Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Maternal caregiving and girls' depressive symptom and antisocial behavior trajectories: An examination among high-risk youth

  • Gordon T. Harold (a1) (a2), Leslie D. Leve (a3) (a4), Hyoun K. Kim (a4), Liam Mahedy (a5), Darya Gaysina (a1), Anita Thapar (a5) and Stephan Collishaw (a5)...

Abstract

Past research has identified maternal depression and family of origin maltreatment as precursors to adolescent depression and antisocial behavior. Caregiving experiences have been identified as a factor that may ameliorate or accentuate adolescent psychopathology trajectories. Using a multilevel approach that pools the unique attributes of two geographically diverse, yet complementary, longitudinal research designs, the present study examined the role of maternal caregiver involvement as a factor that promotes resilience-based trajectories related to depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors among adolescent girls. The first sample comprises a group of US-based adolescent girls in foster care (n = 100; mean age = 11.50 years), each of whom had a history of childhood maltreatment and removal from their biological parent(s). The second sample comprises a group of UK-based adolescent girls at high familial risk for depression (n = 145; mean age = 11.70 years), with all girls having biological mothers who experienced recurrent depression. Analyses examined the role of maternal caregiving on girls' trajectories of depression and antisocial behavior, while controlling for levels of co-occurring psychopathology at each time point. Results suggest increasing levels of depressive symptoms for girls at familial risk for depression but decreasing levels of depression for girls in foster care. Foster girls' antisocial behavior also decreased over time. Maternal caregiver involvement was differentially related to intercept and slope parameters in both samples. Results are discussed with respect to the benefits of applying multilevel (multisample, multiple outcome) approaches to identifying family-level factors that can reduce negative developmental outcomes in high-risk youth.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Gordon T. Harold, Rudd Center for Adoption Research and Practice, School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Sussex, UK; E-mail: g.harold@sussex.ac.uk; or Leslie D. Leve, Prevention Science Institute, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403; E-mail: leve@uoregon.edu.

References

Hide All
Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (2000). The Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA). Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 3948.
Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (2001). The epidemiology of depression in children and adolescents. Depressed Child and Adolescent, 2, 143178.
Angold, A., Costello, E. J., & Erkanli, A. (1999). Comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 5787.
Biederman, J., Faraone, S., Mick, E., & Lelon, E. (1995). Psychiatric comorbidity among referred juveniles with major depression: Fact or artifact? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 579590.
Boylan, K., Vaillancourt, T., Boyle, M., & Szatmari, P. (2007). Comorbidity of internalizing disorders in children with oppositional defiant disorder. European Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 16, 484494.
Boylan, K., Vaillancourt, T., & Szatmari, P. (2012). Linking oppositional behaviour trajectories to the development of depressive symptoms in childhood. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 43, 484497.
Capaldi, D. M. (1991). The co-occurrence of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in early adolescent boys: I. Familial factors and general adjustment at Grade 6. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 277300.
Capaldi, D. M. (1992). Co-occurrence of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in early adolescent boys: II. A 2-year follow-up at Grade 8. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 125144.
Capaldi, D. M., & Stoolmiller, M. (1999). Co-occurrence of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in early adolescent boys: 3. Prediction to young-adult adjustment. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 5984.
Chamberlain, P., Leve, L. D., & Smith, D. K. (2006). Preventing behavior problems and health-risking behaviors in girls in foster care. International Journal of Behavioral and Consultation Therapy, 2, 518530.
Cicchetti, D. (2013). Annual research review: Resilient functioning in maltreated children—Past, present, and future perspectives. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 54, 402422.
Cicchetti, D., & Garmezy, N. (1993). Prospects and promises in the study of resilience. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 497502.
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (1996). Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 597600.
Collishaw, S., Maughan, B., Goodman, R., & Pickles, A. (2004). Time trends in adolescent mental health. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 13501362.
Copeland, W. E., Shanahan, L., Erkanli, A., Costello, J., & Angold, A. (2013). Indirect comorbidity in childhood and adolescence. Frontiers in Psychiatry. Advance online publication.
Costello, E. J., Mustillo, S., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G., & Angold, A. (2003). Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 837844.
Davies, P. T., & Windle, M. (1997). Gender-specific pathways between maternal depressive symptoms, family discord, and adolescent adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 33, 657668.
Drabick, K. D., Beauchaine, T. P., Gadow, K. D., Carlson, G. A., & Bromet, E. J. (2006). Risk factors for conduct problems and depressive symptoms in a cohort of Ukrainian children. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 35, 244252.
Eddy, J. M., & Chamberlain, P. (2000). Family management and deviant peer association as mediators of the impact of treatment condition on youth antisocial behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 5, 857863.
Essex, M. J., Kraemer, H. C., Armstrong, J. M., Boyce, W. T., Goldsmith, H. H., Klein, M. H., et al. (2006). Exploring risk factors for the emergence of children's mental health problems. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 12461256.
Fagan, A., & Western, J. (2003). Gender differences in the relationship between offending, self-harm and depression in adolescence and young adulthood. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 36, 320337.
Fazel, S., Doll, H., & Långström, N. (2008). Mental disorders among adolescents in juvenile detention and correctional facilities: A systematic review and metaregression analysis of 25 surveys. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 10101019.
Fergusson, D. M., Lynskey, M. T., & Horwood, L. (1996). Origins of comorbidity between conduct and affective disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 451460.
Fite, P. J., Colder, C. R., Lochman, J. E., & Wells, K. C. (2008). The relation between childhood proactive and reactive aggression and substance use initiation. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 261271.
Ford, T. (2008). Practitioner review: How can epidemiology help us plan and deliver effective child and adolescent mental health services? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 900914.
Gallerani, C. M., Garber, J., & Martin, N. C. (2010). The temporal relation between depression and comorbid psychopathology in adolescents at varied risk for depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 242249.
Garmezy, N., Masten, A. S., & Tellegen, A. (1984). The study of stress and competence in children: A building block for developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 97111.
Ge, X., Best, K. M., Conger, R. D., & Simons, R. L. (1996). Parenting behaviors and the occurrence and co-occurrence of adolescent depressive symptoms and conduct problems. Developmental Psychology, 32, 717731.
Ge, X., Lorenz, F. O., Conger, R. D., Elder, G. H., & Simons, R. L. (1994). Trajectories of stressful life events and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 30, 467483.
Grant, K. E., & Compas, B. E. (1995). Stress and anxious-depressed symptoms among adolescents: Searching for mechanisms of risk. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 10151021.
Greenberg, M. T., Weissberg, R. P., O'Brien, M. U., Zins, J. E., Fredericks, L., Resnik, H., et al. (2003). Enhancing school-based prevention and youth development through coordinated social, emotional, and academic learning. American Psychologist, 58, 466474.
Hankin, B. L., Abramson, L. Y., Moffitt, T. E., Silva, P. A., McGee, R., & Angell, K. E. (1998). Development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood: Emerging gender differences in a 10-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 128140.
Harold, G. T., Leve, L. D., Elam, K. K., Thapar, A., Neiderhiser, J. M., Natsuaki, M. N., et al. (2013). The nature of nurture: Disentangling passive genotype–environment correlation from family relationship influences on children's externalizing problems. Journal of Family Psychology, 27, 1221.
Harold, G. T., Rice, F., Hay, D. F., Boivin, J., van den Bree, M., & Thapar, A. (2011). Familial transmission of depression and antisocial behavior symptoms: Disentangling the contribution of inherited and environmental factors and testing the mediating role of parenting. Psychological Medicine, 41, 11751185.
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 155.
Hyde, J. S., Mezulis, A. H., & Abramson, L. Y. (2008). The ABCs of depression: Integrating affective, biological, and cognitive models to explain the emergence of the gender difference in depression. Psychological Review, 115, 291313.
Ingoldsby, E. M., Kohl, G. O., McMahon, R. J., & Lengua, L. (2006). Conduct problems, depressive symptomatology and their co-occurring presentation in childhood as predictors of adjustment in early adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 603621.
Jaffee, S. R., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., & Taylor, A. (2003). Life with (or without) father: The benefits of living with two biological parents depend on the father's antisocial behavior. Child Development, 74, 109126.
Jaffee, S. R., & Price, T. S. (2007). Gene–environment correlations: A review of the evidence and implications for prevention of mental illness. Molecular Psychiatry, 12, 432442.
Kaufman, J., & Charney, D. (2001). Effects of early stress on brain structure and function: Implications for understanding the relationship between child maltreatment and depression. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 451472.
Kerr, D. C. R., Leve, L. D., Harold, G. T., Natsuaki, M., Neiderhiser, J., Shaw, D. S., et al. (2013). Influences of biological and adoptive mothers' depression and antisocial behavior on adoptees' early behavior trajectories. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 723734.
Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Nelson, C. B., Hughes, M., Swartz, M., & Blazer, D. G. (1994). Sex and depression in the National Comorbidity Survey. II: Cohort effects. Journal of Affective Disorders, 30, 1526.
Kofler, M. J., McCart, M. R., Zajac, K., Ruggiero, K. J., Saunders, B. E., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (2011). Depression and delinquency covariation in an accelerated longitudinal sample of adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79, 458469.
Kovacs, M., Paulauskas, S., Gatsonis, C., & Richards, C. (1988). Depressive disorders in childhood: III. A longitudinal study of comorbidity with and risk for conduct disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, 15, 205217.
Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Burke, J., Rathouz, P. J., & McBurnett, K. (2002). Waxing and waning in concert: Dynamic comorbidity of conduct disorder with other disruptive and emotional problems over 17 years among clinic-referred boys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 556567.
Leve, L. D., & Chamberlain, P. (2007). A randomized evaluation of multidimensional treatment foster care: Effects on school attendance and homework completion in juvenile justice girls. Research on Social Work Practice, 17, 657663.
Lieb, R., Isensee, B., Hofler, M., Pfister, H., & Wittchen, H. U. (2002). Parental major depression and the risk of depression and other mental disorders in offspring: A prospective-longitudinal community study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 365374.
Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Van Kammen, W. B. (1998). Antisocial behavior and mental health problems. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Loeber, R., & Keenan, K. (1994). Interaction between conduct disorder and its comorbid conditions: Effects of age and gender. Clinical Psychology Review, 14, 497523.
Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1998). Development of juvenile aggression and violence: Some common misconceptions and controversies. American Psychologist, 53, 242259.
Mars, B., Collishaw, S., Smith, D., Thapar, A., Potter, R., Sellers, R., et al. (2012). Offspring of parents with recurrent depression: Which features of parent depression index risk for offspring psychopathology? Journal of Affective Disorders, 136, 4453.
Masten, A. S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56, 227238.
McCarty, C. A., & McMahon, R. J. (2003). Mediators of the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and child internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of Family Psychology, 17, 545556.
Mezulis, A., Vander Stoep, A., Stone, A. L., & McCauley, E. (2011). A latent class analysis of depressive and externalizing symptoms in nonreferred adolescents. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 19, 247256.
Murray, J. L., & Lopez, A. D. (1996). The global burden of disease: A comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020. Summary. Boston: Harvard School of Public Health.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2012). Mplus user's guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles: Author.
Patterson, G. R., & Capaldi, D. M. (1990). A mediational model for boys' depressed mood. In Rolf, J. E., Masten, A. S., Cicchetti, D., Nuechterlein, K. H., & Weintraub, S. (Eds.), Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology (pp. 141163). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Patterson, G. R., & Stoolmiller, M. (1991). Replications of a dual failure model for boys' depressed mood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 491498.
Puzzanchera, C., & Adams, B. (2011). Juvenile arrests 2009 (Juvenile Offenders and Victims: National Report Series Bulletin). Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved December 13, 2013, from http://www.ojjdp.gov/pubs/236477.pdf
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385401.
Reid, J. B., Patterson, G. R., & Loeber, R. (1982). The abused child: Victim, instigator, or innocent bystander? In Bernstein, J. (Ed.), Response structure and organization. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press.
Rice, F. J., Harold, G. T., & Thapar, A. (2002). The genetic aetiology of childhood depression: A review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 6579.
Ritakallio, M., Koivisto, A.-M., von der Pahlen, B., Pelkonen, M., Marttunen, M., & Kaltiala-Heino, R. (2008). Continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression and antisocial behavior in middle adolescence: A 2-year prospective follow-up study. Journal of Adolescence, 31, 355370.
Roberts, R. E., Roberts, C. R., & Xing, Y. (2007). Rates of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders among adolescents in a large metropolitan area. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 41, 959967.
Rowe, R., Rijsdijk, F. V., Maughan, B., Eley, T. C., & Hosang, G. M. (2008). Heterogeneity in antisocial behaviors and comorbidity with depressed mood: A behavioral genetic approach. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 526534.
Rudolph, K. D., Hammen, C., & Burge, D. (1997). A cognitive–interpersonal approach to depressive symptoms in preadolescent children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 3345.
Rutter, M. (2000). Resilience reconsidered: Conceptual considerations, empirical findings, and policy implications. In Shonkoff, J. P. & Meiseis, S. J. (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood intervention (2nd ed., pp. 651682). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rutter, M. (2006). Genes and behavior: Nature–nurture interplay explained. Malden, UK: Blackwell Publishing.
Rutter, M. (2007). Resilience, competence, and coping. Child Abuse and Neglect, 31, 205209.
Ryan, J. P., & Testa, M. F. (2005). Child maltreatment and juvenile delinquency: Investigating the role of placement and placement instability. Children and Youth Services Review, 27, 227249.
Sellers, R., Harold, G. T., Elam, K., Rhoades, K. A., Potter, R., Mars, B., et al. (2014). Maternal depression and co-occurring antisocial behavior: Testing maternal hostility and warmth as mediators of risk for offspring psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55, 112120.
Silberg, J. L., Maes, H., & Eaves, L. J. (2010). Genetic and environmental influences on the transmission of parental depression to children's depression and conduct disturbance: An extended children of twins study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 734744.
Silberg, J., Rutter, M., D'Onofrio, B., & Eaves, L. (2003). Genetic and environmental risk factors in adolescent substance use. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 664676.
Teicher, M. H., & Samson, J. A. (2013). Childhood maltreatment and psychopathology: A case for ecophenotypic variants as clinically and neurobiologically distinct subtypes. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 11141133.
Thapar, A., Collishaw, S., Pine, D. S., & Thapar, A. K. (2012). Depression in adolescence. Lancet, 379, 10561067.
Trickett, P. K., Negriff, S., Ji, J., & Peckins, M. (2011). Child maltreatment and adolescent development. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 320.
Tully, E. C., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2008). An adoption study of parental depression as an environmental liability for adolescent depression and childhood disruptive disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 11481154.
Welsh, J. L., Schmidt, F., McKinnon, L., Chattha, H. K., & Meyers, J. R. (2008). A comparative study of adolescent risk assessment instruments: Predictive and incremental validity. Assessment, 15, 104115.
White, C. R., O'Brien, K., White, J., Pecora, P. J., & Phillips, C. M. (2008). Alcohol and drug use among alumni of foster care: Decreasing dependency through improvement of foster care experiences. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 35, 419434.
Wiesner, M. (2003). A longitudinal latent variable analysis of reciprocal relations between depressive symptoms and delinquency during adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 633645.
Wiesner, M., & Kim, H. K. (2006). Co-occurring delinquency and depressive symptoms of adolescent boys and girls: A dual trajectory modeling approach. Developmental Psychology, 42, 12201235.
Wickramaratne, P. J., & Weissman, M. M. (1998). Onset of psychopathology in offspring by developmental phase and parental depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 933942.
World Health Organization. (2001). World Health Report 2001: Mental health: New understanding, new hope. Geneva: Author.

Maternal caregiving and girls' depressive symptom and antisocial behavior trajectories: An examination among high-risk youth

  • Gordon T. Harold (a1) (a2), Leslie D. Leve (a3) (a4), Hyoun K. Kim (a4), Liam Mahedy (a5), Darya Gaysina (a1), Anita Thapar (a5) and Stephan Collishaw (a5)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed