Alessandri, S. (1992). Mother–child interactional correlates of maltreated and nonmaltreated children's play behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 257–270.
Anda, R., Felitti, V., Bremner, J., Walker, J., Whitfield, C., & Perry, B. (2006). The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood—A convergence of evidence from neurobiology and epidemiology. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 256, 174–186.
Barnett, D., Ganiban, J., & Cicchetti, D. (1999). Maltreatment, negative expressivity, and the development of Type D attachments from 12- to 24-months of age. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 64, 97–118.
Barnett, D., Manly, J. T., & Cicchetti, D. (1993). Defining child maltreatment: The interference between policy and research. In Cicchetti, D. & Toth, S. (Eds.), Child abuse, child development and social policy (pp. 7–73). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Bohanek, J. G., Marin, K. A., & Fivush, R. (2008). Family narratives, self, and gender in early adolescence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 28, 153–176.
Boland, A. M., Haden, C. A., & Ornstein, P. A. (2003). Boosting children's memory by training mothers in the use of an elaborative conversational style as an event unfolds. Journal of Cognition and Development, 4, 39–65.
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books.
Brame, B., Nagin, D. S., & Tremblay, R. E. (2001). Developmental trajectories of physical aggression from school entry to late adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 503–512.
Bruce, J., Fisher, P. A., Pears, K. C., & Levine, S. (2009). Morning cortisol levels in preschool-aged foster children: Differential effects of maltreatment type. Developmental Psychobiology, 51, 14–23.
Burns, B., Phillips, S., Wagner, H., Barth, R., Kolko, D., & Campbell, Y. (2004). Mental health need and access to mental health services by youths involved with child welfare: A national survey. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 960–970.
Calkins, S. D. (2009). Regulatory competence and early disruptive behavior problems: The role of physiological regulation. In Olson, S. L. & Sameroff, A. (Eds.), Biopsychosocial regulatory processes in the development of childhood behavioral problems (pp. 86–115). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Carpenter, L. L., Carvalho, J. P., Tyrka, A. R., Wier, L. M., Mello, A. F., Mello, M. F., et al. (2007). Decreased adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol responses to stress in healthy adults reporting significant child maltreatment. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 1080–1087.
Cicchetti, D. (1990). The organization and coherence of socioemotional, cognitive, and representational development: Illustrations through a developmental psychopathology perspective on Downs syndrome and child maltreatment. In Thompson, R. (Ed.), Socioemotional development: Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 1988 (pp. 259–367). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (2001). Diverse patterns of neuroendocrine activity in maltreated children. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 677–693.
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (2015). A multilevel perspective on child maltreatment. In Lamb, M. & Garcia Coll, C. (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science: Vol. 3. Socioemotional process (7th ed., pp. 513–563). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Cicchetti, D., Toth, S. L., & Manly, J. T. (2003). Maternal Maltreatment Classification Interview. Unpublished manuscript, Mt. Hope Family Center.
Cicchetti, D., & Valentino, K. (2006). An ecological-transactional perspective on child maltreatment: Failure of the average expectable environment and its influence on child development. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 3. Risk, disorder, and adaptation (2nd ed., pp. 129–201). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Cicchetti, D., & Valentino, K. (2007). Toward the application of a multiple-levels-of-analysis perspective to research in development and psychopathology. In Masten, A. (Ed.), The Minnesota symposia on child development: Multilevel dynamics in developmental psychology (Vol. 34, pp. 243–284). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Coster, W. J., & Cicchetti, D. (1993). Research on the communicative development of maltreated children: Clinical implications. Topics in Language Disorders, 13, 25–38.
Crnic, K. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (1990). Minor parenting stresses with young children. Child Development, 61, 1628–1637.
Crockett, E. E., Holmes, B. M., Granger, D. A., & Lyons-Ruth, K. (2013). Maternal disrupted communication during face-to-face interaction at 4 months: Relation to maternal and infant cortisol among at-risk families. Infancy, 18, 1111–1134.
Denham, S. A. (1986). Social cognition, prosocial behavior, and emotion in preschoolers: Contextual validation. Child Development, 57, 194–201.
Denham, S. A., & Burton, R. (2003). Social and emotional prevention and intervention programming for preschoolers. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.
Denham, S. A., & Couchoud, E.A. (1990). Young preschooler's understanding of emotions. Child Study Journal, 20, 171–192.
Dixon, L., Browne, K., & Hamilton-Giachritsis, C. (2005). Risk factors of parents abused as children: A mediational analysis of the intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment (part I). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 46, 47–57.
Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, D. M. (2007). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (4th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson.
Edwards, A., Shipman, K., & Brown, A. (2005). The socialization of emotional understanding: A comparison of neglectful and nonneglectful mothers and their children. Child Maltreatment, 10, 293–304.
Egeland, B., & Sroufe, L. A. (1981). Attachment and early maltreatment. Child Development, 52, 44–52.
Eigsti, I., & Cicchetti, D. (2004). The impact of child maltreatment on expressive syntax at 60 months. Developmental Science, 7, 88–102.
Essex, M. J., Shirtcliff, E. A., Burka, L. R., Ruttle, P. L., Klein, M. H., Slattery, M. J., et al. (2011). Influence of early life stress on later hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning and its covariation with mental health symptoms: A study of the allostatic process from childhood into adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 1039–1058.
Finegood, E., Blair, D., Granger, D., Hibel, L. C., Mills-Koonce, W. R., & Investigators, TFLP. (2015). Maternal salivary cortisol and cumulative risk predict parenting behavior in the postpartum period. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Fivush, R. (1993). Emotional content of parent-child conversations about the past. In Nelson, C. A. (Ed.), The Minnesota symposia in child psychology: Memory and affect in development (Vol. 26, pp. 39–78). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Fivush, R., Brotman, M., Buckner, J. P., & Goodman, S. H. (2000). Gender differences in parent-child emotion narratives. Sex Roles, 42, 233–253.
Fivush, R., & Fromhoff, F. (1988). Style and structure in mother child conversations about the past. Discourse Processes, 11, 337–355.
Fivush, R., Haden, C., & Reese, E. (2006). Elaborating on elaborations: Role of maternal reminiscing style in cognitive and socioemotional development. Child Development, 77, 1568–1588.
Fivush, R., & Sales, J. (2006). Coping, attachment, and mother-child narratives of stressful events. Merrill–Palmer Quarterly, 52, 125–150.
Fivush, R., & Vasudeva, A. (2002). Remembering to relate: Socioemotional correlates of mother-child reminiscing. Journal of Cognition and Development, 3, 73–90.
Gonzalez, A., Jenkins, J. M., Steiner, M., & Fleming, A. S. (2009). The relation between early life adversity, cortisol awakening response and diurnal salivary cortisol levels in postpartum women. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34, 76–86. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.08.012
Gottman, J. M., Katz, L. F., & Hooven, C. (1996). Parental meta-emotion philosophy and the emotional life of families: Theoretical models and preliminary data. Journal of Family Psychology, 10, 243–268.
Gunnar, M., Fisch, R., & Malone, S. (1984). The effects of a pacifying stimulus on behavioral and adrenocortical responses to circumcision in the newborn. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23, 34–38.
Harley, K., & Reese, E. (1999). Origins of autobiographical memory. Developmental Psychology, 35, 1338–1348.
Hart, T. R., & Risley, B. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experiences of young American Chlidren. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Hooven, C., Gottman, J. M., & Katz, L. F. (1995). Parental meta-emotion structure predicts marital quality and children's socioemotional outcomes. Cognition and Emotion, 9, 229–264.
Huber, T. J., Issa, K., Schik, G., & Wolf, O. T. (2006). The cortisol awakening response in blunted in psychotherapy inpatients suffering from depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31, 900–904.
Kopp, C. B. (1989). Regulation of distress and negative emotions: A developmental view. Developmental Psychology, 25, 343.
Koren-Karie, N., Oppenheim, D., & Getzler-Yosef, R. (2004). Mothers who were severely abused during childhood and their children talk about emotions: Co-construction of narratives in light of maternal trauma. Infant Mental Health Journal, 25, 300–317.
Koren-Karie, N., Oppenheim, D., & Getzler-Yosef, R. (2008). Shaping children's internal working models through mother–child dialogues: The importance of resolving past maternal trauma. Attachment Human Development, 10, 465–483.
Koren-Karie, N., Oppenheim, D., Haimovich, Z., & Etzion-Carasso, A. (2003). Dialogues of seven-year-olds with their mothers about emotional events: Development of typology. In Emde, R. N., Wolf, D. P., & Oppenheim, D. (Eds.), Revealing the inner worlds of young children: The MacArthur Story Stem Battery and Parent-Child Narratives (pp. 338–354). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Laible, D. (2004). Mother–child discourse surrounding a child's past behavior at 30 months: Links to emotional understanding and early conscience development at 36 months. Merrill–Palmer Quarterly, 50, 159–181.
Lyons-Ruth, K., Bronfman, E., & Parsons (1999). Maternal frightened, frightening, or atypical behavior and disorganized infant attachment patterns. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 64(3), 67–96.
MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39, 99–128.
Manly, J. T., Kim, J. E., Rogosch, F. R., & Cicchetti, D. (2001). Dimensions of child maltreatment and children's adjustment: Contributions of developmental timing and subtype. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 759–782.
Martorell, G. A., & Bugental, D. B. (2006). Maternal variations in stress reactivity: Implications for harsh parenting practices with very young children. Journal of Family Psychology, 20, 641.
McEwen, B. S. (1998). Stress, adaptation, and disease: Allostasis and allostatic load. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 840, 33–44.
Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (1998–2014). Mplus user's guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles: Author.
Nelson, K. (1993). The psychological and social origins of autobiographical memory. Psychological Science, 4, 1–8.
Nelson, K., & Fivush, R. (2004). The emergence of autobiographical memory: A social cultural developmental theory. Psychological Review, 111, 486.
Parke, R. D., Cassidy, J., Burks, V. M., Carson, J. L., & Boyum, L. (1992). Familial contributions to peer competence among young children: The role of interactive and affective processes. In Parke, R. D. & Ladd, G. W. (Eds.), Family–peer relationships: Modes of linkage (pp. 107–134). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Pears, K., & Fisher, P. A. (2005). Developmental, cognitive, and neuropsychological functioning in preschool-aged foster children: Associations with prior maltreatment and placement history. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 26, 112–122.
Peterson, C., Jesso, B., & McCabe, A. (1999). Encouraging narratives in preschoolers: An intervention study. Journal of Child Language, 26, 49.
Pruessner, J. C., Kirschbaum, C., Meinlschmid, G., & Hellhammer, D. H. (2003). Two formulas for computation of the area under the curve represent measures of total hormone concentration versus time-dependent change. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 28, 916–931.
Reese, E. (1995). Predicting children's literacy from mother-child conversations. Cognitive Development, 10, 381–405.
Reese, E., & Newcombe, R. (2007). Training mothers in elaborative reminiscing enhances children's autobiographical memory and narrative. Child Development, 78, 1153–1170.
Rogosch, F., Cicchetti, D., & Aber, J. L. (1995). The role of child maltreatment in early deviations in cognitive and affective processing abilities and later peer relationship problems. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 591–609.
Ruttle, P. L., Shirtcliff, E. A., Serbin, L. A., Ben-Dat Fisher, D., Stack, D. M., & Schwartzman, A. E. (2011). Disentangling psychobiological mechanisms underlying internalizing and externalizing behaviors in youth: Longitudinal and concurrent associations with cortisol. Hormones and Behavior, 59, 123–132.
Sales, J., & Fivush, R. (2005). Social and emotional functions of mother-child reminiscing about stressful events. Social Cognition, 23, 70–90.
Sales, J., Fivush, R., & Peterson, C. (2003). Parental reminiscing about positive and negative events. Journal of Cognition and Development, 4, 185–209.
Salmon, K., Dadds, M., Allen, J., & Hawes, D. (2009). Can emotional language skills be taught during parent training for conduct problem children?
Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 40, 485–498.
Sameroff, A. E. (2009). The transactional model of development: How children and contexts shape each other. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Shipman, K. L., Schneider, R., Fitzgerald, M. M., Sims, C., Swisher, L., & Edwards, A. (2007). Maternal emotion socialization in maltreating and non-maltreating families: Implications for children's emotion regulation. Social Development, 16, 268–285.
Shipman, K. L., & Zeman, J. (1999). Emotional understanding: A comparison of physically maltreating and nonmaltreating mother-child dyads. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28, 407–417.
Smyth, N., Hucklebridge, F., Thorn, L., Evan, P., & Clow, A. (2013). Salivary cortisol as a biomarker in social science research. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7, 605–625.
Spangler, G., Schieche, M., Iig, U., Maier, U., & Ackermann, C. (1994). Maternal sensitivity as an external organizer for biobehavioral regulation in infancy. Developmental Psychobiology, 27, 425–437.
Sparks, A., & Reese, E. (2013). From reminiscing to reading: Home contributions to children's developing language and literacy in low-income families. First Language, 33, 89–109.
Sroufe, L. A. (2000). Early relationships and the development of children. Infant Mental Health Journal, 21, 67–74.
Sroufe, L., Carlson, E., Levy, A., & Egeland, B. (1999). Implications of attachment theory for developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 1–13.
Stacks, A., Beeghly, M., Partridge, T., & Dexter, C. (2011). Effects of placement type on the language developmental trajectories of maltreated children from infancy to early childhood. Child Maltreatment, 16, 287–299.
Stahmer, A. C., Hurlburt, M., Horwitz, S. M., Landsverk, J., Zhang, J., & Leslie, L. K. (2009). Associations between intensity child welfare involvement and child development among young children in child welfare. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 598–611.
Stock, C. D., & Fisher, P. A. (2006). Language delays among foster children: Implications for policy and practice. Child Welfare, 85, 445–461.
Sullivan, M. W., Bennett, D. S., Carpenter, K., & Lewis, M. (2008). Emotion knowledge in young neglected children. Child Maltreatment, 13, 301–306.
Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Shannon, J. D., Cabrera, N. J., & Lamb, M. J. (2004). Fathers and mothers at play with their 2- and 3-year olds: Contributions to language and cognitive development. Child Development, 75, 1806–1820.
Tarullo, A. R., & Gunnar, M. R. (2006) Child maltreatment and the developing HPA axis. Hormones and Behavior, 50, 632–639.
Thompson, R. (2006). Conversation and developing understanding: Introduction to the Special Issue. Merrill–Palmer Quarterly, 52, 1–16.
Toth, S. L., Gravener-Davis, J. A., Guild, D. J., & Cicchetti, D. (2013). Relational interventions for child maltreatment: Past, present, and future perspectives. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 1601–1617.
Valentino, K., Cicchetti, D., Toth, S., & Rogosch, F. (2006). Mother-child play and emerging social behaviors among infants from maltreating families. Developmental Psychology, 42, 474–485.
Valentino, K., Comas, M., Nuttall, A. K., & Thomas, T. (2013). Training maltreating parents in elaborative and emotion-rich reminiscing with their preschool-aged children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37, 585–595.
Valentino, K., Nuttall, A. K., Comas, M., McDonnell, C. G., Piper, B., Thomas, T., et al. (2014). Mother-child reminiscing and autobiographical memory specificity among preschool-aged children. Developmental Psychology, 50, 1197–1207.
Van Bergen, P., Salmon, K., Dadds, M., & Allen, J. (2009). Training mothers in emotion-rich elaborative reminiscing: Facilitating children's autobiographical memory and emotion knowledge. Journal of Cognition and Development, 10, 162–187.
van der Vegt, E. J. M., van der Ende, J., Kirschbaum, C., Verhulst, F. C., & Teimerier, H. (2009) Early neglect and abuse predict diurnal cortisol patterns in adults: A study of international adoptees. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34, 660–669.
van IJzendoorn, M. H., Schuengel, C., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (1999). Disorganized attachment in early childhood: Meta-analysis of precursors, concomitants, and sequelae. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 225–249.
Wareham, P., & Salmon, K. (2006). Mother–child reminiscing about everyday experiences: Implications for psychological interventions in the preschool years. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 535–554.
Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1994). The PANAS-X: Manual for the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule—Expanded form. Ames, IA: University of Iowa Pres.
Williams, K. T. (2007). Expressive Vocabulary Test (2nd ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments.