Skip to main content Accessibility help

Enduring effect of childhood maltreatment on cortisol and heart rate responses to stress: The moderating role of severity of experiences

  • Isabelle Ouellet-Morin (a1) (a2) (a3), Marie-Pier Robitaille (a1), Stéphanie Langevin (a1), Christina Cantave (a1), Mara Brendgen (a3) (a4) and Sonia J. Lupien (a1) (a2)...


There is a relative consensus about the detrimental impact of childhood maltreatment on later mental health problems and behavioral difficulties. Prior research suggests that neurophysiological stress mechanisms may partly mediate this association. However, inconsistent findings regarding hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic responses to stress complicate this investigation. Furthermore, the concordance in these two stress systems is not well understood. We tested whether the severity of maltreatment affected the association between maltreatment and cortisol and heart rate (HR) stress responses and the symmetry of these responses. Participants were 155 males (56 maltreated and 99 controls) aged 18 to 35 years. Cortisol and HR were measured in response to the Trier Social Stress Test. Childhood maltreatment, sociodemographic factors, and health-related factors were measured using self-reported questionnaires. Maltreated participants had higher cortisol responses to stress in comparison to controls. However, a shift from moderate to lower to higher cortisol responses was noted as the severity of the experiences increased. Participants exposed to more experiences of maltreatment also showed a greater symmetry between cortisol and HR stress responses. Our findings provide further support for persistent dysregulation of the HPA axis following childhood maltreatment, of which the expression and symmetry with the sympathetic system may change according to the severity of experiences.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Enduring effect of childhood maltreatment on cortisol and heart rate responses to stress: The moderating role of severity of experiences
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Enduring effect of childhood maltreatment on cortisol and heart rate responses to stress: The moderating role of severity of experiences
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Enduring effect of childhood maltreatment on cortisol and heart rate responses to stress: The moderating role of severity of experiences
      Available formats


Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Isabelle Ouellet-Morin, School of Criminology, University of Montreal, Research Center of the Montreal Mental Health University Institute and the Research Group on Child Maladjustment, C.P. 6128, succursale Centre-ville, Montréal QC, H3C 3J7, Canada; E-mail:


Hide All

We are grateful to the participants who have given their time to take part in this study. The data presented in this manuscript have been funded by the HF Guggenheim Foundation. Isabelle Ouellet-Morin is Canada Research Chair in the Developmental Origins of Vulnerability and Resilience, and Stéphanie Langevin is supported by the Fonds de recherche du Québec–Société et Culture. Mara Brendgen was supported by the Fonds de Recherche du Québec-Santé, and Sonia J. Lupien is a Canada Research Chair in Human Stress.



Hide All
Allwood, M. A., Handwerger, K., Kivlighan, K. T., Granger, D. A., & Stroud, L. R. (2011). Direct and moderating links of salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol stress-reactivity to youth behavioral and emotional adjustment. Biological Psychology, 88, 5764. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.06.008.
Andrews, J., Wadiwalla, M., Juster, R. P., Lord, C., Lupien, S. J., & Pruessner, J. C. (2007). Effects of manipulating the amount of social-evaluative threat on the cortisol stress response in young healthy men. Behavioral Neuroscience, 121, 871876. doi:10.1037/0735-7044.121.5.871.
Archer, J. (2004). Sex differences in aggression in real-world settings: A meta-analytic review. Review of General Psychology, 8, 291322. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.8.4.291.
Bae, Y. J., Stadelmann, S., Klein, A. M., Jaeger, S., Hiemisch, A., Kiess, W., … Dohnert, M. (2015). The hyporeactivity of salivary cortisol at stress test (TSST-C) in children with internalizing or externalizing disorders is contrastively associated with alpha-amylase. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 71, 7888. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.09.013.
Barnett, D., Manly, J. T., & Cicchetti, D. (1993). Defining child maltreatment: The interface between policy and research. In Cicchetti, T. S. (Ed.), Child abuse, child development, and social policy (pp. 773). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Bauer, A. M., Quas, J. A., & Boyce, W. T. (2002). Associations between physiological reactivity and children's behavior: Advantages of a multisystem approach. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 23, 102113. doi:10.1097/00004703-200204000-00007.
Beauchaine, T. P., & McNulty, T. (2013). Comorbidities and continuities as ontogenic processes: Toward a developmental spectrum model of externalizing psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 15051528. doi:10.1017/S0954579413000746.
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory—Second Edition manual. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Bernard, K., Frost, A., Bennett, C. B., & Lindhiem, O. (2017). Maltreatment and diurnal cortisol regulation: A meta-analysis. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 78, 5767. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.01.005.
Bernstein, D., & Fink, L. (1998). Childhood Trauma Questionnaire manual. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Bernstein, D., Stein, J. A., Newcomb, M. D., Walker, E., Pogge, D., Ahluvalia, T., … Zule, W. (2003). Development and validation of a brief screening version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Child Abuse and Neglect, 27, 169190. doi:10.1016/S0145-2134(02)00541-0.
Boks, M. P., Rutten, B. P., Geuze, E., Houtepen, L. C., Vermetten, E., Kaminsky, Z., & Vinkers, C. H. (2016). SKA2 methylation is involved in cortisol stress reactivity and predicts the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after military deployment. Neuropsychopharmacology, 41, 13501356. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.286.
Bowes, L., & Jaffee, S. R. (2013). Biology, genes, and resilience: Toward a multidisciplinary approach. Trauma Violence Abuse, 14, 195208. doi:10.1177/1524838013487807.
Boyce, T. W., & Ellis, B. J. (2005). Biological sensitivity to context: I. An evolutionary-developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 271301. doi:10.10170S0954579405050145.
Bruce, J., Fisher, P. A., Pears, K. C., & Levine, S. (2009). Morning cortisol levels in preschool-aged foster children: Differential effects of maltreatment type. Developmental Psychobiology, 51, 1423. doi:10.1002/dev.20333.
Bugental, D. B., Martorell, G. A., & Barraza, V. (2003). The hormonal costs of subtle forms of infant maltreatment. Hormones and Behavior, 43, 237244. doi:10.1016/S0018-506X(02)00008-9.
Carpenter, L. L., Carvalho, J. P., Tyrka, A. R., Wier, L. M., Mello, A. F., Mello, M. F., … Price, L. H. (2007). Decreased adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol responses to stress in healthy adults reporting significant childhood maltreatment. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 10801087. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.05.002.
Carpenter, L. L., Shattuck, T. T., Tyrka, A. R., Geracioti, T. D., & Price, L. H. (2011). Effect of childhood physical abuse on cortisol stress response. Psychopharmacology, 214, 367375. doi:10.1007/s00213-010-2007-4.
Carpenter, L. L., Tyrka, A. R., Ross, N. S., Khoury, L., Anderson, G. M., & Price, L. H. (2009). Effect of childhood emotional abuse and age on cortisol responsivity in adulthood. Biological Psychiatry, 66, 6975. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.02.030.
Cicchetti, D. (2016). Socioemotional, personality, and biological development: Illustrations from a multilevel developmental psychopathology perspective on child maltreatment. Annual Review of Psychology, 67, 187211. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-122414-033259.
Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., Gunnar, M. R., & Toth, S. L. (2010). The differential impacts of early physical and sexual abuse and internalizing problems on daytime cortisol rhythm in school-aged children. Child Development, 81, 252269. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01393.x.
Cook, E. C., Chaplin, T. M., Sinha, R., Tebes, J. K., & Mayes, L. C. (2012). The stress response and adolescents’ adjustment: The impact of child maltreatment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 10671077. doi:10.1007/s10964-012-9746-y.
Crofton, E. J., Zhang, Y., & Green, T. A. (2015). Inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 49, 1931. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.11.017.
De Bellis, M. D., Lefter, L., Trickett, P. K., & Putnam, F. W. Jr. (1994). Urinary catecholamine excretion in sexually abused girls. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 320327. doi:10.1097/00004583-199403000-00004.
de Kloet, E. R. (2014). From receptor balance to rational glucocorticoid therapy. Endocrinology, 155, 27542769. doi:10.1210/en.2014-1048.
Del Giudice, M., Ellis, B. J., & Shirtcliff, E. A. (2011). The adaptive calibration model of stress responsivity. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Review, 35, 15621592. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.11.007.
Doom, J. R., Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (2014). Longitudinal patterns of cortisol regulation differ in maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53, 12061215. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2014.08.006.
Doom, J. R., & Gunnar, M. R. (2013). Stress physiology and developmental psychopathology: Past, present, and future. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 13591373. doi:10.1017/S0954579413000667.
Ellis, B. J., & Boyce, T. (2008). Biological sensitivity to context. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 183187. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00571.x.
El-Sheikh, M., Erath, S. A., Buckhalt, J. A., Granger, D. A., & Mize, J. (2008). Cortisol and children's adjustment: The moderating role of sympathetic nervous system activity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 601611. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9204-6.
Elzinga, B. M., Roelofs, K., Tollenaar, M. S., Bakvis, P., van Pelt, J., & Spinhoven, P. (2008). Diminished cortisol responses to psychosocial stress associated with lifetime adverse events: A study among healthy young subjects. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 33, 227237. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2007.11.004.
Engert, V., Efanov, S. I., Dedovic, K., Dagher, A., & Pruessner, J. C. (2011). Increased cortisol awakening response and afternoon/evening cortisol output in healthy young adults with low early life parental care. Psychopharmacology, 214, 261268. doi:10.1007/s00213-010-1918-4.
Epstein, M. A., & Bottoms, B. L. (2002). Explaining the forgetting and recovery of abuse and trauma memories: Possible mechanisms. Child Maltreatment, 7, 210225. doi:10.1177/1077559502007003004.
Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Boden, J. M. (2011). Structural equation modeling of repeated retrospective reports of childhood maltreatment. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 20, 93104. doi:10.1002/mpr.337.
Ferrara, P., Guadagno, C., Sbordone, A., Amato, M., Spina, G., Perrone, G., … Corsello, G. (2016). Child abuse and neglect: A review of the literature. Current Pediatric Review. Advance online publication. doi:10.2174/1573396312666160914193357.
Fries, A. B., Shirtcliff, E. A., & Pollak, S. D. (2008). Neuroendocrine dysregulation following early social deprivation in children. Developmental Psychobiology, 50, 588599. doi:10.1002/dev.20319.
Gordis, E. B., Feres, N., Olezeski, C. L., Rabkin, A. N., & Trickett, P. K. (2010). Skin conductance reactivity and respiratory sinus arrhythmia among maltreated and comparison youth: Relations with aggressive behavior. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35, 547558. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsp113.
Gordis, E. B., Granger, D. A., Susman, E. J., & Trickett, P. K. (2006). Asymmetry between salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase reactivity to stress: Relation to aggressive behavior in adolescents. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31, 976987. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2006.05.010.
Gordis, E. B., Granger, D. A., Susman, E. J., & Trickett, P. K. (2008). Salivary alpha amylase-cortisol asymmetry in maltreated youth. Hormones and Behavior, 53, 96103. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2007.09.002.
Grimm, K. J., Ram, N., & Hamagami, F. (2011). Nonlinear growth curves in developmental research. Child Development, 85, 13571371. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.011630.x.
Gunnar, M., & Vazquez, D. M. (2006). Stress neurobiology and developmental psychopathology. In Cicchetti, D. & Donald, J. C. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (Vol. 2, pp. 533577). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Gustafsson, P. E., Anckarsater, H., Lichtenstein, P., Nelson, N., & Gustafsson, P. A. (2010). Does quantity have a quality all its own? Cumulative adversity and up- and down-regulation of circadian salivary cortisol levels in healthy children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 14101415. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2010.04.004.
Hagan, M. J., Roubinov, D. S., Mistler, A. K., & Luecken, L. J. (2014). Mental health outcomes in emerging adults exposed to childhood maltreatment: The moderating role of stress reactivity. Child Maltreatment, 19, 156167. doi:10.1177/1077559514539753.
Hamstra, D. A., de Kloet, E. R., van Hemert, A. M., de Rijk, R. H., & Van der Does, A. J. (2015). Mineralocorticoid receptor haplotype, oral contraceptives and emotional information processing. Neuroscience, 286, 412422. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.12.004.
Harkness, K. L., Stewart, J. G., & Wynne-Edwards, K. E. (2011). Cortisol reactivity to social stress in adolescents: Role of depression severity and child maltreatment. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36, 173181. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2010.07.006.
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guildford Press.
Heim, C., Newport, D. J., Heit, S., Graham, Y. P., Wilcox, M., Bonsall, R., … Nemeroff, C. B. (2000). Pituitary-adrenal and autonomic responses to stress in women after sexual and physical abuse in childhood. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284, 592597. doi:10.1001/jama.284.5.592.
Herrenkohl, T. I., Hong, S., Klika, J. B., Herrenkohl, R. C., & Russo, M. J. (2013). Developmental impacts of child abuse and neglect related to adult mental health, substance use, and physical health. Journal of Family Violence, 28. doi:10.1007/s10896-012-9474-9.
Houtepen, L. C., Vinkers, C. H., Carrillo-Roa, T., Hiemstra, M., van Lier, P. A., Meeus, W., … Boks, M. P. (2016). Genome-wide DNA methylation levels and altered cortisol stress reactivity following childhood trauma in humans. Nature Communications, 7, 10967. doi:10.1038/ncomms10967.
Hunt, T. K., Slack, K. S., & Berger, L. M. (2016). Adverse childhood experiences and behavioral problems in middle childhood. Child Abuse and Neglect, 67, 391402. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2016.11.005.
Jackson, Y., Gabrielli, J., Fleming, K., Tunno, A. M., & Makanui, P. K. (2014). Untangling the relative contribution of maltreatment severity and frequency to type of behavioral outcome in foster youth. Child Abuse and Neglect, 38, 11471159. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.01.008.
Juster, R. P., McEwen, B. S., & Lupien, S. J. (2010). Allostatic load biomarkers of chronic stress and impact on health and cognition. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 216. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.10.002.
Kudielka, B. M., Buske-Kirschbaum, A., Hellhammer, D. H., & Kirschbaum, C. (2004). HPA axis responses to laboratory psychosocial stress in healthy elderly adults, younger adults, and children: Impact of age and gender. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29, 8398. doi:10.1016/S0306-4530(02)00146-4.
Kudielka, B. M., Hellhammer, D. H., & Wust, S. (2009). Why do we respond so differently? Reviewing determinants of human salivary cortisol responses to challenge. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34, 218. doi:10.1016/S0306-4530(02)00146-4.
Lovallo, W. R., Farag, N. H., Sorocco, K. H., Cohoon, A. J., & Vincent, A. S. (2012). Lifetime adversity leads to blunted stress axis reactivity: Studies from the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project. Biological Psychiatry, 71, 344349. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.10.018.
Lupien, S. J., McEwen, B. S., Gunnar, M. R., & Heim, C. (2009). Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nature Review Neuroscience, 10, 434445. doi:10.1038/nrn2639.
Lupien, S. J., Ouellet-Morin, I., Hupbacha, A., Tu, M. T., Buss, C., Walker, D., … McEwen, B. S. (2006). Beyond the stress concept: Allostatic load—A developmental biological and cognitive perspective. In Cicchetti, D. & Donald, J. C. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 578628). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Luthar, S. S., & Zelazo, L. B. (2003). Research on resilience: An integrative Review. In Luthar, S. S. (Ed.), Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities (pp. 514549). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
MacMillan, H. L., Georgiades, K., Duku, E. K., Shea, A., Steiner, M., Niec, A., … Schmidt, L. A. (2009). Cortisol response to stress in female youths exposed to childhood maltreatment: Results of the Youth Mood Project. Biological Psychiatry, 66, 6268. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.
Mattei, T. A. (2014). Unveiling complexity: Non-linear and fractal analysis in neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 8, 17. doi:10.3389/fncom.2014.00017.
McEwen, B. S. (1998). Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. New England Journal of Medicine, 338, 171179. doi:10.1056/NEJM199801153380307.
Mead, H. K., Beauchaine, T. P., & Shannon, K. E. (2010). Neurobiological adaptations to violence across development. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 122. doi:10.1017/S0954579409990228.
Meaney, M. J. (2010). Epigenetics and the biological definition of Gene × Environment interactions. Child Development, 81, 4179. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01381.x.
Mennen, F. E., Kim, K., Sang, J., & Trickett, P. K. (2010). Child neglect: Definition and identification of youth's experiences in official reports of maltreatment. Child Abuse and Neglect, 34, 647658. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2010.02.007.
Mersky, J. P., & Topitzes, J. (2010). Comparing early adult outcomes of maltreated and non-maltreated children: A prospective longitudinal investigation. Children and Youth Services Review, 32, 10861096. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2009.10.018.
Miller, G. E., Chen, E., & Zhou, E. S. (2007). If it goes up, must it come down? Chronic stress and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in humans. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 2545. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.25.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2011). Mplus user's guide (6th ed.). Los Angeles: Author.
Negriff, S., Saxbe, D. E., & Trickett, P. K. (2015). Childhood maltreatment, pubertal development, HPA axis functioning, and psychosocial outcomes: An integrative biopsychosocial model. Developmental Psychobiology, 57, 984993. doi:10.1002/dev.21340.
Obradovic, J. (2012). How can the study of physiological reactivity contribute to our understanding of adversity and resilience processes in development? Development and Psychopathology, 24, 371387. doi:10.1017/S0954579412000053.
Ouellet-Morin, I., Odgers, C., Danese, A., Bowes, L., Shakoor, S., Papadopoulos, A., … Arseneault, L. (2011). Blunted cortisol responses to stress signal social and behavioral problems among maltreated/bullied 12 year-old children. Biological Psychiatry, 70, 10161023. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.06.017.
Ouellet-Morin, I., Wong, C. C., Danese, A., Pariante, C. M., Papadopoulos, A. S., Mill, J., & Arseneault, L. (2013). Increased serotonin transporter gene (SERT) DNA methylation is associated with bullying victimization and blunted cortisol response to stress in childhood: A longitudinal study of discordant monozygotic twins. Psychological Medicine, 43, 18131823. doi:10.1017/S0033291712002784.
Parker, K. J., Buckmaster, C. L., Schatzberg, A. F., & Lyons, D. M. (2004). Prospective investigation of stress inoculation in young monkeys. Archive of General Psychiatry, 61, 933941. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.61.9.933.
Peckins, M. K., Dockray, S., Eckenrode, J. L., Heaton, J., & Susman, E. J. (2012). The longitudinal impact of exposure to violence on cortisol reactivity in adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51, 366372. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.01.005.
Peckins, M. K., Susman, E. J., Negriff, S., Noll, J., & Trickett, P. K. (2015). Cortisol profiles: A test for adaptive calibration of the stress response system in maltreated and nonmaltreated youth. Develpment and Psychopathology, 27, 14611470. doi:10.1017/S0954579415000875.
Power, C., Thomas, C., Li, L., & Hertzman, C. (2012). Childhood psychosocial adversity and adult cortisol patterns. British Journal of Psychiatry, 201, 199206. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.111.096032.
Sapolsky, R. M., Romero, L. M., & Munck, A. U. (2000). How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and preparative actions. Endocrine Review, 21, 589. doi:10.1210/edrv.21.1.0389.
Saridjan, N. S., Huizink, A. C., Koetsier, J. A., Jaddoe, V. W., Mackenbach, J. P., Hofman, A., … Tiemeier, H. (2010). Do social disadvantage and early family adversity affect the diurnal cortisol rhythm in infants? The Generation R Study. Hormones and Behavior, 57, 247254. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2009.12.001.
Shirtcliff, E. A., Peres, J. C., Dismukes, A. R., Lee, Y., & Phan, J. M. (2014). Hormones: commentary. Riding the physiological roller coaster: Adaptive significance of cortisol stress reactivity to social contexts. Journal of Personality Disorders, 28, 4051. doi:10.1521/pedi.2014.28.1.40.
Smith, C. A., Ireland, T. O., & Thornberry, T. P. (2005). Adolescent maltreatment and its impact on young adult antisocial behavior. Child Abuse and Neglect, 29, 10991119. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2005.02.011.
Struber, N., Struber, D., & Roth, G. (2014). Impact of early adversity on glucocorticoid regulation and later mental disorders. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 38, 1737. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.10.015.
Sullivan, M. W., Bennett, D. S., & Lewis, M. (2013). Individual differences in the cortisol responses of neglected and comparison children. Child Maltreatment, 18, 816. doi:10.1177/1077559512449378.
Susman, E. J. (2006). Psychobiology of persistent antisocial behavior: Stress, early vulnerabilities and the attenuation hypothesis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 376389. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2005.08.002.
Suzuki, A., Poon, L., Papadopoulos, A. S., Kumari, V., & Cleare, A. J. (2014). Long term effects of childhood trauma on cortisol stress reactivity in adulthood and relationship to the occurrence of depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 50, 289299. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.09.007.
Toth, S. L., & Cicchetti, D. (2013). A developmental psychopathology perspective on child maltreatment. Introduction. Child Maltreatment, 18, 135139. doi:10.1177/1077559513500380.
Trickett, P. K., Gordis, E., Peckins, M. K., & Susman, E. J. (2014). Stress reactivity in maltreated and comparison male and female young adolescents. Child Maltreatment, 19, 2737. doi:10.1177/1077559513520466.
Trickett, P. K., Noll, J. G., & Putnam, F. W. (2011). The impact of sexual abuse on female development: Lessons from a multigenerational, longitudinal research study. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 453476. doi:10.1017/S0954579411000174.
Trickett, P. K., Noll, J. G., Susman, E. J., Shenk, C. E., & Putnam, F. W. (2010). Attenuation of cortisol across development for victims of sexual abuse. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 165175. doi:10.1017/S0954579409990332.
van der Vegt, E. J., van der Ende, J., Kirschbaum, C., Verhulst, F. C., & Tiemeier, H. (2009). Early neglect and abuse predict diurnal cortisol patterns in adults: A study of international adoptees. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34, 660669. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.11.004.
van Goozen, S. H., Fairchild, G., Snoek, H., & Harold, G. T. (2007). The evidence for a neurobiological model of childhood antisocial behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 149182. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.149.
van Goozen, S. H., Matthys, W., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., Gispen-de Wied, C., Wiegant, V. M., & van Engeland, H. (1998). Salivary cortisol and cardiovascular activity during stress in oppositional-defiant disorder boys and normal controls. Biological Psychiatry, 43, 531539. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(97)00253-9.
Voellmin, A., Winzeler, K., Hug, E., Wilhelm, F. H., Schaefer, V., Gaab, J., … Bader, K. (2015). Blunted endocrine and cardiovascular reactivity in young healthy women reporting a history of childhood adversity. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 51, 5867. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.09.008.
Vogel, C. U., Wolpert, C., & Wehling, M. (2004). How to measure heart rate? European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 60, 461466. doi:10.1007/s00228-004-0795-3.
Young, H., & Benton, D. (2015). We should be using nonlinear indices when relating heart-rate dynamics to cognition and mood. Scientific Reports, 5, 16619. doi:10.1038/srep16619.
Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Ouellet-Morin et al. supplementary material
Table S.1

 Word (22 KB)
22 KB


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed