Skip to main content Accessibility help

Deprivation and threat, emotion dysregulation, and psychopathology: Concurrent and longitudinal associations

  • Helen M. Milojevich (a1), Kate E. Norwalk (a2) and Margaret A. Sheridan (a3)


Maltreatment increases risk for psychopathology in childhood and adulthood, thus identifying mechanisms that influence these associations is necessary for future prevention and intervention. Emotion dysregulation resulting from maltreatment is one potentially powerful mechanism explaining risk for psychopathology. This study tests a conceptual model that distinguishes deprivation and threat as distinct forms of exposure with different pathways to psychopathology. Here we operationalize threat as exposure to physical and/or sexual abuse and deprivation as exposure to neglect. We test the hypothesis that threat and deprivation differentially predict use of avoidant strategies and total regulation. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Studies on Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN study; N = 866), which followed high-risk children from age 4 to 18. At age 6, children and their parents reported on adversity exposure. Case records documented exposure to abuse and neglect. At 18, adolescents reported on regulation strategies and psychopathology. Regression analyses indicated that greater exposure to threat, but not deprivation, predicted greater use of avoidant strategies in adolescence. Moreover, avoidance partially mediated the longitudinal association between exposure to threat in early childhood and symptoms of internalizing psychopathology in adolescence. Results suggest that abuse and neglect differentially predict regulation strategy use and that regulation strategy use predicts psychopathology.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Helen M. Milojevich, Center for Developmental Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 100 East Franklin St., Chapel Hill, NC 27514; E-mail:


Hide All
Aldao, A., Jazaieri, H., Goldin, P. R., & Gross, J. J. (2014). Adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies: Interactive effects during CBT for social anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 28, 382389. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2014.03.005
Aldao, A., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2010). Specificity of cognitive emotion regulation strategies: A transdiagnostic examination. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 974983. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2010.06.002
Aldao, A., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2012). When are adaptive strategies most predictive of psychopathology? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 276281. doi:10.1037/a0023598
Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 217237. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.11.004
Alink, L. R., Cicchetti, D., Kim, J., & Rogosch, F. A. (2009). Mediating and moderating processes in the relation between maltreatment and psychopathology: Mother-child relationship quality and emotion regulation. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 831843. doi:10.1007/s10802-009-9314-4
Arslan, G. (2017). Psychological maltreatment, coping strategies, and mental health problems: A brief and effective measure of psychological maltreatment in adolescents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 68, 96106. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.03.023
Barnett, D., Manly, J. T., & Cicchetti, D. (1993). Defining child maltreatment: The interface between policy and research. Child Abuse, Child Development, and Social Policy, 8, 773.
Beauchaine, T. P. (2015). Future directions in emotion dysregulation and youth psychopathology. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 44, 875896. doi:10.1080/15374416.2015.1038827
Bos, K. J., Fox, N., Zeanah, C. H., & Nelson, C. A. (2009). Effects of early psychosocial deprivation on the development of memory and executive function. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 3, 16. doi:10.3389/neuro.08.016.2009
Burns, E. E., Jackson, J. L., & Harding, H. G. (2010). Child maltreatment, emotion regulation, and posttraumatic stress: The impact of emotional abuse. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, and Trauma, 19, 801819. doi:10.1080/10926771.2010.522947
Busso, D. S., McLaughlin, K. A., Brueck, S., Peverill, M., Gold, A. L., & Sheridan, M. A. (2017). Child abuse, neural structure, and adolescent psychopathology: A longitudinal study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 56, 321328. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2017.01.013
Busso, D. S., McLaughlin, K. A., & Sheridan, M. A. (2017). Dimensions of adversity, physiological reactivity, and externalizing psychopathology in adolescence: Deprivation and threat. Psychosomatic Medicine, 79, 162171. doi:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000369
Chambers, R., Gullone, E., & Allen, N. B. (2009). Mindful emotion regulation: An integrative review. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 560572. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.06.005
Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (2009). Adaptive coping under conditions of extreme stress: Multilevel influences on the determinants of resilience in maltreated children. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2009, 4759. doi:10.1002/cd.242
Cisler, J. M., Olatunji, B. O., Feldner, M. T., & Forsyth, J. P. (2010). Emotion regulation and the anxiety disorders: An integrative review. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32, 6882. doi:10.1007/s10862-009-9161-1
Cline, J. I., Belsky, J., Li, Z., Melhuish, E., Lysenko, L., McFarquhar, T., … Jaffee, S. R. (2015). Take your mind off it: Coping style, serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region genotype (5-HTTLPR), and children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Development and Psychopathology, 27, 11291143. doi:10.1017/S0954579415000723
Cole, D. A., & Maxwell, S. E. (2003). Testing mediational models with longitudinal data: Questions and tips in the use of structural equation modeling. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 558577. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.112.4.558
Cole, P. M., Hall, S. E., & Hajal, N. J. (2017). Emotion dysregulation as a vulnerability to psychopathology. In Beauchaine, T. P. & Hinshaw, S. P. (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychopathology (3rd ed., pp. 346386). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Collins, S., Woolfson, L. M., & Durkin, K. (2014). Effects on coping skills and anxiety of a universal school-based mental health intervention delivered in Scottish primary schools. School Psychology International, 35, 85100. doi:10.1177/0143034312469157
Compas, B. E., Jaser, S. S., Bettis, A. H., Watson, K. H., Gruhn, M. A., Dunbar, J. P., … Thigpen, J. C. (2017). Coping, emotion regulation, and psychopathology in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analysis and narrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 143, 939991. doi:10.1037/bul0000110
Connor-Smith, J. K., & Compas, B. E. (2004). Coping as a moderator of relations between reactivity to interpersonal stress, health status, and internalizing problems. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28, 347368. doi:10.1023/B:COTR.0000031806.25021.d5
Coyne, L. W., & Thompson, A. D. (2011). Maternal depression, locus of control, and emotion regulatory strategy as predictors of preschoolers’ internalizing problems. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 20, 873883. doi:10.1007/s10826-011-9455-2
D'Avanzato, C., Joormann, J., Siemer, M., & Gotlib, I. H. (2013). Emotion regulation in depression and anxiety: Examining diagnostic specificity and stability of strategy use. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37, 968980. doi:10.1007/s10608-013-9537-0
Derogatis, L. R., & Spencer, P. M. (1993). Brief Symptom Inventory: BSI. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Downey, L. A., Johnston, P. J., Hansen, K., Birney, J., & Stough, C. (2010). Investigating the mediating effects of emotional intelligence and coping on problem behaviours in adolescents. Australian Journal of Psychology, 62, 2029. doi:10.1080/00049530903312873
English, D. J., & Longscan Investigators. (1997). Modified Maltreatment Classification System (MMCS). Retrieved from
Filipas, H. H., & Ullman, S. E. (2006). Child sexual abuse, coping responses, self-blame, posttraumatic stress disorder, and adult sexual revictimization. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21, 652672. doi:10.1177/0886260506286879
Flannery, D. J., Singer, M., Williams, L., & Castro, P. (1998). Adolescent violence exposure and victimization at home: Coping and psychological trauma symptoms. International Review of Victimology, 6, 2948. doi:10.1177/026975809800600103
Flett, G. L., Druckman, T., Hewitt, P. L., & Wekerle, C. (2012). Perfectionism, coping, social support, and depression in maltreated adolescents. Journal of Rational–Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 30, 118131. doi:10.1007/s10942-011-0132-6
Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Spinhoven, P. (2001). Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems. Personality and Individual differences, 30, 13111327. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00113-6
Gross, J. J. (2014). Emotion regulation: Conceptual and empirical foundations. New York: Guilford Press.
Hager, A. D., & Runtz, M. G. (2012). Physical and psychological maltreatment in childhood and later health problems in women: An exploratory investigation of the roles of perceived stress and coping strategies. Child Abuse & Neglect, 36, 393403. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2012.02.002
Holt, S., Buckley, H., & Whelan, S. (2008). The impact of exposure to domestic violence on children and young people: A review of the literature. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 797810. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.02.004
Horwitz, A. G., Hill, R. M., & King, C. A. (2011). Specific coping behaviors in relation to adolescent depression and suicidal ideation. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 10771085. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.10.004
Kim, J., & Cicchetti, D. (2010). Longitudinal pathways linking child maltreatment, emotion regulation, peer relations, and psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 706716. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02202.x
Kim-Spoon, J., Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (2013). A longitudinal study of emotion regulation, emotion lability-negativity, and internalizing symptomatology in maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Child Development, 84, 512527. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01857.x
Lambert, H. K., King, K. M., Monahan, K. C., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2017). Differential associations of threat and deprivation with emotion regulation and cognitive control in adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 29, 929940. doi:10.1017/S0954579416000584
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. Berlin: Springer.
Leporé, N., Voss, P., Lepore, F., Chou, Y. Y., Fortin, M., Gougoux, F., … Toga, A. W. (2010). Brain structure changes visualized in early- and late-onset blind subjects. Neuroimage, 49, 134140. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.07.048
Machmutow, K., Perren, S., Sticca, F., & Alsaker, F. D. (2012). Peer victimisation and depressive symptoms: Can specific coping strategies buffer the negative impact of cybervictimisation? Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 17, 403420. doi:10.1080/13632752.2012.704310
Maughan, A., & Cicchetti, D. (2002). Impact of child maltreatment and interadult violence on children's emotion regulation abilities and socioemotional adjustment. Child Development, 73, 15251542. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00488
McConnell, M. M., Memetovic, J., & Richardson, C. G. (2014). Coping style and substance use intention and behavior patterns in a cohort of BC adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 39, 13941397. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.05.018
McCubbin, H. I., Thompson, A. I., & McCubbin, M. A. (2001). Family measures: Stress, coping & resiliency. Honolulu, HI: Kamehameha Schools.
McLaughlin, K. A., Green, J. G., Gruber, M. J., Sampson, N. A., Zaslavsky, A. M., & Kessler, R. C. (2010). Childhood adversities and adult psychiatric disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication: II. Associations with persistence of DSM-IV disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 124132. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.187
McLaughlin, K. A., Green, J. G., Gruber, M. J., Sampson, N. A., Zaslavsky, A. M., & Kessler, R. C. (2012). Childhood adversities and first onset of psychiatric disorders in a national sample of US adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, 11511160. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.2277
McLaughlin, K. A., Peverill, M., Gold, A. L., Alves, S., & Sheridan, M. A. (2015). Child maltreatment and neural systems underlying emotion regulation. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 54, 753762. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2015.06.010
McLaughlin, K. A., Sheridan, M. A., Alves, S., & Mendes, W. B. (2014). Child maltreatment and autonomic nervous system reactivity: Identifying dysregulated stress reactivity patterns using the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat. Psychosomatic Medicine, 76, 538546. doi:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000098
McLaughlin, K. A., Sheridan, M. A., Gold, A. L., Duys, A., Lambert, H. K., Peverill, M., … Pine, D. S. (2016). Maltreatment exposure, brain structure, and fear conditioning in children and adolescents. Neuropsychopharmacology, 41, 19561964. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.365
Messman-Moore, T. L., & Bhuptani, P. H. (2017). A review of the long-term impact of child maltreatment on posttraumatic stress disorder and its comorbidities: An emotion dysregulation perspective. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice, 24, 154169. doi:10.1111/cpsp.12193
Miller, A. B., Sheridan, M. A., Hanson, J. L., McLaughlin, K. A., Bates, J. E., Lansford, J. E., … Dodge, K. A. (2018). Dimensions of deprivation and threat, psychopathology, and potential mediators: A multi-year longitudinal analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 127, 160170. doi:10.1037/abn0000331
Milojevich, H. M., Levine, L. J., Cathcart, E. J., & Quas, J. A. (2018). The role of maltreatment in the development of coping strategies. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 54, 2332. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2017.10.005
Moulton, S. J., Newman, E., Power, K., Swanson, V., & Day, K. (2015). Childhood trauma and eating psychopathology: A mediating role for dissociation and emotion dysregulation? Child Abuse & Neglect, 39, 167174. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.07.003
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2017). Mplus user's guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles: Author.
O'Kusky, J. R. (1985). Synapse elimination in the developing visual cortex: A morphometric analysis in normal and dark-reared cats. Brain Research, 22, 8191. doi:10.1016/0165-3806(85)90071-9
O'Mahen, H. A., Karl, A., Moberly, N., & Fedock, G. (2015). The association between childhood maltreatment and emotion regulation: Two different mechanisms contributing to depression? Journal of Affective Disorders, 174, 287295. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2014.11.028
Patterson, J. M., & McCubbin, H. I. (1987). Adolescent coping style and behaviors: Conceptualization and measurement. Journal of Adolescence, 10, 163186. doi:10.1016/S0140-1971(87)80086-6
Peh, C. X., Shahwan, S., Fauziana, R., Mahesh, M. V., Sambasivam, R., Zhang, Y., … Subramaniam, M. (2017). Emotion dysregulation as a mechanism linking child maltreatment exposure and self-harm behaviors in adolescents. Child Abuse and Neglect, 67, 383390. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.03.013
Perlman, M. R., Dawson, A. E., Dardis, C. M., Egan, T., & Anderson, T. (2016). The association between childhood maltreatment and coping strategies: The indirect effect through attachment. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 177, 156171. doi:10.1080/00221325.2016.1220912
Pollak, S. D., Cicchetti, D., Hornung, K., & Reed, A. (2000). Recognizing emotion in faces: Developmental effects of child abuse and neglect. Developmental Psychology, 36, 679688. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.36.5.679
Pollak, S. D., Messner, M., Kistler, D. J., & Cohn, J. F. (2009). Development of perceptual expertise in emotion recognition. Cognition, 110, 242247. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2008.10.010
Raykov, T. (2005). Analysis of longitudinal studies with missing data using covariance structure modeling with full-information maximum likelihood. Structural Equation Modeling, 12, 493505. doi:10.1207/s15328007sem1203_8
Richters, J. E., & Martinez, P. (1992). Things I've Seen and Heard: A structured interview for assessing young children's violence exposure. Washington, DC: National Institute of Mental Health.
Romens, S. E., & Pollak, S. D. (2012). Emotion regulation predicts attention bias in maltreated children at-risk for depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 120127. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02474.x
Rosario, M., Salzinger, S., Feldman, R. S., & Ng-Mak, D. S. (2003). Community violence exposure and delinquent behaviors among youth: The moderating role of coping. Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 489512. doi:10.1002/jcop.10066
Rosen, M. L., Sheridan, M. A., Sambrook, K. A., Meltzoff, A. N., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2018). Socioeconomic disparities in academic achievement: A multi-modal investigation of neural mechanisms in children and adolescents. NeuroImage, 173, 298310. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.02.043
Runyan, D. K., Curtis, P. A., Hunter, W. M., Black, M. M., Kotch, J. B., Bangdiwala, S., … Landsverk, J. (1998). LONGSCAN: A consortium for longitudinal studies of maltreatment and the life course of children. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 3, 275285. doi:10.1016/S1359-1789(96)00027-4
Sarsour, K., Sheridan, M., Jutte, D., Nuru-Jeter, A., Hinshaw, S., & Boyce, W. T. (2011). Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: The roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17, 120132. doi:10.1017/S1355617710001335
Schafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: Our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7, 147177. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.7.2.147
Schäfer, J. Ö., Naumann, E., Holmes, E. A., Tuschen-Caffier, B., & Samson, A. C. (2017). Emotion regulation strategies in depressive and anxiety symptoms in youth: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46, 261276. doi:10.1007/s10964-016-0585-0
Schwartz, D., & Proctor, L. J. (2000). Community violence exposure and children's social adjustment in the school peer group: The mediating roles of emotion regulation and social cognition. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 670683. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.68.4.670
Seiffge-Krenke, I., & Klessinger, N. (2000). Long-term effects of avoidant coping on adolescents' depressive symptoms. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29, 617630. doi:10.1023/A:1026440304695
Shaffer, D., Fisher, P., Lucas, C. P., Dulcan, M. K., & Schwab-Stone, M. E. (2000). NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (NIMH DISC-IV): Description, differences from previous versions, and reliability of some common diagnoses. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 2838. doi:10.1097/00004583-200001000-00014
Sheridan, M. A., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2014). Dimensions of early experience and neural development: Deprivation and threat. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 18, 580585. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2014.09.001
Sheridan, M. A., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2016). Neurobiological models of the impact of adversity on education. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 10, 108113. doi:10.1016/j.cobeha.2016.05.013
Sheridan, M. A., Peverill, M., Finn, A. S., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2017). Dimensions of childhood adversity have distinct associations with neural systems underlying executive functioning. Development and Psychopathology, 29, 17771794. doi:10.1017/S0954579417001390
Sheridan, M. A., Sarsour, K., Jutte, D., D'Esposito, M., & Boyce, W. T. (2012). The impact of social disparity on prefrontal function in childhood. PLOS ONE, 7, e35744. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035744
Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (1998). Reactive aggression among maltreated children: The contributions of attention and emotion dysregulation. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 381395. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp2704_2
Shields, A., Ryan, R. M., & Cicchetti, D. (2001). Narrative representations of caregivers and emotion dysregulation as predictors of maltreated children's rejection by peers. Developmental Psychology, 37, 321337. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.37.3.321
Shipman, K., Edwards, A., Brown, A., Swisher, L., & Jennings, E. (2005). Managing emotion in a maltreating context: A pilot study examining child neglect. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29, 10151029. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2005.01.006
Shipman, K. L., Schneider, R., Fitzgerald, M. M., Sims, C., Swisher, L., & Edwards, A. (2007). Maternal emotion socialization in maltreating and non-maltreating families: Implications for children's emotion regulation. Social Development, 16, 268285. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00384.x
Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., & Morris, A. S. (2003). Adolescents' emotion regulation in daily life: Links to depressive symptoms and problem behavior. Child Development, 74, 18691880. doi:10.1046/j.1467-8624.2003.00643.x
Silverman, A. B., Reinherz, H. Z., & Giaconia, R. M. (1996). The long-term sequelae of child and adolescent abuse: A longitudinal community study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 20, 709723. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(96)00059-2
Smith, P., Yule, W., Perrin, S., Tranah, T., Dalgleish, T., & Clark, D. M. (2007). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD in children and adolescents: A preliminary randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 10511061. doi:10.1097/CHI.0b013e318067e288
Sontag, L. M., & Graber, J. A. (2010). Coping with perceived peer stress: Gender-specific and common pathways to symptoms of psychopathology. Developmental Psychology, 46, 16051620.
Straus, M. A. (1979). Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: The Conflict Tactics Scales. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 41, 7588.
Street, A. E., Gibson, L. E., & Holohan, D. R. (2005). Impact of childhood traumatic events, trauma-related guilt, and avoidant coping strategies on PTSD symptoms in female survivors of domestic violence. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18, 245252. doi:10.1002/jts.20026
Thabet, A. A. M., Tischler, V., & Vostanis, P. (2004). Maltreatment and coping strategies among male adolescents living in the Gaza Strip. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28, 7791. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2002.12.002
Thompson, R. A. (1994). Emotion regulation: A theme in search of definition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, 2552. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5834.1994.tb01276.x
Tibu, F., Sheridan, M. A., McLaughlin, K. A., Nelson, C. A., Fox, N. A., & Zeanah, C. H. (2016). Disruptions of working memory and inhibition mediate the association between exposure to institutionalization and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychological Medicine, 46, 529541. doi:10.1017/S0033291715002020
Warmingham, J. M., Handley, E. D., Rogosch, F. A., Manly, J. T., & Cicchetti, D. (2018). Identifying maltreatment subgroups with patterns of maltreatment subtype and chronicity: A latent class analysis approach. Child Abuse & Neglect. Advance online publication. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.08.013
Wilkinson, G. S. (1993). WRAT-3: Wide Range Achievement Test administration manual. Wilmington, DE: Wide Range.



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed