Skip to main content Accessibility help

Pathways linking adverse environments to emerging adults’ substance abuse and depressive symptoms: A prospective analysis of rural African American men

  • Steven M. Kogan (a1), Dayoung Bae (a2), Junhan Cho (a3), Alicia K. Smith (a4) and Shota Nishitani (a5) (a6)...


For African American emerging adult men, developmental challenges are evident in their escalating substance abuse and depressive symptoms; this is particularly true for men from low-resource communities. The present study tests a developmental model linking childhood adversity and contemporaneous contextual stressors to increases in emerging adults’ substance use and depressive symptoms, indirectly, via increases in defensive/hostile relational schemas and social developmental risk factors (e.g., risky peers and romantic partners, lack of involvement in school or work). We also advance exploratory hypotheses regarding DNA methylation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) as a moderator of the effects of stress on relational schemas. Hypotheses were tested with three waves of data from 505 rural African American men aged 19–25 years. Adverse childhood experiences predicted exposure to emerging adult contextual stressors. Contextual stressors forecast increases in defensive/hostile relational schemas, which increased social developmental risk factors. Social developmental risk factors proximally predicted increases in substance abuse and depressive symptoms. OXTR DNA methylation moderated the effects of contextual stressors on defensive/hostile relational schemas. Findings suggest that early exposures to stress carry forward to affect the development of social developmental risk factors in emerging adulthood, which place rural African American men at risk for increased substance abuse and depressive symptoms during the emerging adult years.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Steven Kogan, Human Development and Family Science, 405 Sanford Drive, University of Georgia, Athens, GA30602; E-mail:


Hide All
Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the street: Decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city. New York, NY: Norton.
Arnett, JJ. (2004). Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties. New York: NY: Oxford University Press.
Arnett, JJ, & Schwab, J. (2012). The Clark University Poll of Emerging Adults: Thriving, struggling, and hopeful. Worcester, MA: Clark University.
Bachman, J. G., O'Malley, P. M., Schulenberg, J. E., Johnston, L. D., Bryant, A. L., & Merline, A. C. (2014). The decline of substance use in young adulthood: Changes in social activities, roles, and beliefs. London, UK: Psychology Press.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2013). Sniffing around oxytocin: Review and meta-analyses of trials in healthy and clinical groups with implications for pharmacotherapy. Translational Psychiatry, 3(5), Article e258. doi:10.1038/tp.2013.34.
Baldwin, M. W. (1995). Relational schemas and cognition in close relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 12, 547552. doi:10.1177/0265407595124008
Beach, S. R. H., Lei, M. K., Brody, G. H., & Philibert, R. A. (2018). Prevention of early substance use mediates, and variation at SLC6A4 moderates, SAAF intervention effects on OXTR methylation. Prevention Science, 19, 90100. doi:10.1007/s11121-016-0709-5
Björgvinsson, T., Kertz, S. J., Bigda-Peyton, J. S., McCoy, K. L., & Aderka, I. M. (2013). Psychometric properties of the CES-D-10 in a psychiatric sample. Assessment, 20, 429436. doi:10.1177/1073191113481998
Brody, G. H., Chen, Y.-F., & Kogan, S. M. (2010). A cascade model connecting life stress to risk behavior among rural African American emerging adults. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 667678. doi:10.1017/S0954579410000350
Brody, G. H., Stoneman, Z., Flor, D. L., & McCrary, C. (1994). Religion's role in organizing family relationships: Family process in rural, two-parent African American families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56, 878888. doi:10.2307/353600
Carey, N. (2012). The epigenetics revolution: How modern biology is rewriting our understanding of genetics, disease, and inheritance. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Catalano, R. F., & Hawkins, J. D. (1996). The Social Development Model: A theory of antisocial behavior. In Hawkins, J. D. (Ed.), Delinquency and crime: Current theories (pp. 149197). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Cho, J., & Kogan, S. M. (2016). Risk and protective processes predicting rural African American young men's substance abuse. American Journal of Community Psychology, 58, 422433. doi:10.1002/ajcp.12104
Clark, S., & Coolen, M. (2007). Genomic profiling of CpG methylation and allelic specificity using quantitative high-throughput mass spectrometry: Critical evaluation and improvements. Nucleic Acids Research, 35, e119. doi:10.1093/nar/gkm409
Cohen, D. A., Farley, T. A., & Mason, K. (2003). Why is poverty unhealthy? Social and physical mediators. Social Science & Medicine, 57, 16311641. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00015-7
Costello, D. M., Swendsen, J., Rose, J. S., & Dierker, L. C. (2008). Risk and protective factors associated with trajectories of depressed mood from adolescence to early adulthood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 173183. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.76.2.173
Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74101. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.115.1.74
Crockett, LJ, & Carlo, G. (2016). Ethnic and racial minority youth in the United States: An overview.. In Crockett, L. J., & Carlo, G. (Eds.), Advancing responsible adolescent development: Vol. 21. Rural ethnic minority youth and families in the United States: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 112). New York, NY: Springer International. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-20976-0_1
Dadds, M. R., Moul, C., Cauchi, A., Dobson-Stone, C., Hawes, D. J., Brennan, J., & Ebstein, R. E. (2014). Methylation of the oxytocin receptor gene and oxytocin blood levels in the development of psychopathy. Development & Psychopathology, 26, 3340. doi:10.1017/S0954579413000497
Elliott, D. S., & Menard, S. (1996). Delinquent friends and delinquent behavior: Temporal and developmental patterns. In Hawkins, J. D. (Ed.), Delinquency and crime: Current theories (pp. 2867). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Epstein, J. A., Botvin, G. J., Griffin, K. W., & Diaz, T. (2001). Protective factors buffer effects of risk factors on alcohol use among inner-city youth. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 11, 7790. doi:10.1300/J029v11n01_04
Estrada-Martínez, L. M., Caldwell, C. H., Bauermeister, J. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2012). Stressors in multiple life-domains and the risk for externalizing and internalizing behaviors among African Americans during emerging adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 16001612. doi:10.1007/s10964-012-9778-3
Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., … Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245258. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(98)00017-8
Furman, W., & Buhrmester, D. (1985). Children's perceptions of the personal relationships in their social networks. Developmental Psychology, 21, 10161024. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.21.6.1016
Galambos, N. L., Barker, E. T., & Krahn, H. J. (2006). Depression, self-esteem, and anger in emerging adulthood: Seven-year trajectories. Developmental Psychology, 42, 350365. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.42.2.350
Gilbert, K. L., Ray, R., Siddiqi, A., Shetty, S., Baker, E. A., Elder, K., & Griffith, D. M. (2016). Visible and invisible trends in Black men's health: Pitfalls and promises for addressing racial, ethnic, and gender inequities in health. Annual Review of Public Health, 37, 295311. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032315-021556
Gouin, J. P., Zhou, Q. Q., Booij, L., Boivin, M., Cote, S. M., Hebert, M., … Vitaro, F. (2017). Associations among oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) DNA methylation in adulthood, exposure to early life adversity, and childhood trajectories of anxiousness. Scientific Reports, 7, Article 7446. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-07950-x
Gregory, SG, Connelly, JJ, Towers, AJ, Johnson, J, Biscocho, D, Markunas, CA, … Pericak-Vance, MA. (2009). Genomic and epigenetic evidence for oxytocin receptor deficiency in autism. BMC Medicine, 7, Article 62. 10.1186/1741-7015-7-62
Hammen, C. (2006). Stress generation in depression: Reflections on origins, research, and future directions. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 10651082. doi:10.1002/jclp.20293
Hammond, W. P. (2012). Taking it like a man: Masculine role norms as moderators of the racial discrimination-depressive symptoms association among African American men. American Journal of Public Health, 102, S232S241. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300485
Hardie, J. H., & Lucas, A. (2010). Economic factors and relationship quality among young couples: Comparing cohabitation and marriage. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 11411154. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00755.x
Harrison, P. A., Fulkerson, J. A., & Beebe, T. J. (1998). DSM-IV substance use disorder criteria for adolescents: A critical examination based on a statewide school survey. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 486492. doi:10.1176/ajp.155.4.486
Health Resources and Services Administration. (2011). The health and well-being of children in rural areas: A portrait of the nation 2007. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Heckathorn, DD. (1997). Respondent-driven sampling: A new approach to the study of hidden populations. Social Problems, 44, 174199. doi:10.2307/3096941
Heckathorn, DD. (2002). Respondent-driven sampling II: Deriving valid population estimates from chain-referral samples of hidden populations. Social Problems, 49, 1134. doi:10.1525/sp.2002.49.1.11
Hope, E. C., Hoggard, L. S., & Thomas, A. (2015). Emerging into adulthood in the face of racial discrimination: Physiological, psychological, and sociopolitical consequences for African American youth. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 1, Article 342. doi:10.1037/tps0000041.
Hostinar, C. E., & Gunnar, M. R. (2013). The developmental psychobiology of stress and emotion in childhood. In Weiner, I. B., Freedheim, D. K., & Lerner, R. M. (Eds.), Handbook of psychology (2nd ed., pp. 121141). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Huang, R. C., Galati, J. C., Burrows, S., Beilin, L. J., Li, X., Pennell, C. E., … Craig, J. M. (2012). DNA methylation of the IGF2/H19 imprinting control region and adiposity distribution in young adults. Clinical Epigenetics, 4, Article 21. doi:10.1186/1868-7083-4-21.
Insel, TR. (2010). The challenge of translation in social neuroscience: A review of oxytocin, vasopressin, and affiliative behavior. Neuron, 65, 768779. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.03.005.
Jack, A., Connelly, J. J., & Morris, J. P. (2012). DNA methylation of the oxytocin receptor gene predicts neural response to ambiguous social stimuli. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, Article 280. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2012.00280.
Johnson, W. E. Jr. (2010). Social work with African American males: Health, mental health, and social policy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2011). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2010. Volume I, Secondary school students. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.
Kalmakis, K. A., & Chandler, G. E. (2015). Health consequences of adverse childhood experiences: A systematic review. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 27, 457465. doi:10.1002/2327-6924.12215
Klein, K., & Forehand, R. (2000). Family processes as resources for African American children exposed to a constellation of sociodemographic risk factors: Family Health Project Group. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 5365. doi:10.1207/S15374424jccp2901_6.
Kogan, SM, Cho, J, & Oshri, A. (2016). The influence of childhood adversity on rural Black men's sexual risk behavior. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 50, 813822. doi:10.1007/s12160-016-9807-7.
Kogan, S. M., Lei, M.-K., Grange, C. R., Simons, R. L., Brody, G. H., Gibbons, F. X., & Chen, Y.-F. (2013). The contribution of community and family contexts to African American young adults’ romantic relationship health: A prospective analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 878890. doi:10.1007/s10964-013-9935-3
Kumsta, R., Hummel, E., Chen, F. S., & Heinrichs, M. (2013). Epigenetic regulation of the oxytocin receptor gene: implications for behavioral neuroscience. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 7, Article 83.
Kusui, C., Kimura, T., Ogita, K., Nakamura, H., Matsumura, Y., Koyama, M., … Murata, Y. (2001). DNA methylation of the human oxytocin receptor gene promoter regulates tissue-specific gene suppression. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 289, 681686. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.6024
Landrine, H., & Klonoff, E. A. (1996). The Schedule of Racist Events: A measure of racial discrimination and a study of its negative physical and mental health consequences. Journal of Black Psychology, 22, 144168. doi:10.1177/00957984960222002
Langie, S. A. S., Moisse, M., Declerck, K., Koppen, G., Godderis, L., Vanden Berghe, W., … De Boever, P.. (2017). Salivary DNA methylation profiling: Aspects to consider for biomarker identification. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, 121, 93101.
Levin, J. S., Taylor, R. J., & Chatters, L. M. (1995). A multidimensional measure of religious involvement for African Americans. Sociological Quarterly, 36, 157173. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.1995.tb02325.x
Manyema, M., Norris, S. A., & Richter, L. M. (2018). Stress begets stress: The association of adverse childhood experiences with psychological distress in the presence of adult life stress. BMC Public Health, 18, 835835. doi:10.1186/s12889-018-5767-0
Matthews, D. D., Hammond, W. P., Nuru-Jeter, A., Cole-Lewis, Y., & Melvin, T. (2013). Racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among African-American men: The mediating and moderating roles of masculine self-reliance and John Henryism. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 14, 3546. doi:10.1037/a0028436
Maud, C., Ryan, J., McIntosh, J. E., & Olsson, C. A. (2018). The role of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) DNA methylation (DNAm) in human social and emotional functioning: A systematic narrative review. BMC Psychiatry, 18, 154. doi:10.1186/s12888-018-1740-9
McGee, Z. T. (2003). Community violence and adolescent development: An examination of risk and protective factors among African American youth. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 19, 293314. doi:10.1177/1043986203254527
Meloni, M. (2014). The social brain meets the reactive genome: Neuroscience, epigenetics and the new social biology. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 309. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00309
Murphy, A., Steele, M., Dube, S. R., Bate, J., Bonuck, K., Meissner, P., … Steele, H. (2014). Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) questionnaire and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI): Implications for parent child relationships. Child Abuse and Neglect, 38, 224233. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.09.004
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2015). Mplus user's guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2003). Drug use among racial/ethnic minorities, revised. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Nishitani, S., Parets, S. E., Haas, B. W., & Smith, A. K. (2018). DNA methylation analysis from saliva samples for epidemiological studies. Epigenetics, 13, 352362.
Noro, F., Gianfagna, F., Gialluisi, A., De Curtis, A., Di Castelnuovo, A., Napoleone, E., … Donati, M. B. (2019). ZBTB12 DNA methylation is associated with coagulation- and inflammation-related blood cell parameters: findings from the Moli-family cohort. Clinical Epigenetics, 11, 74. doi:10.1186/s13148-019-0665-6
Ostaszewski, K., & Zimmerman, M. (2006). The effects of cumulative risks and promotive factors on urban adolescent alcohol and other drug use: A longitudinal study of resiliency. American Journal of Community Psychology, 38, 237249. doi:10.1007/s10464-006-9076-x
Pearlin, L. I., Schieman, S., Fazio, E. M., & Meersman, S. C. (2005). Stress, health, and the life course: Some conceptual perspectives. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46, 205219. doi:10.1177/002214650504600206
Probst, J. C., Samuels, M. E., Jespersen, K. P., Willer, K., Swann, R. S., & McDuffie, J. A. (2002). Minorities in rural America: An overview of population characteristics. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina.
Puglia, M. H., Connelly, J. J., & Morris, J. P. (2018). Epigenetic regulation of the oxytocin receptor is associated with neural response during selective social attention. Translational Psychiatry, 8, Article 116. doi:10.1038/s41398-018-0159-x
Puglia, M. H., Lillard, T. S., Morris, J. P., & Connelly, J. J. (2015). Epigenetic modification of the oxytocin receptor gene influences the perception of anger and fear in the human brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112, 33083313. doi:10.1073/pnas.1422096112
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES–D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385401. doi:10.1177/014662167700100306
Reed, K., Ferraro, A. J., Lucier-Greer, M., & Barber, C. (2015). Adverse family influences on emerging adult depressive symptoms: A stress process approach to identifying intervention points. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 27102720. doi:10.1007/s10826-014-0073-7
Riggs, S. A., & Han, G. (2009). Predictors of anxiety and depression in emerging adulthood. Journal of Adult Development, 16, Article 39. doi:10.1007/s10804-009-9051-5
Riolo, S. A., Nguyen, T. A., Greden, J. F., & King, C. A. (2005). Prevalence of depression by race/ethnicity: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. American Journal of Public Health, 95, 9981000. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2004.047225
Rogosch, F. A., Dackis, M. N., & Cicchetti, D. (2011). Child maltreatment and allostatic load: Consequences for physical and mental health in children from low-income families. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 11071124. doi:10.1017/S0954579411000587
Sameroff, A. (2006). Identifying risk and protective factors for healthy child development. In Clarke-Stewart, A. & Dunn, J. (Eds.), Families count: Effects on child and adolescent development (pp. 5376). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918924. doi:10.1126/science.277.5328.918
Schulenberg, J. E., & Zarrett, N. R. (2006). Mental health during emerging adulthood: Continuity and discontinuity in courses, causes, and functions. In Arnett, J. J. & Tanner, J. L. (Eds.), Emerging adults in America: Coming of age in the 21st century (pp. 135172). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Simons, R. L., & Burt, C. H. (2011). Learning to be bad: Adverse social conditions, social schemas, and crime. Criminology, 49, 553598. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.2011.00231.x
Simons, R. L., Lei, M. K., Beach, S. R. H., Brody, G. H., Philibert, R. A., & Gibbons, F. X. (2011). Social environment, genes, and aggression: Evidence supporting the differential susceptibility perspective. American Sociological Review, 76, 883912. doi:10.1177/0003122411427580
Simons, R. L., Lei, M. K., Beach, S. R. H., Cutrona, C. E., & Philibert, R. A. (2017). Methylation of the oxytocin receptor gene mediates the effect of adversity on negative schemas and depression. Development and Psychopathology, 29, 725736. doi:10.1017/S0954579416000420
Simons, R. L., Simons, L. G., Lei, M. K., & Landor, A. M. (2012). Relational schemas, hostile romantic relationships, and beliefs about marriage among young African American adults. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 29, 77101. doi:10.1177/0265407511406897
Smearman, E. L., Almli, L. M., Conneely, K. N., Brody, G. H., Sales, J. M., Bradley, B., … Smith, A. K. (2016). Oxytocin receptor genetic and epigenetic variations: Association with child abuse and adult psychiatric symptoms. Child Development, 87, 122134. doi:10.1111/cdev.12493
Smith, A. K., Kilaru, V., Klengel, T., Mercer, K. B., Bradley, B., Conneely, K. N., … Binder, E. B. (2015). DNA extracted from saliva for methylation studies of psychiatric traits: Evidence tissue specificity and relatedness to brain. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 168, 3644.
Stewart, E. A., & Simons, R. L. (2006). Structure and culture in African American adolescent violence: A partial test of the “Code of the Street” thesis. Justice Quarterly, 23, 133. doi:10.1080/07418820600552378
Stoddard, S. A., Whiteside, L., Zimmerman, M. A., Cunningham, R. M., Chermack, S. T., & Walton, M. A. (2013). The relationship between cumulative risk and promotive factors and violent behavior among urban adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 51, 5765. doi:10.1007/s10464-012-9541-7
Stone, A. L., Becker, L. G., Huber, A. M., & Catalano, R. F. (2012). Review of risk and protective factors of substance use and problem use in emerging adulthood. Addictive Behaviors, 37, 747775. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.02.014
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2014). Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-48, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4863. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Suchiman, H. E. D., Slieker, R. C., Kremer, D., Slagboom, P. E., Heijmans, B. T., & Tobi, E. W. (2015). Design, measurement and processing of region-specific DNA methylation assays: the mass spectrometry-based method EpiTYPER. Frontiers in Genetics, 6, 287. doi:10.3389/fgene.2015.00287
Syed, M., & Mitchell, L. L. (2013). Race, ethnicity, and emerging adulthood: Retrospect and prospects. Emerging Adulthood, 1, 8395. doi:10.1177/2167696813480503
Szyf, M., & Bick, J. (2013). DNA methylation: A mechanism for embedding early life experiences in the genome. Child Development, 84, 4957. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01793.x
Taylor, S. E. (2007). Social support. In Friedman, H. S. & Silver, R. C. (Eds.), Foundations of health psychology (pp. 145171). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Thomson, P., & Jaque, S. V. (2017). Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) in a non-clinical population. Child Abuse & Neglect, 70, 255263. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.06.001
Umberson, D., Crosnoe, R., & Reczek, C. (2010). Social relationships and health behavior across the life course. Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 139157. doi:10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-120011
Umberson, D., Williams, K., Thomas, P. A., Liu, H., & Thomeer, M. B. (2014). Race, gender, and chains of disadvantage: Childhood adversity, social relationships, and health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 55, 2038. doi:10.1177/0022146514521426
Utsey, S. O., Giesbrecht, N., Hook, J., & Stanard, P. M. (2008). Cultural, sociofamilial, and psychological resources that inhibit psychological distress in African Americans exposed to stressful life events and race-related stress. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55, 4962. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.55.1.49
Vrshek-Schallhorn, S., Stroud, C. B., Mineka, S., Hammen, C., Zinbarg, R. E., Wolitzky-Taylor, K., & Craske, M. G. (2015). Chronic and episodic interpersonal stress as statistically unique predictors of depression in two samples of emerging adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124, 918932. doi:10.1037/abn0000088
Wallace, J. M. Jr., Brown, T. N., Bachman, J. G., & LaViest, T. A. (2003). Religion, race and abstinence from drug use among American adolescents. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper 58. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research. Retrieved from
Walsemann, K. M., Gee, G. C., & Geronimus, A. T. (2009). Ethnic differences in trajectories of depressive symptoms: Disadvantage in family background, high school experiences, and adult characteristics. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50, 8298. doi:10.1177/002214650905000106
Ward, E., & Mengesha, M. (2013). Depression in African American men: A review of what we know and where we need to go from here. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 83, 386397. doi:10.1111/ajop.12015
Watkins, D. C. (2012). Depression over the adult life course for African American men: toward a framework for research and practice. American Journal of Men's Health, 6, 194210. doi:10.1177/1557988311424072
Wei, M., Russell, D. W., Mallinckrodt, B., & Vogel, D. L. (2007). The Experiences in Close Relationship Scale (ECR)-short form: Reliability, validity, and factor structure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 88, 187204. doi:10.1080/00223890701268041
Williams, DR, & Mohammed, SA. (2009). Discrimination and racial disparities in health: Evidence and needed research. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32, 2047. doi:10.1007/s10865-008-9185-0
Williams, D. R., Neighbors, H. W., & Jackson, J. S. (2003). Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: Findings from community studies. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 200208. doi:10.2105/AJPH.93.2.200
Zapolski, T. C. B., Pedersen, S. L., McCarthy, D. M., & Smith, G. T. (2014). Less drinking, yet more problems: Understanding African American drinking and related problems. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 188223. doi:10.1037/a0032113


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Kogan et al. supplementary material
Table S2

 Word (14 KB)
14 KB
Supplementary materials

Kogan et al. supplementary material
Table S1

 Unknown (17 KB)
17 KB

Pathways linking adverse environments to emerging adults’ substance abuse and depressive symptoms: A prospective analysis of rural African American men

  • Steven M. Kogan (a1), Dayoung Bae (a2), Junhan Cho (a3), Alicia K. Smith (a4) and Shota Nishitani (a5) (a6)...


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.