Achenbach, T. M. (1992). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist 2/3 and 1992 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department Psychiatry.
Ahadi, S., & Diener, E. (1989). Multiple determinants and effect size. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 398–406.
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1996). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Andrews, G., & Peters, L. (1998). The psychometric properties of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Social Psychiatry Psychiatric Epidemiology, 33, 80–88.
Askey, C., & Field, A. P. (2008). The vicarious learning pathways to fear 40 years on. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 1249–1265.
Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of behavioral modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Bank, L., Dishion, T. J., Skinner, M., & Patterson, G. R. (1990). Method variance in structural equation modeling: Living with “glop.” In Patterson, G. R. (Ed.), Aggression and depression in family interactions (pp. 247–280). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Barry, R. A., Kochanska, G., & Philibert, R. A. (2008). GxE interaction in the organization of attachment: Mothers' responsiveness as a moderator of children's genotypes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 1313–1320.
Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1993a). Beck Anxiety Inventory manual. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1993b). Beck Depression Inventory manual. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Beidel, D., & Turner, S. M. (1997). At risk for anxiety: I. Psychopathology in the offspring of anxious parents. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 918–924.
Belsky, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2007). For better and for worse: Differential susceptilibility to environmental influences. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 300–304.
Biederman, J., Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R., Rosenbaum, J. F., Friedman, D., Snidman, N., Kagan, J., et al. (2001). Further evidence of association between behavioral inhibition and social anxiety in children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1673–1679.
Biederman, J., Rosenbaum, J. F., Hirshfeld, D. R., Faraone, S. V., Bolduc, E. A., Gersten, M., et al. (1990). Psychiatric correlates of behavioral inhibition in young children of parents with and without psychiatric disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 21–26.
Bornstein, M. H., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (1989). Maternal responsiveness and cognitive development in children. In Bornstein, M. H. (Ed.), Maternal responsiveness: Characteristics and consequences (pp. 49–61). San Francisco, CA: Jossey–Bass.
Boyce, W. T., & Ellis, B. J. (2005). Biological sensitivity to context: I. An evolutionary–developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 271–301.
Bradley, R. H., Caldwell, B. M., & Rock, S. (1988). Home environment and school performance: A ten-year follow-up and examination of three models of environmental action. Child Development, 59, 852–867.
Caldwell, B. M., & Bradley, R. H. (1984). Administration manual, revisited edition: The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment. Little Rock, AR: University of Arkansas Press.
Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Thornston, A., Freedman, D., Amell, J. W., Harrington, H., et al. (1996). The life history calendar: A research and clinical assessment method for collecting retrospective event-history data. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 6, 101–114.
Cicchetti, D., & Cohen, D. J. (1995). Perspectives on developmental psychopathology. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 1. Theory and methods (pp. 3–22). New York: Wiley.
Crockenberg, S. C., & Leerkes, E. (2006). Infant and maternal behavior moderate reactivity to novelty to predict anxious behavior at 2.5 years. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 17–34.
Davidov, M., & Grusec, J. E. (2006). Untangling the links of parental responsiveness to distress and warmth to child outcomes. Child Development, 77, 44–58.
Degnan, K. A., Almas, A. N., & Fox, N. A. (2010). Temperament and the environment in the etiology of childhood anxiety. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 497–517.
Egger, H. L., & Angold, A. (2006). Common emotional and behavioral disorders in preschool children: Presentation, nosology, and epidemiology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 313–337.
Eley, T. C., Bolton, D., O'Connor, T. G., Perrin, S., Smith, P., & Plomin, R. (2003). A twin study of anxiety-related behaviours in pre-school children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 945–960.
Feldman, R., Greenbaum, C. W., & Yirmiya, N. (1999). Mother–infant affect synchrony as an antecedent of the emergence of self-control. Developmental Psychology, 35, 223–231.
Feng, X., Shaw, D. S., & Silk, J. S. (2008). Developmental trajectories of anxiety symptoms among boys across early and middle childhood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 32–43.
Fox, N. A., Nichols, K. E., Hendersen, H. A., Rubin, K., Schmidt, L., Hamer, D., et al. (2005). Evidence for a gene–environment interaction in predicting behavioral inhibition in middle childhood. Psychological Science, 16, 921–926.
Ge, X., Natsuaki, M. N., Martin, D., Leve, L. D., Neiderhiser, J. M., Shaw, D. S., et al. (2008). Bridging the divide: Openness in adoption and post-adoption psychological adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 529–540.
Goldsmith, H. H., & Lemery, K. S. (2000). Linking temperamental fearfulness and anxiety symptoms: A behavior–genetic perspective. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 1199–1209.
Goldsmith, H. H., & Rothbart, M. K. (1999a). The Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB): Prelocomotor version, edition 3.1. Arlington, TX: University or Texas at Arlington, Department of Psychology.
Goldsmith, H. H., & Rothbart, M. K. (1999b). The Laboratory Temperament Battery (Lab-TAB): Locomotor version, edition 3.1. Arlington, TX: University or Texas at Arlington, Department of Psychology.
Gottlieb, G. (1998). Normally occuring environmental and behavioral influences on gene activities: From central dogma to probabilistic epigenesis. Psychological Review, 105, 792–802.
Gottlieb, G. (2007). Probablistic epigenesis. Developmental Science, 10, 1–11.
Gross, C., & Hen, R. (2004). The developmental origins of anxiety. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5, 545–552.
Hettema, J. M., Neale, M., & Kendler, K. (2001). A review and meta-analysis of the genetic epidemiology of anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1568–1578.
Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., & Snidman, N. (1988). The physiology and psychology of behavioral inhibition in children Child Development, 58, 1459–1473.
Kendler, K. S., Neale, M., Kessler, R. C., Heath, A. C., & Eaves, L. J. (1992). The genetic epidemiology of phobias in women: The interrelationship of agorophobia, social phobia, situational phobia, and simple phobia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 173–281.
Kendler, K. S., Prescott, C. A., Myers, J., & Neale, M. C. (2003). The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for common psychiatric and substance use disorders in men and women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 929–937.
Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Shanyang, Z., Nelson, C. B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., et al. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 8–19.
Kessler, R. C., & Ustun, T. B. (2004). The World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 13, 93–121.
Kochanska, G. (1991). Patterns of inhibition to the unfamiliar in children of normal and affectively ill mothers. Child Development, 62, 250–263.
Kochanska, G. (1995). Children's temperament, mothers' disciplne, and security of attachment: Multiple pathways to emerging internalization. Child Development, 66, 597–615.
Kochanska, G., Aksan, N., & Joy, M. E. (2007). Children's fearfulness as a moderator of parenting in early socialization: Two longitudinal studies. Developmental Psychology, 43, 222–237.
Kochanska, G., Philibert, R. A., & Barry, R. A. (2009). Interplay of genes and early mother and child relationship in the development of self-regulation from toddler to preschool age. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 1331–1338.
Kraemer, H. C., Measelle, J. R., Ablow, J. C., Essex, M. J., Boyce, W. T., & Kupfer, D. J. (2003). A new approach to integrating data from multiple informants in psychiatric assessment and research: Mixing and matching contexts and perspectives. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1566–1577.
Kreider, R. N. (2003). Adopted children and stepchildren 2000: Census 2000 special report (No. CENSR-GRV). Washington, DC: Census Bureau.
Landry, S. H., Smith, K. E., Miller-Loncar, C. L., & Swank, P. R. (1997). Predicting cognitive–linguistic and social growth curves from early maternal behaviors in children at varying degrees of biological risk. Developmental Psychology, 33, 1040–1053.
Landry, S. H., Smith, K. E., & Swank, P. R. (2006). Responsive parenting: Establishing early foundations for social communication, and independent problem-solving skills. Developmental Psychology, 42, 627–642.
Landry, S. H., Smith, K. E., Swank, P. R., Assel, M. A., & Vellet, S. (2001). Does early responsive parenting have a special importance for children's development or is consistency across early childhood necessary? Developmental Psychology, 37, 387–403.
Lau, J. Y. F., Gregory, A. M., Goldwin, M. A., Pine, D. S., & Eley, T. C. (2007). Assessing gene–environment interactions on anxiety symptom subtypes across childhood and adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 1129–1146.
Leve, L. D., Neiderhiser, J. M., Ge, X., Scaramella, L. V., Conger, R. D., Reid, J. B., et al. (2007). The Early Growth and Development Study: A prospective adoption design. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 10, 84–95.
Leve, L. D., Neiderhiser, J. M., Scaramella, L. V., & Reiss, D. (2008). The Early Growth and Development Study: Using the prospective adoption design to examine genotype–environment interplay. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 40, 1008–1115.
Lieb, R., Wittchen, H. U., Hofler, M., Fuetsch, M., Stein, M. B., & Merikangas, K. R. (2000). Parental psychopathology, parenting styles, and the risk of social phobia in offspring: A prospective–longitudinal community study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 859–866.
Mancini, C., Van Amerigen, M., Szatmari, P., Fugerer, C., & Boyle, M. (1996). A high-risk pilot study of the children of adults with social phobia. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1511–1517.
Massey, S. H., Lieberman, D. Z., Reiss, D., Leve, L. D., Shaw, D. S., & Neiderhiser, J. M. (2010). Association of clinical characteristics and cessation of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use during pregnancy. American Journal on Addictions, 20, 143–150.
McLeod, B. D., Wood, J. J., & Weisz, J. R. (2007). Examining the association between parenting and childhood anxiety: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 155–172.
McNeil, T. F., & Sjostrom, K. (1995). The McNeil–Sjostrom Scale for obstetric complications. Malmo, Sweden: Lund University, University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry.
Micco, J. A., Henin, A., Mick, E., Kim, S., Hopkins, C. A., Biederman, J., et al. (2009). Anxiety and depressive disorders in offspring at high risk for anxiety: A meta-analysis. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 1158–1164.
Moggs, K., Bradley, B. P., & Williams, R. (1995). Attentional bias in anxiety and depression: The role of awareness. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34, 17–36.
Natsuaki, M. N., Ge, X., Leve, L. D., Neiderhiser, J. M., Shaw, D. S., Conger, R. D., et al. (2010). Genetic liability, environment, and the development of fussiness in toddlers: The roles of maternal depression and parental responsiveness. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1147–1158.
Neiderhiser, J. M. (2011). Gene–environment interplay helps to explain influences of family relationships on adolescent adjustment and development. In Booth, A., McHale, S. M., & Landale, N. S. (Eds.), Biosocial foundations of family processes. New York: Springer.
Nicodemus, K. K., Marenco, S., Batten, A. J., Vakkalanka, R., Egan, M. F., Straub, R., et al. (2008). Serious obstretric complications interact with hypoxia-regulated/vascular-expression genes to influence schizophrenia risk. Molecular Psychiatry, 13, 873–877.
Ollendick, T. H., & Hirshfeld-Becker, D. R. (2002). The developmental psychology of social anxiety disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 44–58.
Pauli-Pott, U., Friedl, S., Hinney, A., & Hebeberand, J. (2009). Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), environmental condition, and developing negative emotionality and fear in early childhood. Journal of Neural Transmission, 116, 503–512.
Phares, V., & Compas, B. (1992). The role of fathers in child and adolescent psychopathology: Make a room for daddy. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 387–412.
Plomin, R., & McGuffin, P. (2003). Psychopathology in the postgenomic era. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 205–228.
Pluess, M., & Belsky, J. (2010). Differential susceptibility to parenting and quality of chld care. Developmental Psychology, 46, 379–390.
Preacher, K. J., Curran, P. J., & Bauer, D. J. (2006). Computational tools for probing interactions in multiple linear regression, multilevel modeling, and latent curve analysis. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 31, 437–448.
Prior, M., Smart, D., Sanson, A., & Oberklaid, F. (2000). Does shy-inhibited temperament in childhood lead to anxiety problems in adolescence? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 461–468.
Rapee, R. M., & Spence, S. H. (2004). The etiology of social phobia: Empirical evidence and an initial model. Clinical Psychology Review, 24, 737–767.
Rausenbaum, J. F., Biederman, J., Hirshfeld, D. R., Bolduc, E. A., Faraone, S. V., Kagan, J., et al. (1991). Further evidence of an association between behavioral inhibition and anxiety disorders: Results from a family study of children from a non-clinical sample. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 25, 49–65.
Rubin, K. H., Burgess, K. B., & Hastings, P. D. (2002). Stability and social–behavioral consequences of toddlers' inhibited temperament and parenting behaviors. Child Development, 73, 483–495.
Rutter, M. (2006). Genes and behavior: Nature–nurture interplay explained. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Rutter, M., Pickles, A., Murray, R., & Eaves, L. J. (2001). Testing hypotheses on specific environmental causal effects on behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 291–324.
Shannahan, M., & Hofer, S. M. (2005). Social context in gene–environment interactions: Retrospect and prospect. Journals of Gerontology, 60B, 65–76.
Silberg, J., Rutter, M., Neale, M., & Eaves, L. J. (2001). Genetic moderation of environmental risk for depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. British Journal of Psychiatry 179, 116–121.
Sroufe, L. A. (1997). Psychopathology as an outcome of development. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 251–268.
van der Bruggen, C. O., Stams, G. J. J. M., & Bogels, S. M. (2008). Research reivew: The relation between child and parent anxiety and parental control: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 1257–1269.
Wakshlag, L. S., & Hans, S. L. (1999). Relation of maternal responsiveness during infancy to the development of behavioral problems in high risk youth. Developmental Psychology, 31, 147–169.
Warren, S. L., Huston, L., Egeland, B., & Sroufe, L. A. (1997). Child and adolescent anxiety disorders and early attachment. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 637–644.
Woodruff-Borden, J., Morrow, C., Bourland, S., & Cambron, S. (2002). The behavior of anxious parents: Examining mechanisms of transmission of anxiety from parent to child. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31, 364–374.
Yeung, W. J., Sandberg, J. F., Davis-Kean, P. E., & Hofferth, S. L. (2001). Children's time with fathers in intact families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 63, 136–154.
Zeanah, C. H., Boris, N. W., & Scheeringa, M. S. (1997). Psychopathology in infancy. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 81–99.