). Social reactions to sexual assault disclosure, coping, perceived control, and PTSD symptoms in sexual assault victims. Journal of Community Psychology, 42, 495508. doi:10.1002/jcop.21624
van Harmelen, A. L., van Tol, M. J., van der Wee, N. J., Veltman, D. J., Aleman, A., Spinhoven, P., … Elzinga, B. M. (2010). Reduced medial prefrontal cortex volume in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment. Biological Psychiatry, 68, 832838. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.06.011
van Nierop, M., Lecei, A., Myin-Germeys, I., Collip, D., Viechtbauer, W., Jacobs, N., … van Winkel, R. (2018). Stress reactivity links childhood trauma exposure to an admixture of depressive, anxiety, and psychosis symptoms. Psychiatry Research, 260, 451457. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2017.12.012
Wadsworth, M. E. (2015). Development of maladaptive coping: A functional adaptation to chronic, uncontrollable stress. Child Development Perspectives, 9, 96100. doi:10.1111/cdep.12112
Walker, E. F., Sabuwalla, Z., & Huot, R. (2004). Pubertal neuromaturation, stress sensitivity, and psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 807824. doi:10.1017/S0954579409000066
Walker, E. F., Trotman, H. D., Pearce, B. D., Addington, J., Cadenhead, K. S., Cornblatt, B. A., … Tsuang, M. T. (2013). Cortisol levels and risk for psychosis: Initial findings from the North American prodrome longitudinal study. Biological Psychiatry, 74, 410417. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.02.016
Wichers, M. C., Barge-Schaapveld, D. Q. C. M., Nicolson, N. A., Peeters, F., De Vries, M., Mengelers, R., & van Os, J. (2009). Reduced stress-sensitivity or increased reward experience: The psychological mechanism of response to antidepressant medication. Neuropsychopharmacology, 34, 923. doi:10.1038/npp.2008.66
Wirtz, P. H., von Känel, R., Emini, L., Suter, T., Fontana, A., & Ehlert, U. (2007). Variations in anticipatory cognitive stress appraisal and differential proinflammatory cytokine expression in response to acute stress. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 21, 851859. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2007.02.003
Wüst, S., Federenko, I., Hellhammer, D. H., & Kirschbaum, C. (2000). Genetic factors, perceived chronic stress, and the free cortisol response to awakening. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 25, 707720. doi:10.1016/S0306-4530(00)00021-4
Young, E. A., & Breslau, N. (2004). Saliva cortisol in posttraumatic stress disorder: A community epidemiologic study. Biological Psychiatry, 56, 205209. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.05.01
Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., & Skinner, E. A. (2011). The development of coping across childhood and adolescence: An integrative review and critique of research. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35, 117. doi:10.1177/0165025410384923
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Development and Psychopathology
  • ISSN: 0954-5794
  • EISSN: 1469-2198
  • URL: /core/journals/development-and-psychopathology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed