Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Circle of Security–Parenting: A randomized controlled trial in Head Start

  • Jude Cassidy (a1), Bonnie E. Brett (a1), Jacquelyn T. Gross (a1), Jessica A. Stern (a1), David R. Martin (a1), Jonathan J. Mohr (a1) and Susan S. Woodhouse (a2)...

Abstract

Although evidence shows that attachment insecurity and disorganization increase risk for the development of psychopathology (Fearon, Bakermans-Kranenburg, van IJzendoorn, Lapsley, & Roisman, 2010; Groh, Roisman, van IJzendoorn, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & Fearon, 2012), implementation challenges have precluded dissemination of attachment interventions on the broad scale at which they are needed. The Circle of Security–Parenting Intervention (COS-P; Cooper, Hoffman, & Powell, 2009), designed with broad implementation in mind, addresses this gap by training community service providers to use a manualized, video-based program to help caregivers provide a secure base and a safe haven for their children. The present study is a randomized controlled trial of COS-P in a low-income sample of Head Start enrolled children and their mothers. Mothers (N = 141; 75 intervention, 66 waitlist control) completed a baseline assessment and returned with their children after the 10-week intervention for the outcome assessment, which included the Strange Situation. Intent to treat analyses revealed a main effect for maternal response to child distress, with mothers assigned to COS-P reporting fewer unsupportive (but not more supportive) responses to distress than control group mothers, and a main effect for one dimension of child executive functioning (inhibitory control but not cognitive flexibility when maternal age and marital status were controlled), with intervention group children showing greater control. There were, however, no main effects of intervention for child attachment or behavior problems. Exploratory follow-up analyses suggested intervention effects were moderated by maternal attachment style or depressive symptoms, with moderated intervention effects emerging for child attachment security and disorganization, but not avoidance; for inhibitory control but not cognitive flexibility; and for child internalizing but not externalizing behavior problems. This initial randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of COS-P sets the stage for further exploration of “what works for whom” in attachment intervention.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Jude Cassidy, Department of Psychology, 2147C Biology/Psychology Building, University of Maryland, 4094 Campus Drive, College Park, MD 20742; E-mail: jcassidy@umd.edu.

Footnotes

Hide All

The Zanvyl and Isabelle Krieger Fund provided support to Jude Cassidy to conduct this study. Additional support for manuscript preparation was provided by Janet W. Johnson Fellowships (to J.T.G. and D.M.), the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program Fellowship (to J.A.S.), and Grant R01 HD068594 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (to S.S.W.). We are grateful for the help of the following people: Betsy Krieger, Karen Kreisberg, Linda Heisner, and Brooke Hisle provided important leadership and coordination; Glen Cooper, Kent Hoffman, and Bert Powell developed the Circle of Security–Parenting intervention and served as intervention supervisors; Anna Ditkoff-Dorsey, Tara Doaty, Pam Hoehler, and Barbara Johnson served as interveners; Danielle Gregg and Elizabeth Thompson provided and coordinated laboratory space at the Family Center at Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore, Maryland; Erika Johnson conducted waitlist control Circle of Security–Parenting groups; Susan Paris and Bonnie Conley assisted with Strange Situation coding; Audrey Bigham and Ben Mitchell supervised the executive functioning coding teams and managed the executive functioning data; Samiha Islam compiled the reference list; and many hardworking and dedicated undergraduate research assistants assisted with data collection and coding. We also thank the directors and staff of the participating Head Start centers: Dayspring Programs, Emily Price Jones Head Start/Y of Central Maryland, and Catholic Charities Head Start of Baltimore City. Above all, we are grateful to the families who generously participated in our study.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA Preschool Forms & Profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families.
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Juffer, F. (2003). Less is more: Meta-analyses of sensitivity and attachment interventions in early childhood. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 195215.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Juffer, F. (2005). Disorganized infant attachment and preventive interventions: A review and meta-analysis. Infant Mental Health Journal, 26, 191216.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Kroonenberg, P. M. (2004). Differences in attachment security between African-American and white children: Ethnicity or socio-economic status? Infant Behavior and Development, 27, 417433.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Pijlman, F. T. A., Mesman, J., & Juffer, F. (2008). Experimental evidence for differential susceptibility: Dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism (DRD4 VNTR) moderates intervention effects on toddlers’ externalizing behavior in a randomized controlled trial. Developmental Psychology, 44, 293300.
Baldwin, S. A., Bauer, D. J., Stice, E., & Rohde, P. (2011). Evaluating models for partially clustered designs. Psychological Methods, 16, 149165.
Bauer, D. J., Sterba, S. K., & Hallfors, D. D. (2008). Evaluating group-based interventions when control participants are ungrouped. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 43, 210236.
Beck, D. M., Schaefer, C., Pang, K., & Carlson, S. M. (2011). Executive function in preschool children: Test–retest reliability. Journal of Cognition and Development, 12, 169193.
Beekman, A. T., Deeg, D. J., van Limbeek, J., Braam, A. W., De Vries, M. Z., & van Tilburg, W. (1997). Criterion validity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D): Results from a community-based sample of older subjects in the Netherlands. Psychological Medicine, 27, 231235.
Bellg, A. J., Borrelli, B., Resnick, B., Hecht, J., Minicucci, D. S., Ory, M., … Czajkowski, S. (2004). Enhancing treatment fidelity in health behavior change studies: Best practices and recommendations from the NIH Behavior Change Consortium. Health Psychology, 23, 443451.
Berlin, L. J., Zeanah, C. H., & Lieberman, A. F. (2016). Prevention and intervention programs to support early attachment security: A move to the level of community. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (3rd ed., pp. 739758). New York: Guilford Press.
Bernard, K., & Dozier, M. (2010). Examining infants’ cortisol responses to laboratory tasks among children varying in attachment disorganization: Stress reactivity or return to baseline? Developmental Psychology, 46, 17711778.
Bernard, K., Dozier, M., Bick, J., Lewis-Morrarty, E., Lindhiem, O., & Carlson, E. (2012). Enhancing attachment organization among maltreated children: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Child Development, 83, 623636.
Bernier, A., Carlson, S. M., Deschênes, M., & Matte-Gagné, C. (2012). Social factors in the development of early executive functioning: A closer look at the caregiving environment. Developmental Science, 15, 1224.
Bernier, A., & Dozier, M. (2003). Bridging the attachment transmission gap: The role of maternal mind-mindedness. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27, 355365.
Blair, C., Granger, D. A., Kivlighan, K. T., Mills-Koonce, R., Willoughby, M., Greenberg, M. T., … Fortunato, C. K. (2008). Maternal and child contributions to cortisol response to emotional arousal in young children from low-income, rural communities. Developmental Psychology, 44, 10951109.
Blair, C., & Razza, R. P. (2007). Relating effortful control, executive function, and false belief understanding to emerging math and literacy ability in kindergarten. Child Development, 78, 647663.
Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books. (Original work published 1969)
Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base. New York: Basic Books.
Brennan, K. A., Clark, C. L., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Self-report measurement of adult romantic attachment: An integrative overview. In Simpson, J. A. & Rholes, W. S. (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 4676). New York: Guilford Press.
Bugental, D. B., Martorell, G. A., & Barraza, V. (2003). The hormonal costs of subtle forms of infant maltreatment. Hormones and Behavior, 43, 237244.
Bull, R., Espy, K. A., & Wiebe, S. A. (2008). Short-term memory, working memory, and executive functioning in preschoolers: Longitudinal predictors of mathematical achievement at age 7 years. Developmental Neuropsychology, 33, 205228.
Byar, D. P. (1985). Assessing apparent treatment—Covariate interactions in randomized clinical trials. Statistics in Medicine, 4, 255263.
Carlson, S. M. (2003). Executive function in context: Development, measurement, theory, and experience. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 68(3, Serial No. 274), 138151.
Caron, E. B., Weston-Lee, P., Haggerty, D., & Dozier, M. (2015). Community implementation outcomes of Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up. Child Abuse & Neglect, 53, 128137.
Cassidy, J., Ehrlich, K. B., & Sherman, L. J. (2013). Child-parent attachment and response to threat: A move from the level of representation. In Mikulincer, M. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Nature and development of social connections: From brain to group (pp. 125144). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Cassidy, J., Marvin, R. S., & the MacArthur Attachment Working Group (1992). Attachment organization in preschool children: Coding guidelines (4th ed.). Unpublished manuscript, University of Virginia.
Cassidy, J., Woodhouse, S., Sherman, L., Stupica, B., & Lejuez, C. (2011). Enhancing infant attachment security: An examination of treatment efficacy and differential susceptibility. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 131148.
Cassidy, J., Ziv, Y., Stupica, B., Sherman, L. J., Butler, H., Karfgin, A., … Powell, B. (2010). Enhancing maternal sensitivity and attachment security in the infants of women in a jail-diversion program. Attachment & Human Development, 12, 333353.
Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., & Toth, S. L. (2006). Fostering secure attachment in infants in maltreating families through preventive interventions. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 623649.
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (1997). Developmental perspectives on trauma: Theory, research, and intervention. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
Cicchetti, D., Toth, S. L., & Lynch, M. (1995). Bowlby's dream comes full circle: The application of attachment theory to risk and psychopathology. Advances in Clinical Child Psychology, 17, 175.
Clark, C. H., Mahoney, J. S., Clark, D. J., & Eriksen, L. R. (2002). Screening for depression in a hepatitis C population: The reliability and validity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Journal of Advanced Nursing, 40, 361369.
Colonnesi, C., Draijer, E. M., Jan, J. M., Stams, G., Van der Bruggen, C. O., Bögels, S. M., & Noom, M. J. (2011). The relation between insecure attachment and child anxiety: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 40, 630645.
Cooper, G., Hoffman, K., & Powell, B. (2009). Circle of Security Parenting: A relationship based parenting program. Facilitator DVD Manual 5.0. Spokane, WA: Circle of Security International.
Crowell, J., Fraley, R. C., & Roisman, G. I. (2016). Measures of individual differences in adult attachment. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (3rd ed., pp. 598635). New York: Guilford Press.
Daly, K. D., & Mallinckrodt, B. (2009). Experienced therapists’ approach to psychotherapy for adults with attachment avoidance or attachment anxiety. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56, 549563.
Daniel, S. I. F. (2006). Adult attachment patterns and individual psychotherapy: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 968984.
DeKlyen, M., & Greenberg, M. T. (2016). Attachment and psychopathology in childhood. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (3rd ed., pp. 639666). New York: Guilford Press.
Del Carmen, R., Pedersen, F. A., Huffman, L. C., & Bryan, Y. E. (1993). Dyadic distress management predicts subsequent security of attachment. Infant Behavior and Development, 16, 131147.
Dix, T. (1991). The affective organization of parenting: Adaptive and maladaptative processes. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 325.
Downey, G., & Coyne, J. C. (1990). Children of depressed parents: An integrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 5076.
Drury, S. S. (2012). Maternal sensitivity and attachment: Softening the impact of early adversity. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51, 670672.
Eames, V., & Roth, A. (2000). Patient attachment orientation and the early working alliance—A study of patient and therapist reports of alliance quality and ruptures. Psychotherapy Research, 10, 421434.
Edelstein, R. S., Alexander, K. W., Shaver, P. R., Schaaf, J. M., Quas, J. A., Lovas, G. S., & Goodman, G. S. (2004). Adult attachment style and parental responsiveness during a stressful event. Attachment & Human Development, 6, 3152.
Egeland, B., & Erickson, M. (2004). Lessons from STEEP: Linking theory, research and practice on the well-being of infants and parents. In Sameroff, A., McDonough, S., & Rosenblum, K. (Eds.), Treating parent-infant relationship problems: Strategies for intervention (pp. 213242). New York: Guilford Press.
Eisenberg, N., Spinrad, T. L., Eggum, N. D., Silva, K. M., Reiser, M., Hofer, C., … Michalik, N. (2010). Relations among maternal socialization, effortful control, and maladjustment in early childhood. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 507525.
Fearon, R. P., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Lapsley, A. M., & Roisman, G. I. (2010). The significance of insecure attachment and disorganization in the development of children's externalizing behavior: A meta-analytic study. Child Development, 81, 435456.
Fearon, R. P., & Belsky, J. (2016). Precursors of attachment security. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (3rd ed., pp. 291313). New York: Guilford Press.
Feldman, R. (2012). Bio-behavioral synchrony: A model for integrating biological and microsocial behavioral processes in the study of parenting. Parenting: Science and Practice, 12, 154164.
Field, T., Estroff, D. B., Yando, R., del Valle, C., Malphurs, J., & Hart, S. (1996). “Depressed” mothers’ perceptions of infant vulnerability are related to later development. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 27, 4353.
Fitzpatrick, C., McKinnon, R. D., Blair, C. B., & Willoughby, M. T. (2014). Do preschool executive function skills explain the school readiness gap between advantaged and disadvantaged children? Learning and Instruction, 30, 2531.
Frankel, K. A., & Harmon, R. J. (1996). Depressed mothers: They don't always look as bad as they feel. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 289298.
Garmezy, N. (1993). Children in poverty: Resilience despite risk. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 56, 127136.
Gartstein, M. A., Bridgett, D. J., Dishion, T. J., & Kaufman, N. K. (2009). Depressed mood and maternal report of child behavior problems: Another look at the depression-distortion hypothesis. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30, 149160.
Glasgow, R. E., Lichtenstein, E., & Marcus, A. C. (2003). Why don't we see more translation of health promotion to research to practice? Rethinking the efficacy-to-effectiveness transition. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 12611267.
Goldberg, S., Benoit, D., Blokland, K., & Madigan, S. (2003). Atypical maternal behavior, maternal representations, and infant disorganized attachment. Development and Psychopathology, 15, 239257.
Groh, A. M., Roisman, G. I., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & Fearon, R. P. (2012). The significance of insecure and disorganized attachment in the development of children's internalizing symptoms: A meta-analytic study. Child Development, 83, 591610.
Grusec, J. E., & Davidov, M. (2010). Integrating different perspectives on socialization theory and research: A domain-specific approach. Child Development, 81, 687709.
Gudmundson, J. A., & Leerkes, E. M. (2012). Links between mothers’ coping styles, toddler reactivity, and sensitivity to toddler's negative emotions. Infant Behavior & Development, 35, 158166.
Gupta, S. K. (2011). Intention-to-treat concept: A review. Perspectives in Clinical Research, 2, 109112.
Hayes, A. F., & Krippendorff, K. (2007). Answering the call for a standard reliability measure for coding data. Communication Methods and Measures, 1, 7789.
Heinicke, C., Fineman, N., Ponce, V., & Guthrie, D. (2001). Relation-based intervention with at-risk mothers: Outcome in the second year of life. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22, 431462.
Hoffman, K., Marvin, R., Cooper, G., & Powell, B. (2006). Changing toddlers’ and preschoolers’ attachment classifications: The Circle of Security Intervention. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 10171026.
Huber, A., McMahon, C., & Sweller, N. (2015a). Efficacy of the 20-week circle of security intervention: Changes in caregiver reflective functioning, representations, and child attachment in an Australian clinical sample. Infant Mental Health Journal, 36, 556574.
Huber, A., McMahon, C., & Sweller, N. (2015b). Improved child behavioural and emotional functioning after Circle of Security 20-week intervention. Attachment & Human Development, 17, 547569.
Ialongo, N., Rogosch, F. A., Cicchetti, D., Toth, S. L., Buckley, J., Petras, H., & Neiderhiser, J. (2006). A developmental psychopathology approach to the prevention of mental health disorders. In Cicchetti, D. & Cohen, D. J. (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (pp. 9681018). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Jones, J. D., Brett, B. E., Ehrlich, K. B., Lejuez, C. W., & Cassidy, J. (2014). Maternal attachment style and responses to adolescents’ negative emotions: The mediating role of maternal emotion regulation. Parenting: Science and Practice, 14, 235257.
Jones, J. D., Cassidy, J., & Shaver, P. R. (2015). Parents’ self-reported attachment styles: A review of links with parenting behaviors, emotions, and cognitions. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 19, 4476.
Juffer, F., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2008). Promoting positive parenting: An attachment-based intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kochanska, G., Murray, K., & Coy, K. C. (1997). Inhibitory control as a contributor to conscience in childhood: From toddler to early school age. Child Development, 68, 263277.
Kochanska, G., Murray, K., Jacques, T. Y., Koenig, A. L., & Vandegeest, K. A. (1996). Inhibitory control in young children and its role in emerging internalization. Child Development, 67, 490507.
Lambert, M. J. (2010). Prevention of treatment failure: The use of measuring, monitoring, and feedback in clinical practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Leerkes, E. M., Blankson, A. N., & O'Brien, M. (2009). Differential effects of maternal sensitivity to infant distress and nondistress on social-emotional functioning. Child Development, 80, 762775.
Leerkes, E. M., Gedaly, L., & Su, J. (2016). Parental sensitivity and infant attachment. In Balter, L. & Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (Eds.), Child psychology: A handbook of contemporary issues (pp. 2142). New York: Routledge.
Leerkes, E. M., Weaver, J. M., & O'Brien, M. (2012). Differentiating maternal sensitivity to infant distress and non-distress. Parenting: Science and Practice, 12, 175184.
Lieberman, A. F., & Van Horn, P. (2005). “Don't hit my mommy!”: A manual for child-parent psychotherapy with young witnesses of family violence. Washington, DC: Zero to Three.
Lieberman, A. F., & Van Horn, P. (2008). Psychotherapy with infants and young children: Repairing the effects of stress and trauma on early attachment. New York: Guilford Press.
Lieberman, M. D., Eisenberger, N. I., Crockett, M. J., Tom, S. M., Pfeifer, J. H., & Way, B. M. (2007). Putting feelings into words: Affect labeling disrupts amygdala activity in response to affective stimuli. Psychological Science, 18, 421428.
Lilienfeld, S. O. (2007). Psychological treatments that cause harm. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2, 5370.
Lind, T., Raby, L., Caron, E., Roben, C. K. P., & Dozier, M. (2017). Enhancing executive functioning among toddlers in foster care with an attachment-based intervention. Development and Psychopathology, 29, 575–586.
Lucassen, N., Kok, R., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Jaddoe, V. V., Hofman, A., … Tiemeier, H. (2015). Executive functions in early childhood: The role of maternal and paternal parenting practices. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 33, 489505.
Lyons-Ruth, K., Connell, D. B., Grunebaum, H. U., & Botein, S. (1990). Infants at social risk: Maternal depression and family support services as mediators of infant development and security of attachment. Child Development, 61, 8598.
Lyons-Ruth, K., & Jacobvitz, D. (2016). Attachment disorganization from infancy to adulthood: Neurobiological correlates, parenting contexts, and pathways to disorder. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (3rd ed., pp. 667695). New York: Guilford Press.
Lyons-Ruth, K., Yellin, C., Melnick, S., & Atwood, G. (2005). Expanding the concept of unresolved mental states: Hostile/helpless states of mind on the Adult Attachment Interview are associated with disrupted mother–infant communication and infant disorganization. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 123.
Main, M. (1990). Cross-cultural studies of attachment organization: Recent studies, changing methodologies, and the concept of conditional strategies. Human Development, 33, 4861.
Masten, A. S. (1994). Resilience in individual development: Successful adaptation despite risk and adversity. In Wang, M. C. & Gordon, E. W. (Eds.), Educational resilience in inner-city America: Challenges and prospects (pp. 325). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Masten, A. S., & Cicchetti, D. (2010). Developmental cascades. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 491495.
Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. (2016). Adult attachment and emotion regulation. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (3rd ed., pp. 507533). New York: Guilford Press.
Mikulincer, M., Shaver, P. R., Gillath, O., & Nitzberg, R. A. (2005). Attachment, caregiving, and altruism: Boosting attachment security increases compassion and helping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 817839.
Nezu, A. M., & Nezu, C. M. (2008). Evidence-based outcome research: A practical guide to conducting randomized controlled trials for psychosocial interventions. New York: Oxford University Press.
Office of Head Start National Center on Program Management and Fiscal Operations. (2008). Head Start Program Fact Sheet Fiscal Year 2008. Retrieved from http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/About%20Head%20Start/dHeadStartProgr.htm
Office of Head Start National Center on Program Management and Fiscal Operations. (2013). The balancing act: Reducing costs while maintaining quality. Retrieved from http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/operations/docs/implementing-cost-reductions-tipsheet.pdf
Oosterman, M., De Schipper, J. C., Fisher, P., Dozier, M., & Schuengel, C. (2010). Autonomic reactivity in relation to attachment and early adversity among foster children. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 109118.
Polan, H. J., & Hofer, M. A. (2016). Psychobiological origins of infant attachment and its role in development. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (3rd ed., pp. 739758). New York: Guilford Press.
Polit, D. F., & Gillespie, B. M. (2010). Intention-to-treat in randomized controlled trials: Recommendations for a total trial strategy. Research in Nursing & Health, 33, 355368.
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385401.
Radloff, L. S. (1991). The use of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in adolescents and young adults. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 20, 149165.
Raver, C. C., Blair, C., & Willoughby, M. (2013). Poverty as a predictor of 4-year-olds’ executive function: New perspectives on models of differential susceptibility. Developmental Psychology, 49, 292304.
Reed, M. A., Pien, D. L., & Rothbart, M. K. (1984). Inhibitory self-control in preschool children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 30, 131147.
Robinson, J., & Emde, R. N. (2004). Mental health moderators of Early Head Start on parenting and child development: Maternal depression and relationship attitudes. Parenting: Science and Practice, 4, 7397.
Rochette, É., & Bernier, A. (2014). Parenting, family socioeconomic status, and child executive functioning: A longitudinal study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 60, 431460.
Rothwell, P. M. (2005). Subgroup analysis in randomised controlled trials: Importance, indications, and interpretation. Lancet, 365, 176186.
Sadler, L. S., Slade, A., Close, N., Webb, D. L., Simpson, T., Fennie, K., & Mayes, L. C. (2013). Minding the baby: Enhancing reflectiveness to improve early health and relationship outcomes in an interdisciplinary home-visiting program. Infant Mental Health Journal, 34, 391405.
Salande, J. D., & Hawkins, R. I. (2016). Psychological flexibility, attachment style, and personality organization: Correlations between constructs of differing approaches. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. Advance online publication.
Schachar, R., & Logan, G. D. (1990). Impulsivity and inhibitory control in normal development and childhood psychopathology. Developmental Psychology, 26, 710720.
Schafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: Our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7, 147177.
Seitz, V. (1981). Intervention and sleeper effects: A reply to Clarke and Clarke. Developmental Review, 1, 361373.
Shonkoff, J. P., Richter, L., van der Gaag, J., & Bhutta, Z. A. (2012). An integrated scientific framework for child survival and early childhood development. Pediatrics, 129, e460e472.
Slade, A. (2016). Attachment and adult psychotherapy: Theory, research, and practice. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (3rd ed., pp. 759779). New York: Guilford Press.
Slade, A., Grienenberger, J., Bernbach, E., Levy, D., & Locker, A. (2005). Maternal reflective functioning, attachment, and the transmission gap: A preliminary study. Attachment & Human Development, 7, 283298.
Solomon, J., & George, C. (2016). The measurement of attachment security and related constructs. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (3rd ed., pp. 366396). New York: Guilford Press.
Spieker, S., Nelson, D., DeKlyen, M., & Staerkel, F. (2005). Enhancing early attachments in the context of Early Head Start: Can programs emphasizing family support improve rates of secure infant–mother attachments in low-income families? In Berlin, L. J., Ziv, Y., Amaya-Jackson, L., & Greenberg, M. T. (Eds.), Enhancing early attachments: Theory, research, intervention and policy (pp. 250275). New York: Guilford Press.
Spinrad, T. L., Eisenberg, N., Gaertner, B., Popp, T., Smith, C. L., Kupfer, A., … Hofer, C. (2007). Relations of maternal socialization and toddlers’ effortful control to children's adjustment and social competence. Developmental Psychology, 43, 11701186.
Steele, H., & Steele, M. (Eds.). (in press). Handbook of attachment-based interventions. New York: Guilford Press.
Stern, J. A., Borelli, J. L., & Smiley, P. A. (2015). Assessing parental empathy: A role for empathy in child attachment. Attachment & Human Development, 17, 122.
Thompson, R. A. (2016). Early attachment and later development: Reframing the questions. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (3rd ed., pp. 330348). New York: Guilford Press.
Toth, S. L., & Gravener, J. (2012). Bridging research and practice: Relational interventions for maltreated children. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 17, 131138.
US Department of Health and Human Services. (2006). Depression in the lives of Early Head Start families. Retrieved from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre/ehs/ehs_resrch/index.html
US Department of Health and Human Services. (2008). Head Start Act. Retrieved from https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/standards/law
van Zeijl, J., Mesman, J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Juffer, F., Stolk, M. N., … Alink, L. R. A. (2006). Attachment-based intervention for enhancing sensitive discipline in mothers of 1- to 3-year-old children at risk for externalizing behavior problems: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 9941005.
Wei, M., Russell, D. W., Mallinckrodt, B., & Vogel, D. L. (2007). The Experiences in Close Relationship Scale (ECR)—Short form: Reliability, validity, and factor structure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 88, 187204.
Whipple, N., Bernier, A., & Mageau, G. A. (2011). Broadening the study of infant security of attachment: Maternal autonomy-support in the context of infant exploration. Social Development, 20, 1732.
Williford, A. P., Carter, L. M., & Pianta, R. C. (2016). Attachment and school readiness. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (3rd ed., pp. 966982). New York: Guilford Press.
Woodhouse, S., Powell, B., Cooper, G., Hoffman, K., & Cassidy, J. (in press). The Circle of Security Intervention: Design, research, and implementation. In Steele, H. & Steele, M. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment-based interventions. New York: Guilford Press.
Zelazo, P. D. (2006). The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS): A method of assessing executive function in children. Nature Protocols, 1, 297301.
Zelazo, P. D., Anderson, J. E., Richler, J., Wallner-Allen, K., Beaumont, J. L., & Weintraub, S. (2013). National Institutes of Health Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIH Toolbox CB): Validation for children between 3 and 15 years: II. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): Measuring executive function and attention. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 78(4, Serial No. 309), 1633.
Zelazo, P. D., Frye, D., & Rapus, T. (1996). An age-related dissociation between knowing rules and using them. Cognitive Development, 11, 3763.

Circle of Security–Parenting: A randomized controlled trial in Head Start

  • Jude Cassidy (a1), Bonnie E. Brett (a1), Jacquelyn T. Gross (a1), Jessica A. Stern (a1), David R. Martin (a1), Jonathan J. Mohr (a1) and Susan S. Woodhouse (a2)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed